Abstract

Wider deployment of fiber in the last mile is driven by increased customer needs for broadband communication services. This deployment requires solutions that reduce operational expenditures for the operator. A cost-efficient fully reliable and accurate monitoring solution supporting fault detection, identification, and localization in different fiber access architectures will be essential. In this article, we present a fast, automatic, and precise monitoring method applicable to both power-splitter- and wavelength-router-based passive optical networks through the combined techniques of optical time domain reflectometry and optical transceiver monitoring. The description of the architecture, components, and process flow is followed by tests on setups with live data transmission.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. “Description and assessment of the architecture options,” , Oct. 2012.
  2. P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51 no. 2, pp. S9–S15, Feb. 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. J. Urban, S. Dahlfort, and A. Lindström, “Cost-efficient remote PON monitoring based on OTDR measurement and OTM functionality,” in Proc. IEEE ICTON, 2011, paper Tu.C6.1.
  4. K. Yuksel, V. Moeyaert, M. Wuilpart, and P. Megret, “Optical layer monitoring in PONs: A review,” in Proc. ICTON, 2008, paper Tu.B1.1.
  5. G. Temporão, G. V. de Faria, J. P. von der Weid, and P. J. Urban, “Feasibility of centralized passive optical network monitoring using passive optical network-tuned optical time-domain reflectometry,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol.  32, pp. 117–1302013.
  6. P. J. Urban, “Drop-link monitoring in passive optical networks,” in Proc. ICTON, 2012, paper Mo.B3.3.
  7. J. Chen, P. J. Urban, and L. Wosinska, “Fast fault monitoring technique for reliable WDM PON: Achieving significant operational saving,” in Proc. OFC, 2013, paper JTh2A.
  8. J. P. von der Weid, R. Passy, G. Mussi, and N. Gisin, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  15, no. 7, pp 1131–1141, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Nakamura, T. Hara, M. Yoshida, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Optical frequency domain ranging by a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  36, no. 3, pp. 305–316, 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Ding, X. S. Yao, T. Liu, Y. Du, K. Liu, Q. Han, Z. Meng, J. Jiang, and H. Chen, “Long measurement range OFDR beyond laser coherence length,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 202–205, 2013.
  11. G. Temporao, G. V. de Faria, P. J. Urban, and J. P. von der Weid, “OTDR reach extension for monitoring of high-loss optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., submitted for publication.
  12. S. Kamei, M. Ishii, A. Kaneko, T. Shibata, and M. Itoh, “N × N cyclic frequency router with improved performance based on arrayed-waveguide grating,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol  27, no. 18, pp. 4097–4104, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, and G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 2002).
  14. P. J. Urban and S. Dahlfort, “OTM- and OTDR-based cost-efficient fiber fault identification and localization in PON,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper JWA064.
  15. L. Banchi, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Cavaliere, and E. Ciaramella, “Highly improved uplink transmission in bidirectional PONs by using a RZ direct-modulated RSOA,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper Mo1B4.
  16. L. Banchi, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Cavaliere, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhanced reflection tolerance in WDM-PON by chirped RZ modulation,” IEEE Electron. Lett., vol.  46, no. 14, pp. 1009–1011, 2010.
  17. M. Presi, R. Proietti, K. Prince, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “A novel line coding pair for fully passive LR WDM-PONs,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, paper Th1F1.

2013

P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51 no. 2, pp. S9–S15, Feb. 2013.
[CrossRef]

G. Temporão, G. V. de Faria, J. P. von der Weid, and P. J. Urban, “Feasibility of centralized passive optical network monitoring using passive optical network-tuned optical time-domain reflectometry,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol.  32, pp. 117–1302013.

Z. Ding, X. S. Yao, T. Liu, Y. Du, K. Liu, Q. Han, Z. Meng, J. Jiang, and H. Chen, “Long measurement range OFDR beyond laser coherence length,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 202–205, 2013.

2010

L. Banchi, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Cavaliere, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhanced reflection tolerance in WDM-PON by chirped RZ modulation,” IEEE Electron. Lett., vol.  46, no. 14, pp. 1009–1011, 2010.

2009

2000

K. Nakamura, T. Hara, M. Yoshida, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Optical frequency domain ranging by a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  36, no. 3, pp. 305–316, 2000.
[CrossRef]

1997

J. P. von der Weid, R. Passy, G. Mussi, and N. Gisin, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  15, no. 7, pp 1131–1141, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Banchi, L.

L. Banchi, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Cavaliere, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhanced reflection tolerance in WDM-PON by chirped RZ modulation,” IEEE Electron. Lett., vol.  46, no. 14, pp. 1009–1011, 2010.

L. Banchi, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Cavaliere, and E. Ciaramella, “Highly improved uplink transmission in bidirectional PONs by using a RZ direct-modulated RSOA,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper Mo1B4.

Cavaliere, F.

L. Banchi, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Cavaliere, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhanced reflection tolerance in WDM-PON by chirped RZ modulation,” IEEE Electron. Lett., vol.  46, no. 14, pp. 1009–1011, 2010.

L. Banchi, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Cavaliere, and E. Ciaramella, “Highly improved uplink transmission in bidirectional PONs by using a RZ direct-modulated RSOA,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper Mo1B4.

Chen, H.

Z. Ding, X. S. Yao, T. Liu, Y. Du, K. Liu, Q. Han, Z. Meng, J. Jiang, and H. Chen, “Long measurement range OFDR beyond laser coherence length,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 202–205, 2013.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, P. J. Urban, and L. Wosinska, “Fast fault monitoring technique for reliable WDM PON: Achieving significant operational saving,” in Proc. OFC, 2013, paper JTh2A.

Ciaramella, E.

L. Banchi, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Cavaliere, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhanced reflection tolerance in WDM-PON by chirped RZ modulation,” IEEE Electron. Lett., vol.  46, no. 14, pp. 1009–1011, 2010.

L. Banchi, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Cavaliere, and E. Ciaramella, “Highly improved uplink transmission in bidirectional PONs by using a RZ direct-modulated RSOA,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper Mo1B4.

M. Presi, R. Proietti, K. Prince, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “A novel line coding pair for fully passive LR WDM-PONs,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, paper Th1F1.

Contestabile, G.

M. Presi, R. Proietti, K. Prince, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “A novel line coding pair for fully passive LR WDM-PONs,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, paper Th1F1.

Corsini, R.

L. Banchi, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Cavaliere, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhanced reflection tolerance in WDM-PON by chirped RZ modulation,” IEEE Electron. Lett., vol.  46, no. 14, pp. 1009–1011, 2010.

L. Banchi, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Cavaliere, and E. Ciaramella, “Highly improved uplink transmission in bidirectional PONs by using a RZ direct-modulated RSOA,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper Mo1B4.

Dahlfort, S.

P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51 no. 2, pp. S9–S15, Feb. 2013.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Urban and S. Dahlfort, “OTM- and OTDR-based cost-efficient fiber fault identification and localization in PON,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper JWA064.

P. J. Urban, S. Dahlfort, and A. Lindström, “Cost-efficient remote PON monitoring based on OTDR measurement and OTM functionality,” in Proc. IEEE ICTON, 2011, paper Tu.C6.1.

de Faria, G. V.

G. Temporão, G. V. de Faria, J. P. von der Weid, and P. J. Urban, “Feasibility of centralized passive optical network monitoring using passive optical network-tuned optical time-domain reflectometry,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol.  32, pp. 117–1302013.

G. Temporao, G. V. de Faria, P. J. Urban, and J. P. von der Weid, “OTDR reach extension for monitoring of high-loss optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., submitted for publication.

Ding, Z.

Z. Ding, X. S. Yao, T. Liu, Y. Du, K. Liu, Q. Han, Z. Meng, J. Jiang, and H. Chen, “Long measurement range OFDR beyond laser coherence length,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 202–205, 2013.

Du, Y.

Z. Ding, X. S. Yao, T. Liu, Y. Du, K. Liu, Q. Han, Z. Meng, J. Jiang, and H. Chen, “Long measurement range OFDR beyond laser coherence length,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 202–205, 2013.

Gisin, N.

J. P. von der Weid, R. Passy, G. Mussi, and N. Gisin, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  15, no. 7, pp 1131–1141, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Han, Q.

Z. Ding, X. S. Yao, T. Liu, Y. Du, K. Liu, Q. Han, Z. Meng, J. Jiang, and H. Chen, “Long measurement range OFDR beyond laser coherence length,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 202–205, 2013.

Hara, T.

K. Nakamura, T. Hara, M. Yoshida, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Optical frequency domain ranging by a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  36, no. 3, pp. 305–316, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Ishii, M.

Ito, H.

K. Nakamura, T. Hara, M. Yoshida, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Optical frequency domain ranging by a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  36, no. 3, pp. 305–316, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

Jiang, J.

Z. Ding, X. S. Yao, T. Liu, Y. Du, K. Liu, Q. Han, Z. Meng, J. Jiang, and H. Chen, “Long measurement range OFDR beyond laser coherence length,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 202–205, 2013.

Kamei, S.

Kaneko, A.

Lindström, A.

P. J. Urban, S. Dahlfort, and A. Lindström, “Cost-efficient remote PON monitoring based on OTDR measurement and OTM functionality,” in Proc. IEEE ICTON, 2011, paper Tu.C6.1.

Liu, K.

Z. Ding, X. S. Yao, T. Liu, Y. Du, K. Liu, Q. Han, Z. Meng, J. Jiang, and H. Chen, “Long measurement range OFDR beyond laser coherence length,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 202–205, 2013.

Liu, T.

Z. Ding, X. S. Yao, T. Liu, Y. Du, K. Liu, Q. Han, Z. Meng, J. Jiang, and H. Chen, “Long measurement range OFDR beyond laser coherence length,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 202–205, 2013.

Medeiros, E.

P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51 no. 2, pp. S9–S15, Feb. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Megret, P.

K. Yuksel, V. Moeyaert, M. Wuilpart, and P. Megret, “Optical layer monitoring in PONs: A review,” in Proc. ICTON, 2008, paper Tu.B1.1.

Meng, Z.

Z. Ding, X. S. Yao, T. Liu, Y. Du, K. Liu, Q. Han, Z. Meng, J. Jiang, and H. Chen, “Long measurement range OFDR beyond laser coherence length,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 202–205, 2013.

Miyahara, T.

K. Nakamura, T. Hara, M. Yoshida, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Optical frequency domain ranging by a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  36, no. 3, pp. 305–316, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Moeyaert, V.

K. Yuksel, V. Moeyaert, M. Wuilpart, and P. Megret, “Optical layer monitoring in PONs: A review,” in Proc. ICTON, 2008, paper Tu.B1.1.

Mussi, G.

J. P. von der Weid, R. Passy, G. Mussi, and N. Gisin, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  15, no. 7, pp 1131–1141, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

K. Nakamura, T. Hara, M. Yoshida, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Optical frequency domain ranging by a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  36, no. 3, pp. 305–316, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Passy, R.

J. P. von der Weid, R. Passy, G. Mussi, and N. Gisin, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  15, no. 7, pp 1131–1141, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Presi, M.

L. Banchi, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Cavaliere, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhanced reflection tolerance in WDM-PON by chirped RZ modulation,” IEEE Electron. Lett., vol.  46, no. 14, pp. 1009–1011, 2010.

L. Banchi, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Cavaliere, and E. Ciaramella, “Highly improved uplink transmission in bidirectional PONs by using a RZ direct-modulated RSOA,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper Mo1B4.

M. Presi, R. Proietti, K. Prince, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “A novel line coding pair for fully passive LR WDM-PONs,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, paper Th1F1.

Prince, K.

M. Presi, R. Proietti, K. Prince, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “A novel line coding pair for fully passive LR WDM-PONs,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, paper Th1F1.

Proietti, R.

M. Presi, R. Proietti, K. Prince, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “A novel line coding pair for fully passive LR WDM-PONs,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, paper Th1F1.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, and G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 2002).

Sasaki, G.

R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, and G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 2002).

Shibata, T.

Sivarajan, K.

R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, and G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 2002).

Temporao, G.

G. Temporao, G. V. de Faria, P. J. Urban, and J. P. von der Weid, “OTDR reach extension for monitoring of high-loss optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., submitted for publication.

Temporão, G.

G. Temporão, G. V. de Faria, J. P. von der Weid, and P. J. Urban, “Feasibility of centralized passive optical network monitoring using passive optical network-tuned optical time-domain reflectometry,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol.  32, pp. 117–1302013.

Urban, P. J.

G. Temporão, G. V. de Faria, J. P. von der Weid, and P. J. Urban, “Feasibility of centralized passive optical network monitoring using passive optical network-tuned optical time-domain reflectometry,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol.  32, pp. 117–1302013.

P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51 no. 2, pp. S9–S15, Feb. 2013.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Urban, “Drop-link monitoring in passive optical networks,” in Proc. ICTON, 2012, paper Mo.B3.3.

P. J. Urban, S. Dahlfort, and A. Lindström, “Cost-efficient remote PON monitoring based on OTDR measurement and OTM functionality,” in Proc. IEEE ICTON, 2011, paper Tu.C6.1.

P. J. Urban and S. Dahlfort, “OTM- and OTDR-based cost-efficient fiber fault identification and localization in PON,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper JWA064.

G. Temporao, G. V. de Faria, P. J. Urban, and J. P. von der Weid, “OTDR reach extension for monitoring of high-loss optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., submitted for publication.

J. Chen, P. J. Urban, and L. Wosinska, “Fast fault monitoring technique for reliable WDM PON: Achieving significant operational saving,” in Proc. OFC, 2013, paper JTh2A.

Vall-llosera, G.

P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51 no. 2, pp. S9–S15, Feb. 2013.
[CrossRef]

von der Weid, J. P.

G. Temporão, G. V. de Faria, J. P. von der Weid, and P. J. Urban, “Feasibility of centralized passive optical network monitoring using passive optical network-tuned optical time-domain reflectometry,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol.  32, pp. 117–1302013.

J. P. von der Weid, R. Passy, G. Mussi, and N. Gisin, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  15, no. 7, pp 1131–1141, 1997.
[CrossRef]

G. Temporao, G. V. de Faria, P. J. Urban, and J. P. von der Weid, “OTDR reach extension for monitoring of high-loss optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., submitted for publication.

Wosinska, L.

J. Chen, P. J. Urban, and L. Wosinska, “Fast fault monitoring technique for reliable WDM PON: Achieving significant operational saving,” in Proc. OFC, 2013, paper JTh2A.

Wuilpart, M.

K. Yuksel, V. Moeyaert, M. Wuilpart, and P. Megret, “Optical layer monitoring in PONs: A review,” in Proc. ICTON, 2008, paper Tu.B1.1.

Yao, X. S.

Z. Ding, X. S. Yao, T. Liu, Y. Du, K. Liu, Q. Han, Z. Meng, J. Jiang, and H. Chen, “Long measurement range OFDR beyond laser coherence length,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 202–205, 2013.

Yoshida, M.

K. Nakamura, T. Hara, M. Yoshida, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Optical frequency domain ranging by a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  36, no. 3, pp. 305–316, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Yuksel, K.

K. Yuksel, V. Moeyaert, M. Wuilpart, and P. Megret, “Optical layer monitoring in PONs: A review,” in Proc. ICTON, 2008, paper Tu.B1.1.

Fiber Integr. Opt.

G. Temporão, G. V. de Faria, J. P. von der Weid, and P. J. Urban, “Feasibility of centralized passive optical network monitoring using passive optical network-tuned optical time-domain reflectometry,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol.  32, pp. 117–1302013.

IEEE Commun. Mag.

P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51 no. 2, pp. S9–S15, Feb. 2013.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron. Lett.

L. Banchi, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Cavaliere, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhanced reflection tolerance in WDM-PON by chirped RZ modulation,” IEEE Electron. Lett., vol.  46, no. 14, pp. 1009–1011, 2010.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

K. Nakamura, T. Hara, M. Yoshida, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Optical frequency domain ranging by a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  36, no. 3, pp. 305–316, 2000.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Z. Ding, X. S. Yao, T. Liu, Y. Du, K. Liu, Q. Han, Z. Meng, J. Jiang, and H. Chen, “Long measurement range OFDR beyond laser coherence length,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 202–205, 2013.

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. P. von der Weid, R. Passy, G. Mussi, and N. Gisin, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  15, no. 7, pp 1131–1141, 1997.
[CrossRef]

S. Kamei, M. Ishii, A. Kaneko, T. Shibata, and M. Itoh, “N × N cyclic frequency router with improved performance based on arrayed-waveguide grating,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol  27, no. 18, pp. 4097–4104, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Other

“Description and assessment of the architecture options,” , Oct. 2012.

M. Presi, R. Proietti, K. Prince, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “A novel line coding pair for fully passive LR WDM-PONs,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, paper Th1F1.

G. Temporao, G. V. de Faria, P. J. Urban, and J. P. von der Weid, “OTDR reach extension for monitoring of high-loss optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., submitted for publication.

R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, and G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 2002).

P. J. Urban and S. Dahlfort, “OTM- and OTDR-based cost-efficient fiber fault identification and localization in PON,” in Proc. OFC, 2011, paper JWA064.

L. Banchi, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Cavaliere, and E. Ciaramella, “Highly improved uplink transmission in bidirectional PONs by using a RZ direct-modulated RSOA,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper Mo1B4.

P. J. Urban, S. Dahlfort, and A. Lindström, “Cost-efficient remote PON monitoring based on OTDR measurement and OTM functionality,” in Proc. IEEE ICTON, 2011, paper Tu.C6.1.

K. Yuksel, V. Moeyaert, M. Wuilpart, and P. Megret, “Optical layer monitoring in PONs: A review,” in Proc. ICTON, 2008, paper Tu.B1.1.

P. J. Urban, “Drop-link monitoring in passive optical networks,” in Proc. ICTON, 2012, paper Mo.B3.3.

J. Chen, P. J. Urban, and L. Wosinska, “Fast fault monitoring technique for reliable WDM PON: Achieving significant operational saving,” in Proc. OFC, 2013, paper JTh2A.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Potential cost savings achieved by in-field and remote fiber testing solutions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Summarized process flows: generic process flow (left) and FPM process flow (right).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Network architecture with FPM hardware (top) and EWAM scheme (bottom).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

ER degradation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Example OTDR traces with EWAM and a single fiber span.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Remote node for PS (top) and WR (bottom) PON.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Wavelength panel for WR PON.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Multiple input multiple output arrayed waveguide grating.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Cross-talk-to-signal tolerance mask for GPON (top), XGPON (middle), and WDM-PON (bottom).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Splitter model.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Drop section model with marked events (top), corresponding schematic reflectogram (middle), and matrix with hypothetical attenuation factors of events.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

FPM setup for testing in GPON.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

FPM screenshots of a healthy (left) and faulty (middle and right) ODN.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

WDM-PON setup used for testing throughput, OTDR, and BER (top left); reflectograms (top right) for healthy (blue) and faulty (red and black) drop lines; and BER curves for a 1N AWG (bottom left) and a NN AWG (bottom right).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Supported Fiber Fault Scenarios

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

CS=(1CremoteCin-field)·100%,
Cin-field=K·Cm·Tin-field·Q+Chandheld-hTd,
Cremote=Cremote-hTd
Lsplitter=102·log(PinN·PinN2)=5·log(N).
Lsplitter=5·log(N2NM),
Lsplitter=5·log(N2)=10·log(N),
αn,1·αn,2··αn,J=j=1Jαn,j,
α1,j+α2,j++αN,j=n=1Nαn,j,
Ltotal=5·log(N2n=1Nj=1Jαn,jM).
ΔL=5·log|n=1Nj=1Jαnewn,jMnewn=1Nj=1Jαrefn,jMref|,