Abstract

Spectrum-switched optical networks (SSONs) are an attractive solution for core networks. With respect to wavelength-switched optical networks (WSONs), they achieve a higher spectrum efficiency thanks to the use of a flexible grid, instead of a fixed one. In SSONs, the well-known wavelength assignment (WA) problem of WSONs becomes a spectrum assignment (SA) problem. The SA problem aims at assigning a portion of the spectrum (called a frequency slot) to lightpaths. The width of the frequency slot depends on the requested bit rate and the modulation format adopted for the lightpath, and it is a multiple of the minimum bandwidth granularity, referred to as frequency slice. Thus, differently from WA, which assigns a single wavelength (or color) to each lightpath, SA assigns a set of colors (i.e., a set of frequency slices) to the lightpath. The shift from WA to SA introduces an additional constraint, which is related to the spectral adjacency of such frequency slices. This paper proves that the adjacency constraint in SA is not required and that by solving the WA problem (or the coloring problem) it is possible to derive a solution with spectrally adjacent slices in polynomial time. Based on such results, an integer linear programming formulation (ILP) for the optimal SA in a SSON with multi modulation formats and multi line rates (MMF/MLR) is presented for minimizing the network cost. The total cost of the network comprises the spectrum cost and the transponder card cost. Optimal results are presented for a MMF/MLR-SSON ring and show the amount of total occupied bandwidth and the network costs for different loads and ring lengths. Optimal selection of the modulation format and line rate is driven by the slice cost and the transponder card cost. Result comparison indicates that support of MMF and MLR is especially effective for improving spectrum utilization and allows spectrum saving up to 20% with respect to an SSON ring with single modulation format and line rate.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. M. Fabrega, M. S. Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Design and experimental validation of a GMPLS/PCE control plane for elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 49–61, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

C. Rottondi, M. Tornatore, A. Pattavina, and G. Gavioli, “Routing, modulation level, and spectrum assignment in optical metro ring networks using elastic transceivers,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  5, no. 4, pp. 305–315, 2013.
[CrossRef]

2012 (7)

Y. Wang, X. Cao, Q. Hu, and Y. Pan, “Towards elastic and fine-granular bandwidth allocation in spectrum-sliced optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 11, pp. 906–917, 2012.
[CrossRef]

O. Pedrola, A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, J. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “CAPEX study for a multilayer IP/MPLS-over-flexgrid optical network,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 8, pp. 639–650, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, 2012.
[CrossRef]

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Modeling the routing and spectrum allocation problem for flexgrid optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  24, no. 3, pp. 177–186, 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Cugini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, M. Secondini, L. Gerardi, L. Pot, and P. Castoldi, “Demonstration of flexible optical network based on path computation element,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 5, pp. 727–733, Mar. 2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, and P. Iovanna, “Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 66–72, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, T. Xia, G. Wellbrock, M.-F. Huang, Y. Aono, T. Tajima, and M. Cvijetic, “Mixed line-rate transmission (112-Gb/s, 450-Gb/s, and 1.15-Tb/s) over 3560 km of field-installed fiber with filterless coherent receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 4, pp. 609–617, 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, 2011.
[CrossRef]

E. Lach and W. Idler, “Modulation formats for 100G and beyond,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  17, no. 5, pp. 377–386, 2011.
[CrossRef]

A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Limits of spectral efficiency and transmission reach of optical-OFDM superchannels for adaptive networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 20, pp. 1526–1528, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 466–475, 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

P. Hansen, M. Labbé, and D. Schindl, “Set covering and packing formulations of graph coloring: Algorithms and first polyhedral results,” Discrete Optim., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 135–147, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. Coll, J. Marenco, I. M. Diaz, and P. Zabala, “Facets of the graph coloring polytope,” Ann. Operat. Res., vol.  116, no. 1, pp. 79–90, 2002.
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Zang, J. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 47–60, 2000.

1986 (1)

M. Grötschel, L. Lovász, and A. Schrijver, “Relaxations of vertex packing,” J. Comb. Theory, Ser. B, vol.  40, no. 3, pp. 330–343, 1986.
[CrossRef]

Aono, Y.

Bomze, I.

I. Bomze, M. Budinich, P. Pardalos, and M. Pelillo, “The maximum clique problem,” in Handbook of Combinatorial Optimization, vol. 4. Kluwer Academic, 1999, pp. 1–74.

Bottari, G.

N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, and P. Iovanna, “Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 66–72, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Cugini, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, L. Poti, A. D’Errico, and G. Bottari, “Reliable flexible-ROADM architecture enabling modulation format adaptation,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, pp. 1–3.

Buchali, F.

A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Limits of spectral efficiency and transmission reach of optical-OFDM superchannels for adaptive networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 20, pp. 1526–1528, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Budinich, M.

I. Bomze, M. Budinich, P. Pardalos, and M. Pelillo, “The maximum clique problem,” in Handbook of Combinatorial Optimization, vol. 4. Kluwer Academic, 1999, pp. 1–74.

Cai, X.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. of ECOC, Sept. 2011, pp. 1–3.

Cao, X.

Careglio, D.

Casellas, R.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. M. Fabrega, M. S. Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Design and experimental validation of a GMPLS/PCE control plane for elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 49–61, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Castoldi, P.

N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, and P. Iovanna, “Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 66–72, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Cugini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, M. Secondini, L. Gerardi, L. Pot, and P. Castoldi, “Demonstration of flexible optical network based on path computation element,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 5, pp. 727–733, Mar. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Castro, A.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

Coll, P.

P. Coll, J. Marenco, I. M. Diaz, and P. Zabala, “Facets of the graph coloring polytope,” Ann. Operat. Res., vol.  116, no. 1, pp. 79–90, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Comellas, J.

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Modeling the routing and spectrum allocation problem for flexgrid optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  24, no. 3, pp. 177–186, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Cugini, F.

F. Cugini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, M. Secondini, L. Gerardi, L. Pot, and P. Castoldi, “Demonstration of flexible optical network based on path computation element,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 5, pp. 727–733, Mar. 2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, and P. Iovanna, “Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 66–72, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Cugini, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, L. Poti, A. D’Errico, and G. Bottari, “Reliable flexible-ROADM architecture enabling modulation format adaptation,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, pp. 1–3.

Cvijetic, M.

D’Errico, A.

F. Cugini, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, L. Poti, A. D’Errico, and G. Bottari, “Reliable flexible-ROADM architecture enabling modulation format adaptation,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, pp. 1–3.

Diaz, I. M.

P. Coll, J. Marenco, I. M. Diaz, and P. Zabala, “Facets of the graph coloring polytope,” Ann. Operat. Res., vol.  116, no. 1, pp. 79–90, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Dischler, R.

A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Limits of spectral efficiency and transmission reach of optical-OFDM superchannels for adaptive networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 20, pp. 1526–1528, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Eira, A.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “Cost-optimized dimensioning of translucent WDM networks with mixed-line-rate spectrum-flexible channels,” in 13th IEEE Int. Conf. on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2012, pp. 185–190.

Eiselt, M. H.

B. T. Teipen, H. Griesser, and M. H. Eiselt, “Flexible bandwidth and bit-rate programmability in future optical networks,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2012, pp. 1–4.

Fabrega, J. M.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. M. Fabrega, M. S. Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Design and experimental validation of a GMPLS/PCE control plane for elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 49–61, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Fernández-Palacios, J.

Fontaine, N.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. of ECOC, Sept. 2011, pp. 1–3.

Gavioli, G.

Geisler, D.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. of ECOC, Sept. 2011, pp. 1–3.

Gerardi, L.

Gerstel, O.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. of ECOC, Sept. 2011, pp. 1–3.

Ghobril, P.

P. Ghobril, C. Zaiter, and E. Le Rouzic, “Rearrangement: From wavelength routed to sliced-spectrum optical networks,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2012, pp. 1–4.

Griesser, H.

B. T. Teipen, H. Griesser, and M. H. Eiselt, “Flexible bandwidth and bit-rate programmability in future optical networks,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2012, pp. 1–4.

Grotschel, M.

M. Grotschel, L. Lovász, and A. Schrijver, Geometric Algorithms and Combinatorial Optimizations. Springer-Verlag, 1993.

Grötschel, M.

M. Grötschel, L. Lovász, and A. Schrijver, “Relaxations of vertex packing,” J. Comb. Theory, Ser. B, vol.  40, no. 3, pp. 330–343, 1986.
[CrossRef]

Hansen, P.

P. Hansen, M. Labbé, and D. Schindl, “Set covering and packing formulations of graph coloring: Algorithms and first polyhedral results,” Discrete Optim., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 135–147, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Hirano, A.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

Huang, M.-F.

Huang, Y.-K.

Idler, W.

E. Lach and W. Idler, “Modulation formats for 100G and beyond,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  17, no. 5, pp. 377–386, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Iovanna, P.

N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, and P. Iovanna, “Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 66–72, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

Ip, E.

Ji, P.

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Jinno, M.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Jue, J.

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, 2012.
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, J. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 47–60, 2000.

Klekamp, A.

A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Limits of spectral efficiency and transmission reach of optical-OFDM superchannels for adaptive networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 20, pp. 1526–1528, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Klinkowski, M.

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Modeling the routing and spectrum allocation problem for flexgrid optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  24, no. 3, pp. 177–186, 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Kozicki, B.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Labbé, M.

P. Hansen, M. Labbé, and D. Schindl, “Set covering and packing formulations of graph coloring: Algorithms and first polyhedral results,” Discrete Optim., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 135–147, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Lach, E.

E. Lach and W. Idler, “Modulation formats for 100G and beyond,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  17, no. 5, pp. 377–386, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Le Rouzic, E.

P. Ghobril, C. Zaiter, and E. Le Rouzic, “Rearrangement: From wavelength routed to sliced-spectrum optical networks,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2012, pp. 1–4.

Liu, L.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. M. Fabrega, M. S. Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Design and experimental validation of a GMPLS/PCE control plane for elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 49–61, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Lovász, L.

M. Grötschel, L. Lovász, and A. Schrijver, “Relaxations of vertex packing,” J. Comb. Theory, Ser. B, vol.  40, no. 3, pp. 330–343, 1986.
[CrossRef]

M. Grotschel, L. Lovász, and A. Schrijver, Geometric Algorithms and Combinatorial Optimizations. Springer-Verlag, 1993.

Marenco, J.

P. Coll, J. Marenco, I. M. Diaz, and P. Zabala, “Facets of the graph coloring polytope,” Ann. Operat. Res., vol.  116, no. 1, pp. 79–90, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Martinez, R.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. M. Fabrega, M. S. Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Design and experimental validation of a GMPLS/PCE control plane for elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 49–61, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Meloni, G.

Moreolo, M. S.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. M. Fabrega, M. S. Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Design and experimental validation of a GMPLS/PCE control plane for elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 49–61, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Morita, I.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. M. Fabrega, M. S. Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Design and experimental validation of a GMPLS/PCE control plane for elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 49–61, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 466–475, 2010.
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H. Zang, J. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 47–60, 2000.

Munoz, R.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. M. Fabrega, M. S. Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Design and experimental validation of a GMPLS/PCE control plane for elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 49–61, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Nag, A.

Pan, Y.

Paolucci, F.

F. Cugini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, M. Secondini, L. Gerardi, L. Pot, and P. Castoldi, “Demonstration of flexible optical network based on path computation element,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 5, pp. 727–733, Mar. 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Cugini, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, L. Poti, A. D’Errico, and G. Bottari, “Reliable flexible-ROADM architecture enabling modulation format adaptation,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, pp. 1–3.

Paraschis, L.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. of ECOC, Sept. 2011, pp. 1–3.

Pardalos, P.

I. Bomze, M. Budinich, P. Pardalos, and M. Pelillo, “The maximum clique problem,” in Handbook of Combinatorial Optimization, vol. 4. Kluwer Academic, 1999, pp. 1–74.

Patel, A.

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Pattavina, A.

Pedro, J.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “Cost-optimized dimensioning of translucent WDM networks with mixed-line-rate spectrum-flexible channels,” in 13th IEEE Int. Conf. on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2012, pp. 185–190.

Pedrola, O.

Pelillo, M.

I. Bomze, M. Budinich, P. Pardalos, and M. Pelillo, “The maximum clique problem,” in Handbook of Combinatorial Optimization, vol. 4. Kluwer Academic, 1999, pp. 1–74.

Pires, J.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “Cost-optimized dimensioning of translucent WDM networks with mixed-line-rate spectrum-flexible channels,” in 13th IEEE Int. Conf. on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2012, pp. 185–190.

Pot, L.

Poti, L.

F. Cugini, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, L. Poti, A. D’Errico, and G. Bottari, “Reliable flexible-ROADM architecture enabling modulation format adaptation,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, pp. 1–3.

Proietti, R.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. of ECOC, Sept. 2011, pp. 1–3.

Rottondi, C.

Ruiz, M.

O. Pedrola, A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, J. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “CAPEX study for a multilayer IP/MPLS-over-flexgrid optical network,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 8, pp. 639–650, 2012.
[CrossRef]

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Modeling the routing and spectrum allocation problem for flexgrid optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  24, no. 3, pp. 177–186, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Sambo, N.

N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, and P. Iovanna, “Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 66–72, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Cugini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, M. Secondini, L. Gerardi, L. Pot, and P. Castoldi, “Demonstration of flexible optical network based on path computation element,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 5, pp. 727–733, Mar. 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Cugini, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, L. Poti, A. D’Errico, and G. Bottari, “Reliable flexible-ROADM architecture enabling modulation format adaptation,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, pp. 1–3.

Schindl, D.

P. Hansen, M. Labbé, and D. Schindl, “Set covering and packing formulations of graph coloring: Algorithms and first polyhedral results,” Discrete Optim., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 135–147, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Schrijver, A.

M. Grötschel, L. Lovász, and A. Schrijver, “Relaxations of vertex packing,” J. Comb. Theory, Ser. B, vol.  40, no. 3, pp. 330–343, 1986.
[CrossRef]

M. Grotschel, L. Lovász, and A. Schrijver, Geometric Algorithms and Combinatorial Optimizations. Springer-Verlag, 1993.

Scott, R.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. of ECOC, Sept. 2011, pp. 1–3.

Secondini, M.

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Tajima, T.

Takara, H.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Teipen, B. T.

B. T. Teipen, H. Griesser, and M. H. Eiselt, “Flexible bandwidth and bit-rate programmability in future optical networks,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2012, pp. 1–4.

Tomkos, I.

Tornatore, M.

Tsuritani, T.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. M. Fabrega, M. S. Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Design and experimental validation of a GMPLS/PCE control plane for elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 49–61, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Varvarigos, E.

Velasco, L.

O. Pedrola, A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, J. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “CAPEX study for a multilayer IP/MPLS-over-flexgrid optical network,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 8, pp. 639–650, 2012.
[CrossRef]

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Modeling the routing and spectrum allocation problem for flexgrid optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  24, no. 3, pp. 177–186, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Walkowiak, K.

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Watanabe, A.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Wellbrock, G.

Xia, T.

Yin, Y.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. of ECOC, Sept. 2011, pp. 1–3.

Yoo, S.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. of ECOC, Sept. 2011, pp. 1–3.

Zabala, P.

P. Coll, J. Marenco, I. M. Diaz, and P. Zabala, “Facets of the graph coloring polytope,” Ann. Operat. Res., vol.  116, no. 1, pp. 79–90, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Zaiter, C.

P. Ghobril, C. Zaiter, and E. Le Rouzic, “Rearrangement: From wavelength routed to sliced-spectrum optical networks,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2012, pp. 1–4.

Zang, H.

H. Zang, J. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 47–60, 2000.

Ann. Operat. Res. (1)

P. Coll, J. Marenco, I. M. Diaz, and P. Zabala, “Facets of the graph coloring polytope,” Ann. Operat. Res., vol.  116, no. 1, pp. 79–90, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Discrete Optim. (1)

P. Hansen, M. Labbé, and D. Schindl, “Set covering and packing formulations of graph coloring: Algorithms and first polyhedral results,” Discrete Optim., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 135–147, 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, and P. Iovanna, “Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 66–72, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. M. Fabrega, M. S. Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Design and experimental validation of a GMPLS/PCE control plane for elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 49–61, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Limits of spectral efficiency and transmission reach of optical-OFDM superchannels for adaptive networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 20, pp. 1526–1528, 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Comb. Theory, Ser. B (1)

M. Grötschel, L. Lovász, and A. Schrijver, “Relaxations of vertex packing,” J. Comb. Theory, Ser. B, vol.  40, no. 3, pp. 330–343, 1986.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (3)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

E. Lach and W. Idler, “Modulation formats for 100G and beyond,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  17, no. 5, pp. 377–386, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Networks Mag. (1)

H. Zang, J. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 47–60, 2000.

Opt. Switching Networking (1)

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Photonic Network Commun. (1)

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Modeling the routing and spectrum allocation problem for flexgrid optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  24, no. 3, pp. 177–186, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

“Draft revised g.694.1 version 1.3,” Unpublished ITU-T Study Group 15, Question 6.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. of ECOC, Sept. 2011, pp. 1–3.

I. Bomze, M. Budinich, P. Pardalos, and M. Pelillo, “The maximum clique problem,” in Handbook of Combinatorial Optimization, vol. 4. Kluwer Academic, 1999, pp. 1–74.

P. Ghobril, C. Zaiter, and E. Le Rouzic, “Rearrangement: From wavelength routed to sliced-spectrum optical networks,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2012, pp. 1–4.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “Cost-optimized dimensioning of translucent WDM networks with mixed-line-rate spectrum-flexible channels,” in 13th IEEE Int. Conf. on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2012, pp. 185–190.

M. Grotschel, L. Lovász, and A. Schrijver, Geometric Algorithms and Combinatorial Optimizations. Springer-Verlag, 1993.

F. Cugini, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, L. Poti, A. D’Errico, and G. Bottari, “Reliable flexible-ROADM architecture enabling modulation format adaptation,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, pp. 1–3.

“AMPL: A modeling language for mathematical programming,” Dec. 2012 [Online]. Available: http://www.ampl.com/ .

“IBM ILOG CPLEX: High-performance mathematical programming engine,” Dec. 2012 [Online]. Available: http://www.ibm.com/ .

B. T. Teipen, H. Griesser, and M. H. Eiselt, “Flexible bandwidth and bit-rate programmability in future optical networks,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2012, pp. 1–4.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Mapping the SA problem to the coloring problem for D = { ( 1 , 2 ) , ( 1 , 3 ) , ( 3 , 6 ) , ( 4 , 7 ) , ( 5 , 6 ) } requiring 4, 5, 2, 3, and 3 slices, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Expanded path conflict graph G e ( V e , E e ) for the example in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectrum utilization versus link length ( d ) for SLR design when the demand matrix is uniform and complete.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spectrum utilization versus load for randomly generated traffic demands and for different link lengths ( d ) with SLR designs.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectrum utilization versus load for randomly generated traffic demands at 200 Gb / s and d = 90 km .

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Network cost versus γ for α = 1.1 and α = 1.4 in a MMF/SLR SSON ring for randomly generated traffic demands at 200 Gb / s .

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Average number of cards/slots versus γ in a MMF/SLR SSON ring for randomly generated traffic demands at 200 Gb / s .

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Network cost versus γ , for α = 1.4 in MMF/SLR and MMF/MLR rings for randomly generated traffic demands.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Parameters for the Different Modulation-Rate Pairs, Considering 100 and 200 Gb / s With Overhead

Tables Icon

TABLE II Optimal Modulation-Rate Pair, for Lightpath Demands as in Fig. 1(a) and Link Lengths of d = 120 km

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

min : j χ C S · y j + j χ v V m M C C m · x v j m · K m S m ,
m M : L v H m B m · z v m = T v v V ,
S m · z v m = j χ x v j m v V , m M ,
m M x v j m + x v j m y j ( v , v ) E , j χ .