Abstract

In the future, the Internet may ultimately be constrained by energy consumption and the capability to provide quality of service (QoS). As regards the Internet core, hybrid optical switching (HOS) is promising to provide service differentiation and reduced energy consumption in respect to current electronic switching solutions. In this paper we present a novel hybrid HOS network architecture that efficiently integrates the optical packet, burst, and circuit switching on the same network. The proposed HOS network envisages the use of two parallel switches, a slow optical switch for the transmission of circuits and long bursts, and a fast switch for the transmission of packets and short bursts. The most appropriate switching method is selected for the traffic generated by different applications and the less power consuming elements are utilized for transmission, ensuring flexibility, QoS differentiation, and low energy consumption. The HOS network is organized in an overlay model with the HOS control layer performing routing, signaling, and link management, and with the HOS forwarding layer managing the reservation of resources and data scheduling. Performance and energy efficiency of the analyzed network are assessed by means of a combined analytical and simulation approach.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

S. Aleksic, M. Fiorani, and M. Casoni, “Adaptive hybrid optical switching: performance and energy efficiency (invited),” J. High Speed Netw., vol.  19, no. 1, pp. 85–98, 2013.

2012

2011

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

R. Cafini, W. Cerroni, C. Raffaelli, and M. Savi, “Standard-based approach to programmable hybrid networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 148–155, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Fiorani, M. Casoni, and S. Aleksic, “Performance and power consumption analysis of a hybrid optical core node,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 6, pp. 502–513, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

2009

2004

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, and X. Yu, “Optical burst switching (OBS): a new area in optical networking research,” IEEE Network, vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, 2004.

2001

K. Dozer, C. Gauger, J. Späth, and S. Bodamer, “Evaluation of reservation mechanism for optical burst switching,” AEU, Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol.  55, no. 1, pp. 18–26, Jan. 2001.

Aleksic, S.

S. Aleksic, M. Fiorani, and M. Casoni, “Adaptive hybrid optical switching: performance and energy efficiency (invited),” J. High Speed Netw., vol.  19, no. 1, pp. 85–98, 2013.

M. Fiorani, M. Casoni, and S. Aleksic, “Performance and power consumption analysis of a hybrid optical core node,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 6, pp. 502–513, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Aleksic, “Analysis of power consumption in future high-capacity network nodes,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 3, pp. 245–258, Aug. 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Fiorani, M. Casoni, and S. Aleksic, “Analysis of a GMPLS enabled hybrid optical switching network,” in Proc. of the 16th IEEE Int. Conf. on Optical Networks Design and Modeling (ONDM), Colchester, England, Apr. 17–20, 2012.

Ayre, R.

Baliga, J.

Barry, M.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Barton, J.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Beheshti, N.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Betker, A.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Blumenthal, D. J.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Bodamer, S.

K. Dozer, C. Gauger, J. Späth, and S. Bodamer, “Evaluation of reservation mechanism for optical burst switching,” AEU, Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol.  55, no. 1, pp. 18–26, Jan. 2001.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Bowers, J. E.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Burmeister, E.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Cafini, R.

R. Cafini, W. Cerroni, C. Raffaelli, and M. Savi, “Standard-based approach to programmable hybrid networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 148–155, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

Casoni, M.

S. Aleksic, M. Fiorani, and M. Casoni, “Adaptive hybrid optical switching: performance and energy efficiency (invited),” J. High Speed Netw., vol.  19, no. 1, pp. 85–98, 2013.

M. Fiorani, M. Casoni, and S. Aleksic, “Performance and power consumption analysis of a hybrid optical core node,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 6, pp. 502–513, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Casoni, E. Luppi, and M. L. Merani, “Impact of assembly algorithms on end-to-end performance in optical burst switched networks with different QoS classes,” presented at the 3rd International Workshop on Optical Burst Switching, San Jose, CA, Oct. 25, 2004.

M. Fiorani, M. Casoni, and S. Aleksic, “Analysis of a GMPLS enabled hybrid optical switching network,” in Proc. of the 16th IEEE Int. Conf. on Optical Networks Design and Modeling (ONDM), Colchester, England, Apr. 17–20, 2012.

Cerroni, W.

R. Cafini, W. Cerroni, C. Raffaelli, and M. Savi, “Standard-based approach to programmable hybrid networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 148–155, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, and X. Yu, “Optical burst switching (OBS): a new area in optical networking research,” IEEE Network, vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, 2004.

Coldren, L. A.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Dozer, K.

K. Dozer, C. Gauger, J. Späth, and S. Bodamer, “Evaluation of reservation mechanism for optical burst switching,” AEU, Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol.  55, no. 1, pp. 18–26, Jan. 2001.

Dummer, M.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Epps, G.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Fiorani, M.

S. Aleksic, M. Fiorani, and M. Casoni, “Adaptive hybrid optical switching: performance and energy efficiency (invited),” J. High Speed Netw., vol.  19, no. 1, pp. 85–98, 2013.

M. Fiorani, M. Casoni, and S. Aleksic, “Performance and power consumption analysis of a hybrid optical core node,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 6, pp. 502–513, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Fiorani, M. Casoni, and S. Aleksic, “Analysis of a GMPLS enabled hybrid optical switching network,” in Proc. of the 16th IEEE Int. Conf. on Optical Networks Design and Modeling (ONDM), Colchester, England, Apr. 17–20, 2012.

Fujikawa, K.

Furukawa, H.

Ganjali, Y.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Garcia, J.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Gauger, C.

K. Dozer, C. Gauger, J. Späth, and S. Bodamer, “Evaluation of reservation mechanism for optical burst switching,” AEU, Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol.  55, no. 1, pp. 18–26, Jan. 2001.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Gerlach, C.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Harai, H.

Hinton, K.

Hülsermann, R.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Imaizumi, H.

M. Takagi, H. Li, K. Watabe, H. Imaizumi, T. Tanemura, Y. Nakano, and H. Morikawa, “400  Gb/s hybrid optical switching demonstration combining multi-wavelength OPS and OCS with dynamic resource allocation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), San Diego, CA, 2009, paper OTuA6.

Ishikawa, H.

N. Takenouchi, R. Urata, T. Nakahara, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, “First demonstration of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router,” in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, 2009.

Jäger, M.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Koch, B.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Köhn, M.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Lal, V.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

M. Takagi, H. Li, K. Watabe, H. Imaizumi, T. Tanemura, Y. Nakano, and H. Morikawa, “400  Gb/s hybrid optical switching demonstration combining multi-wavelength OPS and OCS with dynamic resource allocation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), San Diego, CA, 2009, paper OTuA6.

Lively, E.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Luppi, E.

M. Casoni, E. Luppi, and M. L. Merani, “Impact of assembly algorithms on end-to-end performance in optical burst switched networks with different QoS classes,” presented at the 3rd International Workshop on Optical Burst Switching, San Jose, CA, Oct. 25, 2004.

Mack, J.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Masanovic, M.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

McKeown, N.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Merani, M. L.

M. Casoni, E. Luppi, and M. L. Merani, “Impact of assembly algorithms on end-to-end performance in optical burst switched networks with different QoS classes,” presented at the 3rd International Workshop on Optical Burst Switching, San Jose, CA, Oct. 25, 2004.

Miyazawa, T.

Morikawa, H.

M. Takagi, H. Li, K. Watabe, H. Imaizumi, T. Tanemura, Y. Nakano, and H. Morikawa, “400  Gb/s hybrid optical switching demonstration combining multi-wavelength OPS and OCS with dynamic resource allocation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), San Diego, CA, 2009, paper OTuA6.

Nakahara, T.

N. Takenouchi, R. Urata, T. Nakahara, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, “First demonstration of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router,” in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, 2009.

Nakano, Y.

M. Takagi, H. Li, K. Watabe, H. Imaizumi, T. Tanemura, Y. Nakano, and H. Morikawa, “400  Gb/s hybrid optical switching demonstration combining multi-wavelength OPS and OCS with dynamic resource allocation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), San Diego, CA, 2009, paper OTuA6.

Nguyen, K.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Nicholes, S. C.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, H.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Qiao, C.

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, and X. Yu, “Optical burst switching (OBS): a new area in optical networking research,” IEEE Network, vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, 2004.

Raffaelli, C.

R. Cafini, W. Cerroni, C. Raffaelli, and M. Savi, “Standard-based approach to programmable hybrid networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 148–155, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Stol, M. Savi, and C. Raffaelli, “3-level integrated hybrid optical network (3LIHON) to meet future QoS requirements,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2011), Houston, TX, Dec. 5–9, 2011.

Savi, M.

R. Cafini, W. Cerroni, C. Raffaelli, and M. Savi, “Standard-based approach to programmable hybrid networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 148–155, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Stol, M. Savi, and C. Raffaelli, “3-level integrated hybrid optical network (3LIHON) to meet future QoS requirements,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2011), Houston, TX, Dec. 5–9, 2011.

Segawa, T.

N. Takenouchi, R. Urata, T. Nakahara, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, “First demonstration of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router,” in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, 2009.

Sorin, W.

Späth, J.

K. Dozer, C. Gauger, J. Späth, and S. Bodamer, “Evaluation of reservation mechanism for optical burst switching,” AEU, Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol.  55, no. 1, pp. 18–26, Jan. 2001.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Stamenic, B.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Stol, N.

N. Stol, M. Savi, and C. Raffaelli, “3-level integrated hybrid optical network (3LIHON) to meet future QoS requirements,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2011), Houston, TX, Dec. 5–9, 2011.

Sysak, M.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Takagi, M.

M. Takagi, H. Li, K. Watabe, H. Imaizumi, T. Tanemura, Y. Nakano, and H. Morikawa, “400  Gb/s hybrid optical switching demonstration combining multi-wavelength OPS and OCS with dynamic resource allocation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), San Diego, CA, 2009, paper OTuA6.

Takahashi, R.

N. Takenouchi, R. Urata, T. Nakahara, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, “First demonstration of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router,” in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, 2009.

Takenouchi, N.

N. Takenouchi, R. Urata, T. Nakahara, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, “First demonstration of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router,” in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, 2009.

Tanemura, T.

M. Takagi, H. Li, K. Watabe, H. Imaizumi, T. Tanemura, Y. Nakano, and H. Morikawa, “400  Gb/s hybrid optical switching demonstration combining multi-wavelength OPS and OCS with dynamic resource allocation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), San Diego, CA, 2009, paper OTuA6.

Tauke-Pedretti, A.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

Urata, R.

N. Takenouchi, R. Urata, T. Nakahara, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, “First demonstration of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router,” in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, 2009.

Wada, N.

Watabe, K.

M. Takagi, H. Li, K. Watabe, H. Imaizumi, T. Tanemura, Y. Nakano, and H. Morikawa, “400  Gb/s hybrid optical switching demonstration combining multi-wavelength OPS and OCS with dynamic resource allocation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), San Diego, CA, 2009, paper OTuA6.

Yu, X.

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, and X. Yu, “Optical burst switching (OBS): a new area in optical networking research,” IEEE Network, vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, 2004.

AEU, Int. J. Electron. Commun.

K. Dozer, C. Gauger, J. Späth, and S. Bodamer, “Evaluation of reservation mechanism for optical burst switching,” AEU, Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol.  55, no. 1, pp. 18–26, Jan. 2001.

IEEE Commun. Mag.

R. Cafini, W. Cerroni, C. Raffaelli, and M. Savi, “Standard-based approach to programmable hybrid networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 148–155, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, and X. Yu, “Optical burst switching (OBS): a new area in optical networking research,” IEEE Network, vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, 2004.

J. High Speed Netw.

S. Aleksic, M. Fiorani, and M. Casoni, “Adaptive hybrid optical switching: performance and energy efficiency (invited),” J. High Speed Netw., vol.  19, no. 1, pp. 85–98, 2013.

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Masanovic, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, H. Park, B. Stamenic, A. Tauke-Pedretti, H. Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 458–471, Mar./Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Aleksic, “Energy-efficient communication networks for improved global energy productivity” [Online]. Available: http://www.ibk.tuwien.ac.at/~saleksic/private/Papers/TelecommunSyst_paper2_Authors_Copy.pdf.

M. Fiorani, M. Casoni, and S. Aleksic, “Analysis of a GMPLS enabled hybrid optical switching network,” in Proc. of the 16th IEEE Int. Conf. on Optical Networks Design and Modeling (ONDM), Colchester, England, Apr. 17–20, 2012.

“Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” IETF RFC 3945, Oct. 2004.

“Configuration guidelines for DiffServ service classes,” IETF RFC 4594, Aug. 2006.

M. Casoni, E. Luppi, and M. L. Merani, “Impact of assembly algorithms on end-to-end performance in optical burst switched networks with different QoS classes,” presented at the 3rd International Workshop on Optical Burst Switching, San Jose, CA, Oct. 25, 2004.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” MultiTeraNet Report, July 2003.

Cisco white paper, “Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2011–2016,” May 2012.

“Definition of the differentiated services field (DS Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 headers,” IETF RFC 2474, Dec. 1998.

“An architecture for differentiated services,” IETF RFC 2475, Dec. 1998.

N. Stol, M. Savi, and C. Raffaelli, “3-level integrated hybrid optical network (3LIHON) to meet future QoS requirements,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2011), Houston, TX, Dec. 5–9, 2011.

M. Takagi, H. Li, K. Watabe, H. Imaizumi, T. Tanemura, Y. Nakano, and H. Morikawa, “400  Gb/s hybrid optical switching demonstration combining multi-wavelength OPS and OCS with dynamic resource allocation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), San Diego, CA, 2009, paper OTuA6.

N. Takenouchi, R. Urata, T. Nakahara, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, “First demonstration of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router,” in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, 2009.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

All-electronic network architecture.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

HOS network architecture.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Architecture of a HOS edge node.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulation setup.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Data loss rates as a function of the input load in a link with four cascaded nodes. Packet and short burst losses in the optical/electronic network are negligible. The circuit establishment failure probability in both architectures is null.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Data loss rates as a function of the input load in a link with eight cascaded nodes. Packet and short burst losses in the optical/electronic network are negligible. The circuit establishment failure probability in both architectures is null.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Maximum delay experienced by IP packets that are transmitted through the HOS networks as optical packets.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Maximum delay experienced by IP packets that are transmitted through the HOS networks within short bursts.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Maximum delay experienced by IP packets that are transmitted through the HOS networks within long bursts.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Maximum IP packets delays in the all-electronic network.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Maximum IP packet delays in the HOS networks. IP packets transmitted over circuits show negligible delay.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Increases of efficiency between the HOS networks and the all-electronic network as a function of the input load.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Increases of efficiency between the HOS networks and the all-electronic network as a function of the percentage of fibers that are terminated at each node.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Traffic Classes and Their Mapping on the HOS Transport Mechanisms

Tables Icon

TABLE II Power Consumption of the HOS Edge Node

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PC=PEdge+PCore.
PEdge=PGEF+PTA,
PGEF=D·N·(PLC+PRP16+PSwitch),
PTA=D·N2(PTCC+PAssem+PRAN+PPE),
PCore=PCL+PSF+POAC,
PCL=PGMPLS+PHOS+M·N·PTr,
PCL=M·N16·PRPC,
{DIPpacketPacket,O=DRA+DPropDIPpacketShort Burst,O=DAssem+DOff+DRA+DPropDIPpacketLong Burst,O=DAssem+DOff+DRADPropDIPpacketCircuit,O=DProp.
{DIPpacketPacket,OE=DRA+DBuff+DPropDIPpacketShort Burst,OE=DAssem+DOff+DRA++DBuff+DPropDIPpacketLong Burst,OE=DAssem+DOff+DRA+DPropDIPpacketCircuit,OE=DProp,
DIPpacketPacket,E=DBuff+DProp.
IEO,E=ThPC|OThPC|EThPC|E·100%,
IEO/E,E=ThPC|O/EThPC|EThPC|E·100%,