Abstract

Compared with traditional WDM networks, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based flexible optical networks are able to provide better spectral efficiency due to their flexible allocation of requests on fine granularity subcarriers. Survivability is a crucial issue in OFDM-based flexible optical networks. In this paper, we present a survivable multipath provisioning scheme that provides flexible protection levels in OFDM-based flexible optical networks. We define the Static Survivable Multipath Routing and Spectrum Allocation (SM-RSA) problem, which aims to accommodate a given set of demands with minimum utilized spectrum. We show that the static SM-RSA problem is NP-hard and provide an integer linear programming formulation for it. Also, an efficient heuristic algorithm is given to solve the problem. Our simulation results show that the proposed multipath provisioning scheme achieves higher spectral efficiency than the traditional single-path provisioning scheme.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Armstrong, “OFDM for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 3, pp. 189–204, Feb. 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, May 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Klekamp, O. Rival, A. Morea, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Transparent WDM network with bitrate tunable optical OFDM transponders,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper NTuB5.
  5. W. Zheng, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, and W. Hu, “On the spectrum-efficiency of bandwidth-variable optical OFDM transport networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper OWR5.
  6. K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI5.
  7. X. Wan, L. Wang, N. Hua, H. Zhang, and X. Zheng, “Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in flexible optical path networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper JWA055.
  8. K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2010.
  9. Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2011, pp. 1503–1511.
  10. T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. I. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI7.
  11. X. Wan, N. Hua, and X. Zheng, “Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum-flexible transparent optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 8, 603–613, Aug. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Christodoulopoulos and E. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation policies for time-varying traffic in flexible optical networks,” in Proc. ONDM, Apr. 2012.
  13. A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Survivable transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI2.
  14. X. Shao, Y.-K. Yeo, Z. Xu, X. Cheng, and L. Zhou, “Shared-path protection in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2012, paper OTh4B.4.
  15. A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Single-path provisioning with multi-path recovery in flexgrid optical networks,” in Proc. RNDM, 2012.
  16. C. Ou, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, K. Zhu, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable virtual concatenation for data over SONET/SDH in optical transport networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 218–231, Feb. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Acharya, B. Gupta, P. Risbood, and A. Srivastava, “PESO: low overhead protection for Ethernet over SONET transport,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2004, pp. 165–175.
  18. A. Das, C. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “A partial-protection approach using multipath provisioning,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, June 2009.
  19. G. Kuperman, E. Modiano, and A. Narula-Tam, “Analysis and algorithms for partial protection in mesh networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2011, pp. 516–520.
  20. S. Huang, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable multipath provisioning with differential delay constraint in telecom mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 3, pp. 657–669, June 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. Zhang, J. Tang, C. Wang, and S. de Soysa, “Reliable adaptive multipath provisioning with bandwidth and differential delay constraints,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2010.
  22. R. Bhandari, Survivable Networks: Algorithms for Diverse Routing. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.
  23. A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI8.
  24. O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

X. Wan, N. Hua, and X. Zheng, “Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum-flexible transparent optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 8, 603–613, Aug. 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S. Huang, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable multipath provisioning with differential delay constraint in telecom mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 3, pp. 657–669, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. Armstrong, “OFDM for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 3, pp. 189–204, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. Ou, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, K. Zhu, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable virtual concatenation for data over SONET/SDH in optical transport networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 218–231, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Acharya, S.

S. Acharya, B. Gupta, P. Risbood, and A. Srivastava, “PESO: low overhead protection for Ethernet over SONET transport,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2004, pp. 165–175.

Armstrong, J.

Bhandari, R.

R. Bhandari, Survivable Networks: Algorithms for Diverse Routing. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.

Buchali, F.

A. Klekamp, O. Rival, A. Morea, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Transparent WDM network with bitrate tunable optical OFDM transponders,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper NTuB5.

Cao, X.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2011, pp. 1503–1511.

Castro, A.

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Single-path provisioning with multi-path recovery in flexgrid optical networks,” in Proc. RNDM, 2012.

Cheng, X.

X. Shao, Y.-K. Yeo, Z. Xu, X. Cheng, and L. Zhou, “Shared-path protection in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2012, paper OTh4B.4.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2010.

K. Christodoulopoulos and E. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation policies for time-varying traffic in flexible optical networks,” in Proc. ONDM, Apr. 2012.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI5.

Comellas, J.

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Single-path provisioning with multi-path recovery in flexgrid optical networks,” in Proc. RNDM, 2012.

Das, A.

A. Das, C. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “A partial-protection approach using multipath provisioning,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, June 2009.

de Soysa, S.

W. Zhang, J. Tang, C. Wang, and S. de Soysa, “Reliable adaptive multipath provisioning with bandwidth and differential delay constraints,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2010.

Dischler, R.

A. Klekamp, O. Rival, A. Morea, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Transparent WDM network with bitrate tunable optical OFDM transponders,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper NTuB5.

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Guo, W.

W. Zheng, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, and W. Hu, “On the spectrum-efficiency of bandwidth-variable optical OFDM transport networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper OWR5.

Gupta, B.

S. Acharya, B. Gupta, P. Risbood, and A. Srivastava, “PESO: low overhead protection for Ethernet over SONET transport,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2004, pp. 165–175.

Hasegawa, H.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. I. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI7.

Hirano, A.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. I. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI7.

Hu, W.

W. Zheng, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, and W. Hu, “On the spectrum-efficiency of bandwidth-variable optical OFDM transport networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper OWR5.

Hua, N.

X. Wan, N. Hua, and X. Zheng, “Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum-flexible transparent optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 8, 603–613, Aug. 2012.
[CrossRef]

X. Wan, L. Wang, N. Hua, H. Zhang, and X. Zheng, “Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in flexible optical path networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper JWA055.

Huang, S.

S. Huang, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable multipath provisioning with differential delay constraint in telecom mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 3, pp. 657–669, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

Ji, P. N.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Survivable transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI2.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI8.

Jin, Y.

W. Zheng, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, and W. Hu, “On the spectrum-efficiency of bandwidth-variable optical OFDM transport networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper OWR5.

Jinno, M.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. I. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI7.

Jue, J. P.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Survivable transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI2.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI8.

Klekamp, A.

A. Klekamp, O. Rival, A. Morea, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Transparent WDM network with bitrate tunable optical OFDM transponders,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper NTuB5.

Kozicki, B.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. I. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI7.

Kuperman, G.

G. Kuperman, E. Modiano, and A. Narula-Tam, “Analysis and algorithms for partial protection in mesh networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2011, pp. 516–520.

Lord, A.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Martel, C.

A. Das, C. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “A partial-protection approach using multipath provisioning,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, June 2009.

Martel, C. U.

S. Huang, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable multipath provisioning with differential delay constraint in telecom mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 3, pp. 657–669, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, K. Zhu, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable virtual concatenation for data over SONET/SDH in optical transport networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 218–231, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, S.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Modiano, E.

G. Kuperman, E. Modiano, and A. Narula-Tam, “Analysis and algorithms for partial protection in mesh networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2011, pp. 516–520.

Morea, A.

A. Klekamp, O. Rival, A. Morea, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Transparent WDM network with bitrate tunable optical OFDM transponders,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper NTuB5.

Mukherjee, B.

S. Huang, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable multipath provisioning with differential delay constraint in telecom mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 3, pp. 657–669, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, K. Zhu, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable virtual concatenation for data over SONET/SDH in optical transport networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 218–231, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

A. Das, C. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “A partial-protection approach using multipath provisioning,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, June 2009.

Narula-Tam, A.

G. Kuperman, E. Modiano, and A. Narula-Tam, “Analysis and algorithms for partial protection in mesh networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2011, pp. 516–520.

Ou, C.

C. Ou, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, K. Zhu, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable virtual concatenation for data over SONET/SDH in optical transport networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 218–231, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2011, pp. 1503–1511.

Patel, A. N.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Survivable transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI2.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI8.

Risbood, P.

S. Acharya, B. Gupta, P. Risbood, and A. Srivastava, “PESO: low overhead protection for Ethernet over SONET transport,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2004, pp. 165–175.

Rival, O.

A. Klekamp, O. Rival, A. Morea, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Transparent WDM network with bitrate tunable optical OFDM transponders,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper NTuB5.

Ruiz, M.

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Single-path provisioning with multi-path recovery in flexgrid optical networks,” in Proc. RNDM, 2012.

Sahasrabuddhe, L. H.

C. Ou, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, K. Zhu, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable virtual concatenation for data over SONET/SDH in optical transport networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 218–231, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Sato, K. I.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. I. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI7.

Shao, X.

X. Shao, Y.-K. Yeo, Z. Xu, X. Cheng, and L. Zhou, “Shared-path protection in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2012, paper OTh4B.4.

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. I. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI7.

Srivastava, A.

S. Acharya, B. Gupta, P. Risbood, and A. Srivastava, “PESO: low overhead protection for Ethernet over SONET transport,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2004, pp. 165–175.

Sun, W.

W. Zheng, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, and W. Hu, “On the spectrum-efficiency of bandwidth-variable optical OFDM transport networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper OWR5.

Takagi, T.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. I. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI7.

Takara, H.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Tang, J.

W. Zhang, J. Tang, C. Wang, and S. de Soysa, “Reliable adaptive multipath provisioning with bandwidth and differential delay constraints,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2010.

Tomkos, I.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2010.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI5.

Tsukishima, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Varvarigos, E.

K. Christodoulopoulos and E. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation policies for time-varying traffic in flexible optical networks,” in Proc. ONDM, Apr. 2012.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI5.

Varvarigos, E. A.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2010.

Velasco, L.

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Single-path provisioning with multi-path recovery in flexgrid optical networks,” in Proc. RNDM, 2012.

Wan, X.

X. Wan, N. Hua, and X. Zheng, “Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum-flexible transparent optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 8, 603–613, Aug. 2012.
[CrossRef]

X. Wan, L. Wang, N. Hua, H. Zhang, and X. Zheng, “Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in flexible optical path networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper JWA055.

Wang, C.

W. Zhang, J. Tang, C. Wang, and S. de Soysa, “Reliable adaptive multipath provisioning with bandwidth and differential delay constraints,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2010.

Wang, L.

X. Wan, L. Wang, N. Hua, H. Zhang, and X. Zheng, “Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in flexible optical path networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper JWA055.

Wang, T.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI8.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Survivable transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper OTuI2.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2011, pp. 1503–1511.

Xu, Z.

X. Shao, Y.-K. Yeo, Z. Xu, X. Cheng, and L. Zhou, “Shared-path protection in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2012, paper OTh4B.4.

Yeo, Y.-K.

X. Shao, Y.-K. Yeo, Z. Xu, X. Cheng, and L. Zhou, “Shared-path protection in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2012, paper OTh4B.4.

Yoo, S. J. B.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

X. Wan, L. Wang, N. Hua, H. Zhang, and X. Zheng, “Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in flexible optical path networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2011, paper JWA055.

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, J. Tang, C. Wang, and S. de Soysa, “Reliable adaptive multipath provisioning with bandwidth and differential delay constraints,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2010.

Zheng, W.

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W. Zheng, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, and W. Hu, “On the spectrum-efficiency of bandwidth-variable optical OFDM transport networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper OWR5.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simple six-node network.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Maximum occupied subcarrier index of SPP and MPP schemes in ILP solutions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Maximum occupied subcarrier index of SM-RSA solutions obtained by ILP formulation and heuristic algorithm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Sample US network topology.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Maximum occupied subcarrier index of SPP and MPP heuristics under different protection levels.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Maximum occupied subcarrier index of SPP and MPP heuristics using different numbers of guard subcarriers G .

Tables (6)

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TABLE I Capacity Requirement of Multipath Provisioning With Different N Valuesa

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Algorithm 1 Heuristic Algorithm for the Static SM-RSA Problem. Input: a set R of requests

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TABLE II Optimal MPP ILP and SPP ILP Solutions for a Sample Demand Seta

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TABLE III The Effect of Path Reconfiguration on Maximum Occupied Subcarrier Index and Total Occupied Subcarriers

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TABLE IV Number of Reconfigured Paths in the MPP Heuristic

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TABLE V Number of Link-Disjoint Paths Used by Demands in MPP

Equations (13)

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M S w u w w ,
( s , d ) D k [ 1 , K s , d ] c s , d , k w u w P w .
k [ 1 , K s , d ] w [ 1 , ϕ ] c s , d , k w B s , d ( s , d ) D ,
k [ 1 , K s , d ] , k m w [ 1 , ϕ ] c s , d , k w q B s , d ( s , d ) D , 1 m K s , d .
( s , d ) D k [ 1 , K s , d ] c s , d , k w X s , d , k l 1 l L , w .
( c s , d , k w · x s , d , k l 1 ) · 2 G · P + w [ max ( 1 , w G ) , min ( ϕ , w + G ) ] s , d , k s , d , k c s , d , k w · x s , d , k l 0 w , l , p s , d , k | x s , d , k l = 1 .
( c s , d , k w c s , d , k w + 1 1 ) ( ϕ ) w [ w + 2 , ϕ ] c s , d , k w w , p s , d , k .
k [ 1 , K s , d ] λ s , d , k wp = 1 ( s , d ) D ,
k [ 1 , K s , d ] λ s , d , k bp = 1 ( s , d ) D ,
λ s , d , k wp + λ s , d , k bp 1 ( s , d ) D , 1 k K s , d .
λ s , d , k wp · B s , d w [ 1 , ϕ ] c s , d , k w ( s , d ) D , 1 k K s , d ,
λ s , d , k bp · q B s , d w [ 1 , ϕ ] c s , d , k w ( s , d ) D , 1 k K s , d ,
( λ s , d , k wp + λ s , d , k bp ) B s , d w [ 1 , ϕ ] c s , d , k w ( s , d ) D , 1 k K s , d .