Abstract

Rising energy costs and climate change have led to an increased concern for energy efficiency (EE). As information and communication technology is responsible for about 4% of total energy consumption worldwide, it is essential to devise policies aimed at reducing it. In this paper, we propose a routing and scheduling algorithm for a cloud architecture that targets minimal total energy consumption by enabling switching off unused network and/or information technology (IT) resources, exploiting the cloud-specific anycast principle. A detailed energy model for the entire cloud infrastructure comprising a wide-area optical network and IT resources is provided. This model is used to make a single-step decision on which IT end points to use for a given request, including the routing of the network connection toward these end points. Our simulations quantitatively assess the EE algorithm’s potential energy savings but also assess the influence this may have on traditional quality-of-service parameters such as service blocking. Furthermore, we compare the one-step scheduling with traditional scheduling and routing schemes, which calculate the resource provisioning in a two-step approach (selecting first the destination IT end point and subsequently using unicast routing toward it). We show that depending on the offered infrastructure load, our proposed one-step calculation considerably lowers the total energy consumption (reduction up to 50%) compared to the traditional iterative scheduling and routing, especially in low- to medium-load scenarios, without any significant increase in the service blocking.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, May 2012.

F. Musumeci, M. Tornatore, and A. Pattavina, “A power consumption analysis for IP-over-WDM core network architectures,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 108–117, Feb. 2012.

2011

A. Jirattigalachote, C. Cavdar, P. Monti, L. Wosinska, and A. Tzanakaki, “Dynamic provisioning strategies for energy efficient WDM networks with dedicated path protection,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 201–213, Mar. 2011.

2010

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, July 2010.

A. Berl, E. Gelenbe, M. Di Girolamo, G. Giuliani, H. De Meer, M. Q. Dang, and K. Pentikousis, “Energy-efficient cloud computing,” Comput. J., vol.  57, no. 7, pp. 1045–1051, Aug. 2010.

2009

2008

J. Bean and K. Dunlap, “Energy efficient cooling for data centers: a close-coupled row solution,” ASHRAE J., vol.  1, no. 10, pp. 34–42, Oct. 2008.

2004

A. Olkhovets, P. Phanaphat, C. Nuzman, D. J. Shin, C. Lichtenwalner, M. Kozhevnikov, and J. Kim, “Performance of an optical switch based on 3-D MEMS crossconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 3, pp. 780–782, Mar. 2004.

2003

S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, May 2003.

Abosi, C. E.

C. E. Abosi, “Towards a service oriented framework for the future optical internet,” Ph.D. dissertation, School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Colchester, UK, 2011.

Abts, D.

D. Abts, M. Marty, P. Wells, P. Klausler, and H. Liu, “Energy proportional datacenter networks,” in Proc. Int. Symp. Computer Architecture, Saint-Malo, France, June 2010, pp. 338–347.

Aleksic, S.

Anderson, P.

P. Anderson, G. Backhouse, D. Curtis, S. Redding, and D. Wallom, “Low carbon computing a view to 2050 and beyond,” Technology & Standards Watch, Bristol, UK, Tech. Rep., Nov. 2009.

Anhalt, F.

P. Robinson, A.-F. Antonescu, L. M. Contreras-Murillo, J. Aznar, S. Soudan, F. Anhalt, and J. A. García-Espín, “Towards cross stratum SLA management with the GEYSERS architecture,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Parallel and Distributed Processing Applications, Leganés, Madrid, Spain, July 2012, pp. 527–533.

Antonescu, A.-F.

P. Robinson, A.-F. Antonescu, L. M. Contreras-Murillo, J. Aznar, S. Soudan, F. Anhalt, and J. A. García-Espín, “Towards cross stratum SLA management with the GEYSERS architecture,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Parallel and Distributed Processing Applications, Leganés, Madrid, Spain, July 2012, pp. 527–533.

Audenaert, P.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Advanced Network and Telecommunication Systems, Mumbai, India, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Ayre, R.

Ayre, R. W. A.

Aznar, J.

P. Robinson, A.-F. Antonescu, L. M. Contreras-Murillo, J. Aznar, S. Soudan, F. Anhalt, and J. A. García-Espín, “Towards cross stratum SLA management with the GEYSERS architecture,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Parallel and Distributed Processing Applications, Leganés, Madrid, Spain, July 2012, pp. 527–533.

Backhouse, G.

P. Anderson, G. Backhouse, D. Curtis, S. Redding, and D. Wallom, “Low carbon computing a view to 2050 and beyond,” Technology & Standards Watch, Bristol, UK, Tech. Rep., Nov. 2009.

Baliga, J.

Barford, P.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in Proc. 27th Conf. Computer Communication, Phoenix, AZ, 15–17 Apr. 2008, pp. 457–465.

Barroso, L. A.

X. Fan, W.-D. Weber, and L. A. Barroso, “Power provisioning for a warehouse-sized computer,” in Proc. 34th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture, San Diego, CA, June 2007, pp. 13–23.

Bathula, B. G.

B. G. Bathula and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green networks: energy efficient design for optical networks,” in Proc. Conf. Wireless and Optical Communication Networks, Cairo, Egypt, Apr. 2009, pp. 1–5.

Bean, J.

J. Bean and K. Dunlap, “Energy efficient cooling for data centers: a close-coupled row solution,” ASHRAE J., vol.  1, no. 10, pp. 34–42, Oct. 2008.

Belter, B.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Berl, A.

A. Berl, E. Gelenbe, M. Di Girolamo, G. Giuliani, H. De Meer, M. Q. Dang, and K. Pentikousis, “Energy-efficient cloud computing,” Comput. J., vol.  57, no. 7, pp. 1045–1051, Aug. 2010.

Bohnert, T. M.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Bouvry, P.

D. Kliazovich, P. Bouvry, and S. U. Khan, “DENS: data center energy-efficient network-aware scheduling,” in Proc. IEEE/ACM Int. Conf. Green Computing and Communications and Int. Conf. Cyber, Physical and Social Computing, Washington, DC, Dec. 2010, pp. 69–75.

Brogle, M.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Buysse, J.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

M. De Leenheer, J. Buysse, K. Mets, B. Dhoedt, and C. Develder, “Design and implementation of a simulation environment for network virtualization,” in Proc. 16th IEEE Int. Workshop Computer Aided Modeling, Analysis and Design of Communication Links and Networks, Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, pp. 87–91.

J. Buysse, K. Georgakilas, A. Tzanakaki, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, P. Demeester, and C. Develder, “Calculating the minimum bounds of energy consumption for cloud networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communication Networks, Maui, Hawaii, 2011, pp. 1–7, July–Aug.

Cavdar, C.

A. Jirattigalachote, C. Cavdar, P. Monti, L. Wosinska, and A. Tzanakaki, “Dynamic provisioning strategies for energy efficient WDM networks with dedicated path protection,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 201–213, Mar. 2011.

Chabarek, J.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in Proc. 27th Conf. Computer Communication, Phoenix, AZ, 15–17 Apr. 2008, pp. 457–465.

Chen, X.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, A. Das, W. Qin, A. Sivasubramaniam, Q. Wang, and N. Gautam, “Managing server energy and operational costs in hosting centers,” in Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS Int. Conf. Measurement and Modeling Computer Systems, Banff, Canada, June 2005, pp. 303–314.

Chiaraviglio, L.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Energy-aware backbone networks: a case study,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Communication Workshops, Dresden, Germany, June 2009, pp. 1–5.

Chowdhury, P.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, July 2010.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, and B. Dhoedt, “Job demand models for optical grid research,” in Proc. 11th Int. IFIP TC Conf. Optical Network Design and Modeling, Athens, Greece, May 2007, pp. 127–136.

Ciulli, N.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Colle, D.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, May 2012.

S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, May 2003.

B. Puype, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power reduction techniques in multilayer traffic engineering,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal, June–July 2009, pp. 1–4.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Advanced Network and Telecommunication Systems, Mumbai, India, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Contreras-Murillo, L. M.

P. Robinson, A.-F. Antonescu, L. M. Contreras-Murillo, J. Aznar, S. Soudan, F. Anhalt, and J. A. García-Espín, “Towards cross stratum SLA management with the GEYSERS architecture,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Parallel and Distributed Processing Applications, Leganés, Madrid, Spain, July 2012, pp. 527–533.

Curtis, D.

P. Anderson, G. Backhouse, D. Curtis, S. Redding, and D. Wallom, “Low carbon computing a view to 2050 and beyond,” Technology & Standards Watch, Bristol, UK, Tech. Rep., Nov. 2009.

Dang, M. Q.

A. Berl, E. Gelenbe, M. Di Girolamo, G. Giuliani, H. De Meer, M. Q. Dang, and K. Pentikousis, “Energy-efficient cloud computing,” Comput. J., vol.  57, no. 7, pp. 1045–1051, Aug. 2010.

Das, A.

Y. Chen, A. Das, W. Qin, A. Sivasubramaniam, Q. Wang, and N. Gautam, “Managing server energy and operational costs in hosting centers,” in Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS Int. Conf. Measurement and Modeling Computer Systems, Banff, Canada, June 2005, pp. 303–314.

de Laat, C.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

De Leenheer, M.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, May 2012.

J. Buysse, K. Georgakilas, A. Tzanakaki, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, P. Demeester, and C. Develder, “Calculating the minimum bounds of energy consumption for cloud networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communication Networks, Maui, Hawaii, 2011, pp. 1–7, July–Aug.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, and B. Dhoedt, “Job demand models for optical grid research,” in Proc. 11th Int. IFIP TC Conf. Optical Network Design and Modeling, Athens, Greece, May 2007, pp. 127–136.

M. De Leenheer, J. Buysse, K. Mets, B. Dhoedt, and C. Develder, “Design and implementation of a simulation environment for network virtualization,” in Proc. 16th IEEE Int. Workshop Computer Aided Modeling, Analysis and Design of Communication Links and Networks, Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, pp. 87–91.

De Maesschalck, S.

S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, May 2003.

De Meer, H.

A. Berl, E. Gelenbe, M. Di Girolamo, G. Giuliani, H. De Meer, M. Q. Dang, and K. Pentikousis, “Energy-efficient cloud computing,” Comput. J., vol.  57, no. 7, pp. 1045–1051, Aug. 2010.

De Turck, F.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, May 2012.

Demechenko, Y.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Demeester, P.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, May 2012.

S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, May 2003.

C. Develder, M. Pickavet, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “A power-saving strategy for grids,” in Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Networks Grid Applications, Bejing, China, Oct. 2008.

B. Puype, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power reduction techniques in multilayer traffic engineering,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal, June–July 2009, pp. 1–4.

J. Buysse, K. Georgakilas, A. Tzanakaki, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, P. Demeester, and C. Develder, “Calculating the minimum bounds of energy consumption for cloud networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communication Networks, Maui, Hawaii, 2011, pp. 1–7, July–Aug.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Advanced Network and Telecommunication Systems, Mumbai, India, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

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S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, May 2003.

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C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, May 2012.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Advanced Network and Telecommunication Systems, Mumbai, India, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

J. Buysse, K. Georgakilas, A. Tzanakaki, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, P. Demeester, and C. Develder, “Calculating the minimum bounds of energy consumption for cloud networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communication Networks, Maui, Hawaii, 2011, pp. 1–7, July–Aug.

C. Develder, M. Pickavet, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “A power-saving strategy for grids,” in Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Networks Grid Applications, Bejing, China, Oct. 2008.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, and B. Dhoedt, “Job demand models for optical grid research,” in Proc. 11th Int. IFIP TC Conf. Optical Network Design and Modeling, Athens, Greece, May 2007, pp. 127–136.

M. De Leenheer, J. Buysse, K. Mets, B. Dhoedt, and C. Develder, “Design and implementation of a simulation environment for network virtualization,” in Proc. 16th IEEE Int. Workshop Computer Aided Modeling, Analysis and Design of Communication Links and Networks, Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, pp. 87–91.

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C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, May 2012.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Advanced Network and Telecommunication Systems, Mumbai, India, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

J. Buysse, K. Georgakilas, A. Tzanakaki, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, P. Demeester, and C. Develder, “Calculating the minimum bounds of energy consumption for cloud networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communication Networks, Maui, Hawaii, 2011, pp. 1–7, July–Aug.

C. Develder, M. Pickavet, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “A power-saving strategy for grids,” in Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Networks Grid Applications, Bejing, China, Oct. 2008.

M. De Leenheer, J. Buysse, K. Mets, B. Dhoedt, and C. Develder, “Design and implementation of a simulation environment for network virtualization,” in Proc. 16th IEEE Int. Workshop Computer Aided Modeling, Analysis and Design of Communication Links and Networks, Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, pp. 87–91.

K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, and B. Dhoedt, “Job demand models for optical grid research,” in Proc. 11th Int. IFIP TC Conf. Optical Network Design and Modeling, Athens, Greece, May 2007, pp. 127–136.

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E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

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A.-C. Orgerie, L. Lefevre, and J.-P. Gelas, “Save watts in your grid: green strategies for energy-aware framework in large scale distributed systems,” in Proc. 14th IEEE Int. Conf. Parallel and Distributed Systems, Washington, DC, Dec. 2008, pp. 171–178.

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A. Olkhovets, P. Phanaphat, C. Nuzman, D. J. Shin, C. Lichtenwalner, M. Kozhevnikov, and J. Kim, “Performance of an optical switch based on 3-D MEMS crossconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 3, pp. 780–782, Mar. 2004.

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S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, May 2003.

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A. Olkhovets, P. Phanaphat, C. Nuzman, D. J. Shin, C. Lichtenwalner, M. Kozhevnikov, and J. Kim, “Performance of an optical switch based on 3-D MEMS crossconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 3, pp. 780–782, Mar. 2004.

Orgerie, A.-C.

A.-C. Orgerie, L. Lefevre, and J.-P. Gelas, “Save watts in your grid: green strategies for energy-aware framework in large scale distributed systems,” in Proc. 14th IEEE Int. Conf. Parallel and Distributed Systems, Washington, DC, Dec. 2008, pp. 171–178.

Parthiban, R.

Pattavina, A.

Peng, S.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Pentikousis, K.

A. Berl, E. Gelenbe, M. Di Girolamo, G. Giuliani, H. De Meer, M. Q. Dang, and K. Pentikousis, “Energy-efficient cloud computing,” Comput. J., vol.  57, no. 7, pp. 1045–1051, Aug. 2010.

Phanaphat, P.

A. Olkhovets, P. Phanaphat, C. Nuzman, D. J. Shin, C. Lichtenwalner, M. Kozhevnikov, and J. Kim, “Performance of an optical switch based on 3-D MEMS crossconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 3, pp. 780–782, Mar. 2004.

Pickavet, M.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, May 2012.

S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, May 2003.

C. Develder, M. Pickavet, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “A power-saving strategy for grids,” in Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Networks Grid Applications, Bejing, China, Oct. 2008.

B. Puype, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power reduction techniques in multilayer traffic engineering,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal, June–July 2009, pp. 1–4.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Advanced Network and Telecommunication Systems, Mumbai, India, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Puype, B.

B. Puype, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power reduction techniques in multilayer traffic engineering,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal, June–July 2009, pp. 1–4.

Qin, W.

Y. Chen, A. Das, W. Qin, A. Sivasubramaniam, Q. Wang, and N. Gautam, “Managing server energy and operational costs in hosting centers,” in Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS Int. Conf. Measurement and Modeling Computer Systems, Banff, Canada, June 2005, pp. 303–314.

Ramussen, N.

K. Dunlap and N. Ramussen, “The advantages of row and rack-oriented cooling architectures for data centers,” American Power Conversion White Paper, 2006.

Redding, S.

P. Anderson, G. Backhouse, D. Curtis, S. Redding, and D. Wallom, “Low carbon computing a view to 2050 and beyond,” Technology & Standards Watch, Bristol, UK, Tech. Rep., Nov. 2009.

Robinson, P.

P. Robinson, A.-F. Antonescu, L. M. Contreras-Murillo, J. Aznar, S. Soudan, F. Anhalt, and J. A. García-Espín, “Towards cross stratum SLA management with the GEYSERS architecture,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Parallel and Distributed Processing Applications, Leganés, Madrid, Spain, July 2012, pp. 527–533.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Shen, G.

Shin, D. J.

A. Olkhovets, P. Phanaphat, C. Nuzman, D. J. Shin, C. Lichtenwalner, M. Kozhevnikov, and J. Kim, “Performance of an optical switch based on 3-D MEMS crossconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 3, pp. 780–782, Mar. 2004.

Simeonidou, D.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Sivasubramaniam, A.

Y. Chen, A. Das, W. Qin, A. Sivasubramaniam, Q. Wang, and N. Gautam, “Managing server energy and operational costs in hosting centers,” in Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS Int. Conf. Measurement and Modeling Computer Systems, Banff, Canada, June 2005, pp. 303–314.

Sommers, J.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in Proc. 27th Conf. Computer Communication, Phoenix, AZ, 15–17 Apr. 2008, pp. 457–465.

Sorin, W. V.

Soudan, S.

P. Robinson, A.-F. Antonescu, L. M. Contreras-Murillo, J. Aznar, S. Soudan, F. Anhalt, and J. A. García-Espín, “Towards cross stratum SLA management with the GEYSERS architecture,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Parallel and Distributed Processing Applications, Leganés, Madrid, Spain, July 2012, pp. 527–533.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

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F. Musumeci, M. Tornatore, and A. Pattavina, “A power consumption analysis for IP-over-WDM core network architectures,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 108–117, Feb. 2012.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, July 2010.

Tsiang, D.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in Proc. 27th Conf. Computer Communication, Phoenix, AZ, 15–17 Apr. 2008, pp. 457–465.

Tucker, R. S.

Tzanakaki, A.

A. Jirattigalachote, C. Cavdar, P. Monti, L. Wosinska, and A. Tzanakaki, “Dynamic provisioning strategies for energy efficient WDM networks with dedicated path protection,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 201–213, Mar. 2011.

J. Buysse, K. Georgakilas, A. Tzanakaki, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, P. Demeester, and C. Develder, “Calculating the minimum bounds of energy consumption for cloud networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communication Networks, Maui, Hawaii, 2011, pp. 1–7, July–Aug.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Varvarigos, E.

K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, and B. Dhoedt, “Job demand models for optical grid research,” in Proc. 11th Int. IFIP TC Conf. Optical Network Design and Modeling, Athens, Greece, May 2007, pp. 127–136.

Vereecken, W.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Advanced Network and Telecommunication Systems, Mumbai, India, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

B. Puype, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power reduction techniques in multilayer traffic engineering,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal, June–July 2009, pp. 1–4.

Vermeulen, B.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Advanced Network and Telecommunication Systems, Mumbai, India, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Vicat-Blanc, P.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Wallom, D.

P. Anderson, G. Backhouse, D. Curtis, S. Redding, and D. Wallom, “Low carbon computing a view to 2050 and beyond,” Technology & Standards Watch, Bristol, UK, Tech. Rep., Nov. 2009.

Wang, Q.

Y. Chen, A. Das, W. Qin, A. Sivasubramaniam, Q. Wang, and N. Gautam, “Managing server energy and operational costs in hosting centers,” in Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS Int. Conf. Measurement and Modeling Computer Systems, Banff, Canada, June 2005, pp. 303–314.

Weber, W.-D.

X. Fan, W.-D. Weber, and L. A. Barroso, “Power provisioning for a warehouse-sized computer,” in Proc. 34th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture, San Diego, CA, June 2007, pp. 13–23.

Wells, P.

D. Abts, M. Marty, P. Wells, P. Klausler, and H. Liu, “Energy proportional datacenter networks,” in Proc. Int. Symp. Computer Architecture, Saint-Malo, France, June 2010, pp. 338–347.

Wiatr, P.

P. Wiatr, P. Monti, and L. Wosinska, “Green lightpath provisioning in transparent WDM networks: pros and cons,” in Proc. 4th Int. Symp. Advanced Networking and Telecommunication Systems, Mumbai, India, Dec. 2010, pp. 10–12.

Wosinska, L.

A. Jirattigalachote, C. Cavdar, P. Monti, L. Wosinska, and A. Tzanakaki, “Dynamic provisioning strategies for energy efficient WDM networks with dedicated path protection,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 201–213, Mar. 2011.

P. Wiatr, P. Monti, and L. Wosinska, “Green lightpath provisioning in transparent WDM networks: pros and cons,” in Proc. 4th Int. Symp. Advanced Networking and Telecommunication Systems, Mumbai, India, Dec. 2010, pp. 10–12.

Wright, S.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in Proc. 27th Conf. Computer Communication, Phoenix, AZ, 15–17 Apr. 2008, pp. 457–465.

Yukan, A.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, July 2010.

ASHRAE J.

J. Bean and K. Dunlap, “Energy efficient cooling for data centers: a close-coupled row solution,” ASHRAE J., vol.  1, no. 10, pp. 34–42, Oct. 2008.

Comput. J.

A. Berl, E. Gelenbe, M. Di Girolamo, G. Giuliani, H. De Meer, M. Q. Dang, and K. Pentikousis, “Energy-efficient cloud computing,” Comput. J., vol.  57, no. 7, pp. 1045–1051, Aug. 2010.

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, July 2010.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Olkhovets, P. Phanaphat, C. Nuzman, D. J. Shin, C. Lichtenwalner, M. Kozhevnikov, and J. Kim, “Performance of an optical switch based on 3-D MEMS crossconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 3, pp. 780–782, Mar. 2004.

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Photon. Netw. Commun.

S. De Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, May 2003.

Proc. IEEE

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, May 2012.

Other

P. Robinson, A.-F. Antonescu, L. M. Contreras-Murillo, J. Aznar, S. Soudan, F. Anhalt, and J. A. García-Espín, “Towards cross stratum SLA management with the GEYSERS architecture,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Parallel and Distributed Processing Applications, Leganés, Madrid, Spain, July 2012, pp. 527–533.

J. Buysse, K. Georgakilas, A. Tzanakaki, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, P. Demeester, and C. Develder, “Calculating the minimum bounds of energy consumption for cloud networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communication Networks, Maui, Hawaii, 2011, pp. 1–7, July–Aug.

P. Anderson, G. Backhouse, D. Curtis, S. Redding, and D. Wallom, “Low carbon computing a view to 2050 and beyond,” Technology & Standards Watch, Bristol, UK, Tech. Rep., Nov. 2009.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Advanced Network and Telecommunication Systems, Mumbai, India, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

I. Foster and C. Kellelman, The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure. Morgan Kaufmann, 1999.

G. J. Koomy, “Estimating total power consumption by servers in the U.S. and the world,” Lawrence Berkeley National Labs, Final Rep., Feb.15, 2007.

X. Fan, W.-D. Weber, and L. A. Barroso, “Power provisioning for a warehouse-sized computer,” in Proc. 34th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture, San Diego, CA, June 2007, pp. 13–23.

A.-C. Orgerie, L. Lefevre, and J.-P. Gelas, “Save watts in your grid: green strategies for energy-aware framework in large scale distributed systems,” in Proc. 14th IEEE Int. Conf. Parallel and Distributed Systems, Washington, DC, Dec. 2008, pp. 171–178.

Y. Chen, A. Das, W. Qin, A. Sivasubramaniam, Q. Wang, and N. Gautam, “Managing server energy and operational costs in hosting centers,” in Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS Int. Conf. Measurement and Modeling Computer Systems, Banff, Canada, June 2005, pp. 303–314.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Energy-aware backbone networks: a case study,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Communication Workshops, Dresden, Germany, June 2009, pp. 1–5.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in Proc. 27th Conf. Computer Communication, Phoenix, AZ, 15–17 Apr. 2008, pp. 457–465.

B. Puype, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power reduction techniques in multilayer traffic engineering,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal, June–July 2009, pp. 1–4.

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D. Kliazovich, P. Bouvry, and S. U. Khan, “DENS: data center energy-efficient network-aware scheduling,” in Proc. IEEE/ACM Int. Conf. Green Computing and Communications and Int. Conf. Cyber, Physical and Social Computing, Washington, DC, Dec. 2010, pp. 69–75.

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F. Idzikowski, “Power consumption of network elements in IP over WDM networks,” Telecommunication Networks Group (TKN), TU Berlin, Germany, Tech. Rep., 2009.

M. Murakami and O. Kazuhiro, “Power consumption analysis of optical cross-connect equipment for future large capacity optical networks,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal, June–July 2009, pp. 1–4.

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K. Dunlap and N. Ramussen, “The advantages of row and rack-oriented cooling architectures for data centers,” American Power Conversion White Paper, 2006.

P. Wiatr, P. Monti, and L. Wosinska, “Green lightpath provisioning in transparent WDM networks: pros and cons,” in Proc. 4th Int. Symp. Advanced Networking and Telecommunication Systems, Mumbai, India, Dec. 2010, pp. 10–12.

K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, and B. Dhoedt, “Job demand models for optical grid research,” in Proc. 11th Int. IFIP TC Conf. Optical Network Design and Modeling, Athens, Greece, May 2007, pp. 127–136.

M. De Leenheer, J. Buysse, K. Mets, B. Dhoedt, and C. Develder, “Design and implementation of a simulation environment for network virtualization,” in Proc. 16th IEEE Int. Workshop Computer Aided Modeling, Analysis and Design of Communication Links and Networks, Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, pp. 87–91.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “Geysers: generalised architecture for dynamic infrastructure services,” in GEYSERS: A Novel Architecture for Virtualization and Co-provisioning of Dynamic Optical Networks and IT Services, Warsaw, Poland, June 2011, pp. 1–8.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The topologies considered in this study, containing 28 OXCs. The circled OXCs are the eight core nodes. The dotted lines between the data centers and the network nodes are the virtual links. All topologies were gathered from [29]. (a) Dense topology (57 fiber links, node degree 4.03). (b) Basic network (40 fiber links, average node degree 3.07). (c) Sparse network (33 fiber links, average node degree 2.4).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Layout of an opaque OXC. All elements except for the (de)multiplexer consume energy.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Energy-consuming devices in our data center model.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Power consumption (divided into consumption for network and IT resources) for two parameter sets: first bar IT Opt. and second bar Net. Opt. The numbers on the bars indicate the contribution of either network or IT resources to the total energy budget. Up until 16.95 Erlang, IT Opt. is best, after which Net. Opt. has lower values.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Total power consumption for parameter sets A, B, C, Net. Opt., and IT Opt. Up until 11.94 Erlang, B minimizes total power consumption, after which A and B attain about the same values.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Number of data centers that are turned off. Parameter sets with a high focus for IT power minimization are clearly best in switching off complete data centers (Net. Opt. is unable to switch off data centers).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Number of OXCs that are inactive. Network-focused parameter sets are switching off more OXCs. The increase around 19.46 Erlang stems from switching on all data centers (see Fig. 6), thus reducing the need for longer paths. Note the ability of A, B, and C to turn off OXCs in higher load scenarios: as more and more data centers are turned on, the need to go through the core of the network diminishes and more OXCs can be turned off.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Number of fiber links that can be switched off. A, B, and Net. Opt. are able to switch off significantly more fiber links.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Average path length per parameter set. IT Opt. produces longer paths to reach the IT-energy-minimizing data center.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Network blocking per parameter set. Apart from IT Opt., the A, B, C, and Net. Opt. sets have no significant differences.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Average network load for A, B, C, Net. Opt., and IT Opt.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Percentage of link that has an average load higher than 85%. Parameter sets with a large focus on IT power have a high saturation value.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Distribution of power (network and IT energy) comparing FA-B) with AA.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Network-blocking figures comparing FA-B with AA for different scheduling algorithms. FA-B and Closest attain about the same blocking value. L-max and Random reach unacceptable blocking figures.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Power values for the basic network.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Network blocking for the basic network.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Power values for the sparse network.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Network blocking for the sparse network.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Parameters and Power Consumption Figures for the Network and IT Resourcesa

Tables Icon

TABLE II Difference in Total Power Consumption for the Different Parameter Sets Compared to Absolute Minimum From All Simulations Over All Parameter Setsa

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

POXC=Pcontrol+Psf+Ptransc+Pconv+Pampl,
Ptransc=portsa/d×PTx/Rx,
Pconv=portsthrough×Ptransponder,
Pampl=(fin+fout)×Pedfa.
Plink(l)=(|l|span1)×Pedfa.
Pnetwork=PUE×(nSCPOXC+lEPlink(l)).
Pserver(ϕserver)=Pidle+PmaxPidlezserver×ϕserver.
Prack=Pmininrow+PmaxinrowPmininrowserverrackzserver×serverrackϕserver.
PDC=Pbase+rracksPrack+sserversPserver(ϕs),
Pbase={0ifnot in usePUPS+Ppumps+Pcoolerotherwise.
PFA(l,ϕ)=α·Plink(l)+β·Pnode(l)+γ·PDC(l,ϕ),
Plink(l)={0iflinklis in use(|l|span+1)·Pedfaotherwise,
Pnode(l)={Psf+Pcontrol+Ptransponderifend oflis inactivePtransponderotherwise,
PDC(l,ϕ)={Pbase(ϕ)+PDC(ϕ)ifadjacent DC oflis inactivePDC(ϕ)otherwise.
PAA(l)=α·Plink(l)+β·POXC(l).