Abstract

We study strategies for relaxing physical layer constraints in flexible transparent optical transport networks through traffic engineering as well as through impairment-aware traffic management supported by cross-layer communication. We show that impairment-aware traffic management can effectively counteract inter-channel impairments on the physical layer and yield significant throughput gains. Using extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we find these throughput gains to be fairly independent of network topology and size. Based on analytical formulations for the performance gain resulting from impairment-aware networking we evaluate the dependence of the cost per bit on the applied traffic management method as well as on parameters such as the inter-channel impairment probability and the average network utilization.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. M. Krummrich, E. D. Schmidt, W. Weiershausen, and A. Mattheus, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2005), 2005, OThT6.
  2. Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, X. Q. Wang, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, “Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 17, pp. 1804–1806, 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Liu and S. Chandrasekhar, “Suppression of XPM penalty on 40-Gb/s DQPSK resulting from 10-Gb/s OOK channels by dispersion management,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2008), 2008, OMQ6.
  5. M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, A. H. Gnauck, D. A. Fishman, Ch. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, B. Basch, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, and Y. Painchaud, “100-Gb/s DQPSK transmission: From laboratory experiments to field trials,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 3388–3402, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  7. Ch. Politi, H. Haunstein, D. A. Schupke, S. Duhovnikov, G. Lehmann, A. Stavdas, M. Gunkel, J. Martensson, and A. Lord, “Integrated design and operation of a transparent optical network: A systematic approach to include physical layer awareness and cost function,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 40–47, 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Veeraraghavan, H. Lee, and R. Grobler, “A low-load comparison of TCP/IP and end-to-end circuits for file transfers,” in Proc. of INET Conf. (INET 2002), 2002, pp. 18–21.
  9. O. Gerstl, “IP and optical integration in dynamic networks,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2009), 2009, OML7.
  10. M. Wuth, M. W. Chbat, and V. F. Kamalov, “Multi-rate (100G/40G/10G) transport over deployed optical networks,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2008), 2008, NTuB3.
  11. M. Lefrancois, F. Houndonougbo, T. Fauconnier, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Cross comparison of the nonlinear impairments caused by 10 Gbit/s neighboring channels on a 40 Gbit/s channel modulated with various formats, and over various fiber types,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2007), 2007, JThA44.
  12. G. Raybon and P. J. Winzer, “100 Gb/s challenges and solutions,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2008), 2008, pp. 1–35.
  13. D. Z. Chen and M. F. Lane, “Emerging network need for alien wavelength management,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2007), 2007, NTuD5.
  14. V. Srivastava and M. Motani, “Cross-layer design: A survey and the road ahead,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 112–119, 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Carneiro, J. Ruela, and M. Ricardo, “Cross-layer design in 4G wireless terminals,” IEEE Wireless Commun., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 7–13, 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Sole-Pareta, S. Subramaniam, D. Careglio, and S. Spadaro, “Cross-layer approaches for planning and operating impairment-aware optical networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1118–1129, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Christodoupoulos, K. Manousakis, E. Varvrigos, and M. Angelou, “Considering physical layer impairments in offline RWA,” IEEE Network, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 26–33, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Pavon-Marino, S. Azodolmolky, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole-Pareta, J. Garcia-Haro, and I. Tomkos, “Offline impairment aware RWA algorithms for cross-layer planning of optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 15, pp. 1763–1775, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “A novel offline physical layer impairments aware RWA algorithm with dedicated path protection consideration,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 20, pp. 3029–3040, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Lee and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic engineering in next-generation optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 16–33, 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming with dedicated path protection,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2010), 2010, P5.09.
  23. A. Beshir, R. Nuijts, R. Malhorta, and F. Kuipers, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC 2011), 2011, TPN-3.
  24. C. Gao, H. C. Cankaya, A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming and regenerator placement with connection-level protection,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 259–270, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, C. P. Lai, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergmann, “Cross-layer simulations of fast packet-protection mechanisms,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2009), 2009, Mo2.5.2.
  26. F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergmann, “Impairment-aware traffic engineering using cross-layer protocols,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2009), 2009, Mo1.5.1.
  27. Wayfaring Media, “Map of all Google data center locations,” June 2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.wayfaring.com/maps/show/48030.
  28. Internet2 Network, “Internet2 Network,” June 2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.internet2.edu/network/.
  29. Abilene Network, “Abilene—an advanced hybrid optical and packet network,” Jan. 2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.internet2.edu/abilene.
  30. Geant2 Network, “Geant2 Topology,” June 2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.geant2.net/.
  31. E. W. Dijkstra, “A note on two problems in connection with graphs,” Numer. Math., vol. 1, pp. 269–271, 1959.
    [CrossRef]
  32. I. Juva, “Sensitivity of traffic matrix estimation techniques to their underlying assumptions,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC 2007), 2007, pp. 562–568.
  33. A. Dwivedi and R. E. Wagner, “Traffic model for USA long-distance optical network,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2000), 2000, TuK1-1.
  34. N. G. Duffield, P. Goyal, A. Greenberg, P. Mishra, K. K. Ramakrishnan, and J. E. van der Merwe, “Resource management with hoses: Point-to-cloud services for virtual private networks,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 679–692, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  35. F. B. Shepherd and P. J. Winzer, “Selective randomized load balancing and mesh networks with changing demands,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 320–339, 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. Bodamer, J. Spaeth, and Ch. Glingener, “An efficient method to estimate transponder count in multi-layer transport networks,” in Proc. of Global Telecommunications Conf. (Globecom 2004), 2004, pp. 1780–1785.
  37. T. Breach, “40G and 100G overview,” Network Architectural Workshop, Apr.2009 [Online]. Available: http://wiki.ndgf.org/.
  38. S. Sengupta and V. Kumar, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  39. U.S. Census Bureau, “Population and household economic topics,” June2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.census.gov/population/www/.
  40. Eurostat, “Population and living conditions in Urban Audit cities, core city,” June2009, Code TGS00079 [Online]. Available: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/.
  41. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Economic news release,” June2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.bls.gov/.
  42. Eurostat, “Your key to European statistics,” June2009 [Online]. Available: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/.
  43. Miniwatts Marketing Group, “Internet world statistics,” June2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.internetworldstats.com/.
  44. J. L. Beylat, “How will optical networks continue to transform the way the world communicates?” presented at Asia Pacific Optical Communication Conf. (APOC 2007), 2007.
  45. J. H. Sinsky and P. J. Winzer, “100-Gb/s optical communications: A microwave engineer’s perspective,” IEEE Microwave Mag., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 44–57, 2009.
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

J. Sole-Pareta, S. Subramaniam, D. Careglio, and S. Spadaro, “Cross-layer approaches for planning and operating impairment-aware optical networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1118–1129, 2012.
[CrossRef]

C. Gao, H. C. Cankaya, A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming and regenerator placement with connection-level protection,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 259–270, 2012.
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

K. Christodoupoulos, K. Manousakis, E. Varvrigos, and M. Angelou, “Considering physical layer impairments in offline RWA,” IEEE Network, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 26–33, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

J. H. Sinsky and P. J. Winzer, “100-Gb/s optical communications: A microwave engineer’s perspective,” IEEE Microwave Mag., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 44–57, 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. Pavon-Marino, S. Azodolmolky, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole-Pareta, J. Garcia-Haro, and I. Tomkos, “Offline impairment aware RWA algorithms for cross-layer planning of optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 15, pp. 1763–1775, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

Ch. Politi, H. Haunstein, D. A. Schupke, S. Duhovnikov, G. Lehmann, A. Stavdas, M. Gunkel, J. Martensson, and A. Lord, “Integrated design and operation of a transparent optical network: A systematic approach to include physical layer awareness and cost function,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 40–47, 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

F. B. Shepherd and P. J. Winzer, “Selective randomized load balancing and mesh networks with changing demands,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 320–339, 2006.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, X. Q. Wang, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, “Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 17, pp. 1804–1806, 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

V. Srivastava and M. Motani, “Cross-layer design: A survey and the road ahead,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 112–119, 2005.
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

G. Carneiro, J. Ruela, and M. Ricardo, “Cross-layer design in 4G wireless terminals,” IEEE Wireless Commun., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 7–13, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Y. Lee and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic engineering in next-generation optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 16–33, 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, 2003.
[CrossRef]

S. Sengupta and V. Kumar, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. G. Duffield, P. Goyal, A. Greenberg, P. Mishra, K. K. Ramakrishnan, and J. E. van der Merwe, “Resource management with hoses: Point-to-cloud services for virtual private networks,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 679–692, 2002.
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, 1997.
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

E. W. Dijkstra, “A note on two problems in connection with graphs,” Numer. Math., vol. 1, pp. 269–271, 1959.
[CrossRef]

Adamiecki, A.

Alfiad, M. S.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Angelou, M.

Aparicio-Pardo, R.

Azodolmolky, S.

Basch, B.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, A. H. Gnauck, D. A. Fishman, Ch. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, B. Basch, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, and Y. Painchaud, “100-Gb/s DQPSK transmission: From laboratory experiments to field trials,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 3388–3402, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Behel, J.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, K.

F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergmann, “Impairment-aware traffic engineering using cross-layer protocols,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2009), 2009, Mo1.5.1.

F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, C. P. Lai, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergmann, “Cross-layer simulations of fast packet-protection mechanisms,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2009), 2009, Mo2.5.2.

Beshir, A.

A. Beshir, R. Nuijts, R. Malhorta, and F. Kuipers, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC 2011), 2011, TPN-3.

Beylat, J. L.

J. L. Beylat, “How will optical networks continue to transform the way the world communicates?” presented at Asia Pacific Optical Communication Conf. (APOC 2007), 2007.

Bigo, S.

M. Lefrancois, F. Houndonougbo, T. Fauconnier, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Cross comparison of the nonlinear impairments caused by 10 Gbit/s neighboring channels on a 40 Gbit/s channel modulated with various formats, and over various fiber types,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2007), 2007, JThA44.

Bodamer, S.

S. Bodamer, J. Spaeth, and Ch. Glingener, “An efficient method to estimate transponder count in multi-layer transport networks,” in Proc. of Global Telecommunications Conf. (Globecom 2004), 2004, pp. 1780–1785.

Breach, T.

T. Breach, “40G and 100G overview,” Network Architectural Workshop, Apr.2009 [Online]. Available: http://wiki.ndgf.org/.

Buhl, L. L.

Burrows, E. C.

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, X. Q. Wang, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, “Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 17, pp. 1804–1806, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Cankaya, H. C.

Careglio, D.

J. Sole-Pareta, S. Subramaniam, D. Careglio, and S. Spadaro, “Cross-layer approaches for planning and operating impairment-aware optical networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1118–1129, 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “A novel offline physical layer impairments aware RWA algorithm with dedicated path protection consideration,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 20, pp. 3029–3040, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Carneiro, G.

G. Carneiro, J. Ruela, and M. Ricardo, “Cross-layer design in 4G wireless terminals,” IEEE Wireless Commun., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 7–13, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

Charlet, G.

M. Lefrancois, F. Houndonougbo, T. Fauconnier, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Cross comparison of the nonlinear impairments caused by 10 Gbit/s neighboring channels on a 40 Gbit/s channel modulated with various formats, and over various fiber types,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2007), 2007, JThA44.

Chbat, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Chbat, M. W.

M. Wuth, M. W. Chbat, and V. F. Kamalov, “Multi-rate (100G/40G/10G) transport over deployed optical networks,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2008), 2008, NTuB3.

Chen, D.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. Z.

D. Z. Chen and M. F. Lane, “Emerging network need for alien wavelength management,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2007), 2007, NTuD5.

Christodoupoulos, K.

K. Christodoupoulos, K. Manousakis, E. Varvrigos, and M. Angelou, “Considering physical layer impairments in offline RWA,” IEEE Network, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 26–33, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Corteselli, S.

de Man, E.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Dijkstra, E. W.

E. W. Dijkstra, “A note on two problems in connection with graphs,” Numer. Math., vol. 1, pp. 269–271, 1959.
[CrossRef]

Doerr, Ch. R.

Duffield, N. G.

N. G. Duffield, P. Goyal, A. Greenberg, P. Mishra, K. K. Ramakrishnan, and J. E. van der Merwe, “Resource management with hoses: Point-to-cloud services for virtual private networks,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 679–692, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Duhovnikov, S.

Ch. Politi, H. Haunstein, D. A. Schupke, S. Duhovnikov, G. Lehmann, A. Stavdas, M. Gunkel, J. Martensson, and A. Lord, “Integrated design and operation of a transparent optical network: A systematic approach to include physical layer awareness and cost function,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 40–47, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Dwivedi, A.

A. Dwivedi and R. E. Wagner, “Traffic model for USA long-distance optical network,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2000), 2000, TuK1-1.

Essiambre, R. J.

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, X. Q. Wang, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, “Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 17, pp. 1804–1806, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Fauconnier, T.

M. Lefrancois, F. Houndonougbo, T. Fauconnier, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Cross comparison of the nonlinear impairments caused by 10 Gbit/s neighboring channels on a 40 Gbit/s channel modulated with various formats, and over various fiber types,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2007), 2007, JThA44.

Fidler, F.

F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergmann, “Impairment-aware traffic engineering using cross-layer protocols,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2009), 2009, Mo1.5.1.

F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, C. P. Lai, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergmann, “Cross-layer simulations of fast packet-protection mechanisms,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2009), 2009, Mo2.5.2.

Finkenzeller, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Fishman, D. A.

Freiberger, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Gao, C.

Garcia-Haro, J.

Garcia-Manrubia, B.

Gerstl, O.

O. Gerstl, “IP and optical integration in dynamic networks,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2009), 2009, OML7.

Glingener, Ch.

S. Bodamer, J. Spaeth, and Ch. Glingener, “An efficient method to estimate transponder count in multi-layer transport networks,” in Proc. of Global Telecommunications Conf. (Globecom 2004), 2004, pp. 1780–1785.

Gnauck, A. H.

Goyal, P.

N. G. Duffield, P. Goyal, A. Greenberg, P. Mishra, K. K. Ramakrishnan, and J. E. van der Merwe, “Resource management with hoses: Point-to-cloud services for virtual private networks,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 679–692, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Greenberg, A.

N. G. Duffield, P. Goyal, A. Greenberg, P. Mishra, K. K. Ramakrishnan, and J. E. van der Merwe, “Resource management with hoses: Point-to-cloud services for virtual private networks,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 679–692, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Grobler, R.

M. Veeraraghavan, H. Lee, and R. Grobler, “A low-load comparison of TCP/IP and end-to-end circuits for file transfers,” in Proc. of INET Conf. (INET 2002), 2002, pp. 18–21.

Gunkel, M.

Ch. Politi, H. Haunstein, D. A. Schupke, S. Duhovnikov, G. Lehmann, A. Stavdas, M. Gunkel, J. Martensson, and A. Lord, “Integrated design and operation of a transparent optical network: A systematic approach to include physical layer awareness and cost function,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 40–47, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Haunstein, H.

Ch. Politi, H. Haunstein, D. A. Schupke, S. Duhovnikov, G. Lehmann, A. Stavdas, M. Gunkel, J. Martensson, and A. Lord, “Integrated design and operation of a transparent optical network: A systematic approach to include physical layer awareness and cost function,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 40–47, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Higuma, K.

Houndonougbo, F.

M. Lefrancois, F. Houndonougbo, T. Fauconnier, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Cross comparison of the nonlinear impairments caused by 10 Gbit/s neighboring channels on a 40 Gbit/s channel modulated with various formats, and over various fiber types,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2007), 2007, JThA44.

Jue, J. P.

C. Gao, H. C. Cankaya, A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming and regenerator placement with connection-level protection,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 259–270, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming with dedicated path protection,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2010), 2010, P5.09.

Juva, I.

I. Juva, “Sensitivity of traffic matrix estimation techniques to their underlying assumptions,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC 2007), 2007, pp. 562–568.

Kamalov, V. F.

M. Wuth, M. W. Chbat, and V. F. Kamalov, “Multi-rate (100G/40G/10G) transport over deployed optical networks,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2008), 2008, NTuB3.

Kawanishi, T.

Klinkowski, M.

Krummrich, P. M.

P. M. Krummrich, E. D. Schmidt, W. Weiershausen, and A. Mattheus, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2005), 2005, OThT6.

Kuipers, F.

A. Beshir, R. Nuijts, R. Malhorta, and F. Kuipers, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC 2011), 2011, TPN-3.

Kumar, V.

S. Sengupta and V. Kumar, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Kuschnerov, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. P.

F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, C. P. Lai, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergmann, “Cross-layer simulations of fast packet-protection mechanisms,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2009), 2009, Mo2.5.2.

Lane, M. F.

D. Z. Chen and M. F. Lane, “Emerging network need for alien wavelength management,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2007), 2007, NTuD5.

Lankl, B.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

M. Veeraraghavan, H. Lee, and R. Grobler, “A low-load comparison of TCP/IP and end-to-end circuits for file transfers,” in Proc. of INET Conf. (INET 2002), 2002, pp. 18–21.

Lee, W.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, A. H. Gnauck, D. A. Fishman, Ch. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, B. Basch, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, and Y. Painchaud, “100-Gb/s DQPSK transmission: From laboratory experiments to field trials,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 3388–3402, 2008.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, X. Q. Wang, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, “Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 17, pp. 1804–1806, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic engineering in next-generation optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 16–33, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Lefrancois, M.

M. Lefrancois, F. Houndonougbo, T. Fauconnier, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Cross comparison of the nonlinear impairments caused by 10 Gbit/s neighboring channels on a 40 Gbit/s channel modulated with various formats, and over various fiber types,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2007), 2007, JThA44.

Lehmann, G.

Ch. Politi, H. Haunstein, D. A. Schupke, S. Duhovnikov, G. Lehmann, A. Stavdas, M. Gunkel, J. Martensson, and A. Lord, “Integrated design and operation of a transparent optical network: A systematic approach to include physical layer awareness and cost function,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 40–47, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu and S. Chandrasekhar, “Suppression of XPM penalty on 40-Gb/s DQPSK resulting from 10-Gb/s OOK channels by dispersion management,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2008), 2008, OMQ6.

Lord, A.

Ch. Politi, H. Haunstein, D. A. Schupke, S. Duhovnikov, G. Lehmann, A. Stavdas, M. Gunkel, J. Martensson, and A. Lord, “Integrated design and operation of a transparent optical network: A systematic approach to include physical layer awareness and cost function,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 40–47, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Malhorta, R.

A. Beshir, R. Nuijts, R. Malhorta, and F. Kuipers, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC 2011), 2011, TPN-3.

Manousakis, K.

K. Christodoupoulos, K. Manousakis, E. Varvrigos, and M. Angelou, “Considering physical layer impairments in offline RWA,” IEEE Network, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 26–33, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Martensson, J.

Ch. Politi, H. Haunstein, D. A. Schupke, S. Duhovnikov, G. Lehmann, A. Stavdas, M. Gunkel, J. Martensson, and A. Lord, “Integrated design and operation of a transparent optical network: A systematic approach to include physical layer awareness and cost function,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 40–47, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Mattheus, A.

P. M. Krummrich, E. D. Schmidt, W. Weiershausen, and A. Mattheus, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2005), 2005, OThT6.

Mishra, P.

N. G. Duffield, P. Goyal, A. Greenberg, P. Mishra, K. K. Ramakrishnan, and J. E. van der Merwe, “Resource management with hoses: Point-to-cloud services for virtual private networks,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 679–692, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Motani, M.

V. Srivastava and M. Motani, “Cross-layer design: A survey and the road ahead,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 112–119, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

Y. Lee and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic engineering in next-generation optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 16–33, 2004.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Naito, T.

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming with dedicated path protection,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2010), 2010, P5.09.

Napoli, A.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Nuijts, R.

A. Beshir, R. Nuijts, R. Malhorta, and F. Kuipers, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC 2011), 2011, TPN-3.

Ou, C.

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Painchaud, Y.

Palacharla, P.

C. Gao, H. C. Cankaya, A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming and regenerator placement with connection-level protection,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 259–270, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming with dedicated path protection,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2010), 2010, P5.09.

Patel, A. N.

C. Gao, H. C. Cankaya, A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming and regenerator placement with connection-level protection,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 259–270, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming with dedicated path protection,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2010), 2010, P5.09.

Pavon-Marino, P.

Peterson, D.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Pointurier, Y.

Politi, Ch.

Ch. Politi, H. Haunstein, D. A. Schupke, S. Duhovnikov, G. Lehmann, A. Stavdas, M. Gunkel, J. Martensson, and A. Lord, “Integrated design and operation of a transparent optical network: A systematic approach to include physical layer awareness and cost function,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 40–47, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Pollock, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ramakrishnan, K. K.

N. G. Duffield, P. Goyal, A. Greenberg, P. Mishra, K. K. Ramakrishnan, and J. E. van der Merwe, “Resource management with hoses: Point-to-cloud services for virtual private networks,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 679–692, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

Rehman, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ricardo, M.

G. Carneiro, J. Ruela, and M. Ricardo, “Cross-layer design in 4G wireless terminals,” IEEE Wireless Commun., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 7–13, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Ruela, J.

G. Carneiro, J. Ruela, and M. Ricardo, “Cross-layer design in 4G wireless terminals,” IEEE Wireless Commun., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 7–13, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Sahasrabuddhe, L. H.

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Schmid, E. D.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, E. D.

P. M. Krummrich, E. D. Schmidt, W. Weiershausen, and A. Mattheus, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2005), 2005, OThT6.

Schupke, D. A.

Ch. Politi, H. Haunstein, D. A. Schupke, S. Duhovnikov, G. Lehmann, A. Stavdas, M. Gunkel, J. Martensson, and A. Lord, “Integrated design and operation of a transparent optical network: A systematic approach to include physical layer awareness and cost function,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 40–47, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Sekiya, M.

Sengupta, S.

S. Sengupta and V. Kumar, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, F. B.

Sinsky, J. H.

J. H. Sinsky and P. J. Winzer, “100-Gb/s optical communications: A microwave engineer’s perspective,” IEEE Microwave Mag., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 44–57, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Sole-Pareta, J.

Song, H.

Spadaro, S.

J. Sole-Pareta, S. Subramaniam, D. Careglio, and S. Spadaro, “Cross-layer approaches for planning and operating impairment-aware optical networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1118–1129, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Spaelter, S.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Spaeth, J.

S. Bodamer, J. Spaeth, and Ch. Glingener, “An efficient method to estimate transponder count in multi-layer transport networks,” in Proc. of Global Telecommunications Conf. (Globecom 2004), 2004, pp. 1780–1785.

Spinnler, B.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A. K.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, V.

V. Srivastava and M. Motani, “Cross-layer design: A survey and the road ahead,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 112–119, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Stachowiak, J.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Stavdas, A.

Ch. Politi, H. Haunstein, D. A. Schupke, S. Duhovnikov, G. Lehmann, A. Stavdas, M. Gunkel, J. Martensson, and A. Lord, “Integrated design and operation of a transparent optical network: A systematic approach to include physical layer awareness and cost function,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 40–47, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, S.

J. Sole-Pareta, S. Subramaniam, D. Careglio, and S. Spadaro, “Cross-layer approaches for planning and operating impairment-aware optical networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1118–1129, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Sulhoff, J. W.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Thottan, M. K.

F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, C. P. Lai, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergmann, “Cross-layer simulations of fast packet-protection mechanisms,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2009), 2009, Mo2.5.2.

F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergmann, “Impairment-aware traffic engineering using cross-layer protocols,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2009), 2009, Mo1.5.1.

Tkach, R. W.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Tomkos, I.

van de Borne, D.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

van der Merwe, J. E.

N. G. Duffield, P. Goyal, A. Greenberg, P. Mishra, K. K. Ramakrishnan, and J. E. van der Merwe, “Resource management with hoses: Point-to-cloud services for virtual private networks,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 679–692, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Varvrigos, E.

K. Christodoupoulos, K. Manousakis, E. Varvrigos, and M. Angelou, “Considering physical layer impairments in offline RWA,” IEEE Network, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 26–33, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Veeraraghavan, M.

M. Veeraraghavan, H. Lee, and R. Grobler, “A low-load comparison of TCP/IP and end-to-end circuits for file transfers,” in Proc. of INET Conf. (INET 2002), 2002, pp. 18–21.

Wagner, R. E.

A. Dwivedi and R. E. Wagner, “Traffic model for USA long-distance optical network,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2000), 2000, TuK1-1.

Wang, X.

C. Gao, H. C. Cankaya, A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming and regenerator placement with connection-level protection,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 259–270, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming with dedicated path protection,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2010), 2010, P5.09.

Wang, X. Q.

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, X. Q. Wang, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, “Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 17, pp. 1804–1806, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Weiershausen, W.

P. M. Krummrich, E. D. Schmidt, W. Weiershausen, and A. Mattheus, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2005), 2005, OThT6.

Weiske, C. J.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Wellbrock, G.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, A. H. Gnauck, D. A. Fishman, Ch. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, B. Basch, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, and Y. Painchaud, “100-Gb/s DQPSK transmission: From laboratory experiments to field trials,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 3388–3402, 2008.
[CrossRef]

White, C. A.

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, X. Q. Wang, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, “Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 17, pp. 1804–1806, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

J. H. Sinsky and P. J. Winzer, “100-Gb/s optical communications: A microwave engineer’s perspective,” IEEE Microwave Mag., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 44–57, 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, A. H. Gnauck, D. A. Fishman, Ch. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, B. Basch, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, and Y. Painchaud, “100-Gb/s DQPSK transmission: From laboratory experiments to field trials,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 3388–3402, 2008.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, X. Q. Wang, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, “Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 17, pp. 1804–1806, 2006.
[CrossRef]

F. B. Shepherd and P. J. Winzer, “Selective randomized load balancing and mesh networks with changing demands,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 320–339, 2006.
[CrossRef]

F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, C. P. Lai, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergmann, “Cross-layer simulations of fast packet-protection mechanisms,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2009), 2009, Mo2.5.2.

G. Raybon and P. J. Winzer, “100 Gb/s challenges and solutions,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2008), 2008, pp. 1–35.

F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergmann, “Impairment-aware traffic engineering using cross-layer protocols,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2009), 2009, Mo1.5.1.

Wolf, C.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Wuth, M.

M. Wuth, M. W. Chbat, and V. F. Kamalov, “Multi-rate (100G/40G/10G) transport over deployed optical networks,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2008), 2008, NTuB3.

Wuth, T.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Xia, T. J.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, A. H. Gnauck, D. A. Fishman, Ch. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, B. Basch, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, and Y. Painchaud, “100-Gb/s DQPSK transmission: From laboratory experiments to field trials,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 3388–3402, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Zang, H.

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

C. Gao, H. C. Cankaya, A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming and regenerator placement with connection-level protection,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 259–270, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming with dedicated path protection,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2010), 2010, P5.09.

Zhu, K.

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Zyskind, J. L.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, 1997.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

Ch. Politi, H. Haunstein, D. A. Schupke, S. Duhovnikov, G. Lehmann, A. Stavdas, M. Gunkel, J. Martensson, and A. Lord, “Integrated design and operation of a transparent optical network: A systematic approach to include physical layer awareness and cost function,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 40–47, 2007.
[CrossRef]

V. Srivastava and M. Motani, “Cross-layer design: A survey and the road ahead,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 112–119, 2005.
[CrossRef]

S. Sengupta and V. Kumar, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

Y. Lee and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic engineering in next-generation optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 16–33, 2004.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microwave Mag. (1)

J. H. Sinsky and P. J. Winzer, “100-Gb/s optical communications: A microwave engineer’s perspective,” IEEE Microwave Mag., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 44–57, 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network (1)

K. Christodoupoulos, K. Manousakis, E. Varvrigos, and M. Angelou, “Considering physical layer impairments in offline RWA,” IEEE Network, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 26–33, 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, X. Q. Wang, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, “Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 17, pp. 1804–1806, 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E. D. Schmid, D. van de Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, J. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, “111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 615–617, 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Netw. (1)

N. G. Duffield, P. Goyal, A. Greenberg, P. Mishra, K. K. Ramakrishnan, and J. E. van der Merwe, “Resource management with hoses: Point-to-cloud services for virtual private networks,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 679–692, 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Wireless Commun. (1)

G. Carneiro, J. Ruela, and M. Ricardo, “Cross-layer design in 4G wireless terminals,” IEEE Wireless Commun., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 7–13, 2004.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Numer. Math. (1)

E. W. Dijkstra, “A note on two problems in connection with graphs,” Numer. Math., vol. 1, pp. 269–271, 1959.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. Sole-Pareta, S. Subramaniam, D. Careglio, and S. Spadaro, “Cross-layer approaches for planning and operating impairment-aware optical networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1118–1129, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Other (26)

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming with dedicated path protection,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2010), 2010, P5.09.

A. Beshir, R. Nuijts, R. Malhorta, and F. Kuipers, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC 2011), 2011, TPN-3.

X. Liu and S. Chandrasekhar, “Suppression of XPM penalty on 40-Gb/s DQPSK resulting from 10-Gb/s OOK channels by dispersion management,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2008), 2008, OMQ6.

M. Veeraraghavan, H. Lee, and R. Grobler, “A low-load comparison of TCP/IP and end-to-end circuits for file transfers,” in Proc. of INET Conf. (INET 2002), 2002, pp. 18–21.

O. Gerstl, “IP and optical integration in dynamic networks,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2009), 2009, OML7.

M. Wuth, M. W. Chbat, and V. F. Kamalov, “Multi-rate (100G/40G/10G) transport over deployed optical networks,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2008), 2008, NTuB3.

M. Lefrancois, F. Houndonougbo, T. Fauconnier, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Cross comparison of the nonlinear impairments caused by 10 Gbit/s neighboring channels on a 40 Gbit/s channel modulated with various formats, and over various fiber types,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2007), 2007, JThA44.

G. Raybon and P. J. Winzer, “100 Gb/s challenges and solutions,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2008), 2008, pp. 1–35.

D. Z. Chen and M. F. Lane, “Emerging network need for alien wavelength management,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2007), 2007, NTuD5.

I. Juva, “Sensitivity of traffic matrix estimation techniques to their underlying assumptions,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC 2007), 2007, pp. 562–568.

A. Dwivedi and R. E. Wagner, “Traffic model for USA long-distance optical network,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2000), 2000, TuK1-1.

P. M. Krummrich, E. D. Schmidt, W. Weiershausen, and A. Mattheus, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2005), 2005, OThT6.

U.S. Census Bureau, “Population and household economic topics,” June2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.census.gov/population/www/.

Eurostat, “Population and living conditions in Urban Audit cities, core city,” June2009, Code TGS00079 [Online]. Available: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/.

Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Economic news release,” June2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.bls.gov/.

Eurostat, “Your key to European statistics,” June2009 [Online]. Available: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/.

Miniwatts Marketing Group, “Internet world statistics,” June2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.internetworldstats.com/.

J. L. Beylat, “How will optical networks continue to transform the way the world communicates?” presented at Asia Pacific Optical Communication Conf. (APOC 2007), 2007.

S. Bodamer, J. Spaeth, and Ch. Glingener, “An efficient method to estimate transponder count in multi-layer transport networks,” in Proc. of Global Telecommunications Conf. (Globecom 2004), 2004, pp. 1780–1785.

T. Breach, “40G and 100G overview,” Network Architectural Workshop, Apr.2009 [Online]. Available: http://wiki.ndgf.org/.

F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, C. P. Lai, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergmann, “Cross-layer simulations of fast packet-protection mechanisms,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2009), 2009, Mo2.5.2.

F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergmann, “Impairment-aware traffic engineering using cross-layer protocols,” in Proc. of European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC 2009), 2009, Mo1.5.1.

Wayfaring Media, “Map of all Google data center locations,” June 2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.wayfaring.com/maps/show/48030.

Internet2 Network, “Internet2 Network,” June 2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.internet2.edu/network/.

Abilene Network, “Abilene—an advanced hybrid optical and packet network,” Jan. 2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.internet2.edu/abilene.

Geant2 Network, “Geant2 Topology,” June 2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.geant2.net/.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System OSNR margin allocation in optical transport networks.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The concept of impairment-aware traffic management based on dynamic physical-layer performance assessment and cross-layer information exchange.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Example networks: (a) Fully meshed optical network topology (based on Internet2 [28]), (b) Abilene [29], (c) Geant2 [30]. Squares give data-center locations [27]. Insets: traffic histograms for (i) the hose model and (ii) population-based traffic, and deployed capacities (dashed) for two representative links.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) (a) Physical-layer network representation. All nodes consist of a packet router, a multi-service switching platform (MSSP), and a reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM). If needed, fiber links contain optical–electronic–optical regenerators (OEOs) without re-grooming functionality. (b) From a fiber topology to a 4-node/5-edge graph representation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized throughput versus 40G/10G ratio r for optical networks with 100% wavelength channel utilization: (a) no impairment awareness, (b) with impairment awareness. (Dashed: throughput without inter-channel impairments ( p = 0 ); solid: throughput with inter-channel impairments ( p = 0 , 0 . 1 , 0 . 25 , 0 . 5 , 0 . 75 , 1 ).) (c) Throughput gain versus 40G/10G ratio r as a function of impairment probability p.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Throughput versus 40G/10G ratio r with and without impairment awareness: (a) Abilene network, (b) Geant2 network. The left subplots are without impairment awareness, while the right subplots represent impairment-aware networking. (Dotted: provisioned capacity; dashed: throughput without inter-channel impairments ( p = 0 ); solid: throughput with inter-channel impairments ( p = 1 ).)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Throughput gain (mean and standard deviation) versus impairment probability p at r = 1 . (Dash-dotted: fully meshed Internet2 network with 100% wavelength channel utilization and deterministic uniform demands; black: Abilene; gray: Geant2; solid: hose matrices; dotted: population-based matrices; dashed: gravity-based matrices.)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Throughput gain versus 40G/10G channel ratio r (at p = 1 ): analytic result for 100% wavelength channel utilization (gray) and Monte Carlo simulations for the Abilene and Geant2 networks (black); hose matrices (solid), population-based matrices (dashed), gravity-based matrices (dotted).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Visualization of channel filling according to the discussed traffic engineering schemes in over-provisioned networks with utilization factor u. The parameters r and q in this example are 0.5 and 4, respectively. Pie chart segments represent individual WDM channels, whose relative capacities are quantified by γ and γ / q . (Gray area: 40G channels; white area: 10G channels.)

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Analytical results for impairment-aware throughput gain versus 40G/10G channel ratio r, assuming p = 1 and u = 50 % ; (a)–(c) represent the three traffic engineering methods introduced in Subsection II.F.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Network cost (normalized) for the Abilene network assuming 40G/10G transponder cost ratios of c 40 G / c 10 G = 4 (solid line) and 2 . 5 (dashed). (b), (c) Normalized network cost per bit versus r and p for u = 50 % with (b) c 40 G / c 10 G = 4 and (c) c 40 G / c 10 G = 2 . 5 .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Normalized network cost per bit, c b , versus inter-channel impairment probability, p, and 40G/10G channel ratio, r, for the fully meshed Internet2 network topology for wavelength channel utilization levels u = 100 % , 90%, and 50% (rows). The columns represent different inter-channel impairment mitigation strategies as indicated.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Assumption of linear increase of impairment probability p with regeneration distance l max . (b) Savings in network cost per bit/s when increasing regeneration distances l max in the Abilene network (at r = 1 ) while introducing impairment-aware traffic management for three different assumptions on the distance dependence of impairment probabilities (cases A, B, and C) at a 40G/10G transponder cost ratio of 2.5.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Characteristics of the Abilene and Geant2 Networks

Equations (38)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L = ( 0 l 12 l 13 l 14 l 12 0 l 23 l 24 l 13 l 23 0 l 34 l 14 l 24 l 34 0 ) = ( 0 3150 0 4250 3150 0 500 0 0 500 0 600 4250 0 600 0 ) .
P = ( 0 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 12 0 p 23 p 24 p 13 p 23 0 p 34 p 14 p 24 p 34 0 ) = ( 0 3150 0 4250 3150 0 500 1099 0 500 0 600 4250 1099 600 0 ) .
X = ( 1 0 0 0 x 15 0 1 0 0 x 25 0 0 1 0 x 35 0 0 0 1 x 45 ) = ( 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 ) .
C f = X C ,
C f , k = i = 1 A x k i C i .
( C f , 1 C f , 2 C f , 3 C f , 4 ) = X ( C 1 C 2 C 3 C 4 C 5 ) = ( C 1 C 2 + C 5 C 3 + C 5 C 4 ) .
q = R 40 / R 10 .
r = N 40 / N 10 ,
ν 10 = 1 1 + r q ,
ν 40 = r q 1 + r q .
u = 1 E k = 1 E C ˜ k C f , k .
g = N 40 R 40 + N 10 R 10 p R 10 min { N 10 , N 40 } N 40 R 40 + N 10 R 10 p R 40 min { N 10 , N 40 } 1 = 1 + r q p min { 1 , r } 1 + r q p q min { 1 , r } 1 .
r u q u q .
u q ( 1 u ) + 1 r u q u q ,
g = u ( 1 p ) + p ν 40 u ( 1 p q ) + p q ν 40 1 .
g = u p ν 40 / q u p ν 40 1 .
r 1 u q u ,
D = ( 0 d 21 b a d 21 0 d 23 d 24 b d 23 0 c a d 24 c 0 ) ,
a = 1 2 ( D 4 + D 1 D 3 d 21 + d 23 d 24 ) ,
b = D 1 d 21 a ,
c = D 4 d 24 a .
r u q u q .
u q ( 1 u ) + 1 r u q u q ,
g = u ( 1 p ) + p ν 40 u ( 1 p q ) + p q ν 40 1 .
r < u q ( 1 u ) + 1 ,
g = u p ν 40 / q u p ν 40 1 .
r 1 u q u .
1 u q u r 1 q ( 1 + q u 1 ) ,
g = u p ( u ν 10 ) / q ν 10 + ( 1 p ) ( u ν 10 ) 1 .
r > 1 q ( 1 + q u 1 ) ,
g = u p ν 10 u p q ν 10 1 .
u 1 + q q u < r < 1 + q u q u ,
g = 1 + q p 1 + q p q 1 ,
r > 1 + q u q u ,
g = u p ν 10 u p q ν 10 1 ,
r < u 1 + q q u ,
g = u p ν 40 / q u p ν 40 1 ,
c N = ( N t , 10 + N t , 40 c 40 G / c 10 G ) / c N , min ,