Abstract

We consider the power-efficient design of an Internet protocol (IP)-over-wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) network, tackling the problem of installing optical and IP layer equipment to satisfy traffic requirements. We take into account routing constraints and consider a comprehensive set of realistic scenarios defined by network topology, traffic matrix, and power consumption values of network devices in both layers. Furthermore, besides defining and solving an optimal integer linear programming model, we propose an efficient heuristic to solve the problem up to medium-sized networks. The proposed heuristic requires at most 30% of additional power with respect to the optimal solution, but with a significantly reduced complexity. We show that the largest power consumption is due to line cards and routers rather than WDM equipment. Furthermore, we find that multipath routing reduces the network power consumption with respect to single-path routing, but not significantly. Finally, we show that a two-step design procedure, in which power is separately minimized in each layer (i.e., IP and WDM layers), can find results with a total power consumption comparable to the one achieved by a more complex joint multilayer design procedure.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (6)

A. P. Bianzino, C. Chaudet, D. Rossi, and J. Rougier, “A survey of green networking research,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 3–20, 2012.
[CrossRef]

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. Elmirghani, “On the energy efficiency of physical topology design for IP over WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 12, pp. 1931–1942, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

G. Rizzelli, A. Morea, M. Tornatore, and O. Rival, “Energy efficient traffic-aware design of on–off multi-layer translucent optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 2443–2455, July 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, T. Squarcia, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Energy-minimised virtual topology design in IP over WDM backbone networks,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  6, no. 4, pp. 165–172, Aug. 2012.
[CrossRef]

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

A. Tzanakaki, K. Katrinis, T. Politi, A. Stavdas, M. Pickavet, P. Van Daele, D. Simeonidou, M. J. O’Mahony, S. Aleksić, L. Wosinska, and P. Monti, “Dimensioning the future pan-European optical network with energy efficiency considerations,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 4, pp. 272–280, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “IP over WDM networks employing renewable energy sources,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 1, pp. 3–14, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, and F. Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: A survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011.
[CrossRef]

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Dynamic routing at different layers in IP-over-WDM networks—maximizing energy savings,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 181–200, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

1996 (1)

R. Ramaswami and K. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE. J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  14, no. 5, pp. 840–851, 1996.
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, A.

A. Bianco, E. Bonetto, and A. Ahmad, “Energy awareness in the design of optical core networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013.

Ahuja, R.

R. Ahuja, T. Magnanti, and J. Orlin, Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications. Prentice-Hall, 1993.

Aleksic, S.

Audenaert, P.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Bauschert, T.

E. Palkopoulou, D. A. Schupke, and T. Bauschert, “Energy efficiency and CAPEX minimization for backbone network planning: Is there a tradeoff?” in Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, New Delhi, India, Dec. 2009.

Betker, A.

A. Betker, D. Kosiankowski, C. Lange, F. Pfeuffer, C. Raack, and A. Werner, “Energy efficiency in extensive multilayer core and regional networks with protection,” Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin, , 2012.

Bianco, A.

A. Bianco, E. Bonetto, and A. Ahmad, “Energy awareness in the design of optical core networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013.

Bianzino, A. P.

A. P. Bianzino, C. Chaudet, D. Rossi, and J. Rougier, “A survey of green networking research,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 3–20, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Bolla, R.

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, and F. Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: A survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Bonetto, E.

A. Bianco, E. Bonetto, and A. Ahmad, “Energy awareness in the design of optical core networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013.

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, Ł. Budzisz, L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, R. Duque, W. Van Heddeghem, F. Jiménez, J. López Vizcaíno, F. Matera, I. Monroy, F. Musumeci, A. Pattavina, E. Le Rouzic, A. Valenti, and Y. Ye, “Final report for the IRA energy-efficient use of network core resources,” TREND Project, , June 2012.

Bruschi, R.

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, and F. Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: A survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Budzisz, L.

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, Ł. Budzisz, L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, R. Duque, W. Van Heddeghem, F. Jiménez, J. López Vizcaíno, F. Matera, I. Monroy, F. Musumeci, A. Pattavina, E. Le Rouzic, A. Valenti, and Y. Ye, “Final report for the IRA energy-efficient use of network core resources,” TREND Project, , June 2012.

Chaudet, C.

A. P. Bianzino, C. Chaudet, D. Rossi, and J. Rougier, “A survey of green networking research,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 3–20, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Chiaraviglio, L.

F. Idzikowski, L. Chiaraviglio, and F. Portoso, “Optimal design of green multi-layer core networks,” in Proc. of the 3rd Int. Conf. on Future Energy Systems (e-Energy), Madrid, Spain, May 2012.

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, Ł. Budzisz, L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, R. Duque, W. Van Heddeghem, F. Jiménez, J. López Vizcaíno, F. Matera, I. Monroy, F. Musumeci, A. Pattavina, E. Le Rouzic, A. Valenti, and Y. Ye, “Final report for the IRA energy-efficient use of network core resources,” TREND Project, , June 2012.

Chowdhury, P.

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Cianfrani, A.

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, Ł. Budzisz, L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, R. Duque, W. Van Heddeghem, F. Jiménez, J. López Vizcaíno, F. Matera, I. Monroy, F. Musumeci, A. Pattavina, E. Le Rouzic, A. Valenti, and Y. Ye, “Final report for the IRA energy-efficient use of network core resources,” TREND Project, , June 2012.

Coiro, A.

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, T. Squarcia, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Energy-minimised virtual topology design in IP over WDM backbone networks,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  6, no. 4, pp. 165–172, Aug. 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, Ł. Budzisz, L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, R. Duque, W. Van Heddeghem, F. Jiménez, J. López Vizcaíno, F. Matera, I. Monroy, F. Musumeci, A. Pattavina, E. Le Rouzic, A. Valenti, and Y. Ye, “Final report for the IRA energy-efficient use of network core resources,” TREND Project, , June 2012.

Colle, D.

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

W. Van Heddeghem, M. De Grotte, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Cucchietti, F.

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, and F. Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: A survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Davoli, F.

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, and F. Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: A survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011.
[CrossRef]

De Grotte, M.

W. Van Heddeghem, M. De Grotte, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.

Demeester, P.

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

W. Van Heddeghem, M. De Grotte, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Demeyer, S.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Develder, C.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Dhoedt, B.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Dong, X.

Duque, R.

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, Ł. Budzisz, L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, R. Duque, W. Van Heddeghem, F. Jiménez, J. López Vizcaíno, F. Matera, I. Monroy, F. Musumeci, A. Pattavina, E. Le Rouzic, A. Valenti, and Y. Ye, “Final report for the IRA energy-efficient use of network core resources,” TREND Project, , June 2012.

El-Gorashi, T.

Elmirghani, J.

Elmirghani, J. M. H.

Gerlach, C.

C. Lange, D. Kosiankowski, C. Gerlach, F.-J. Westphal, and A. Gladisch, “Energy consumption of telecommunication networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009.

Gladisch, A.

C. Lange, D. Kosiankowski, C. Gerlach, F.-J. Westphal, and A. Gladisch, “Energy consumption of telecommunication networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009.

Idzikowski, F.

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Dynamic routing at different layers in IP-over-WDM networks—maximizing energy savings,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 181–200, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

F. Idzikowski, “Power consumption of network elements in IP over WDM networks,” Technical University of Berlin, Telecommunication Networks Group, , July 2009.

F. Idzikowski, L. Chiaraviglio, and F. Portoso, “Optimal design of green multi-layer core networks,” in Proc. of the 3rd Int. Conf. on Future Energy Systems (e-Energy), Madrid, Spain, May 2012.

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, Ł. Budzisz, L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, R. Duque, W. Van Heddeghem, F. Jiménez, J. López Vizcaíno, F. Matera, I. Monroy, F. Musumeci, A. Pattavina, E. Le Rouzic, A. Valenti, and Y. Ye, “Final report for the IRA energy-efficient use of network core resources,” TREND Project, , June 2012.

Ip, E.

Jiménez, F.

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, Ł. Budzisz, L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, R. Duque, W. Van Heddeghem, F. Jiménez, J. López Vizcaíno, F. Matera, I. Monroy, F. Musumeci, A. Pattavina, E. Le Rouzic, A. Valenti, and Y. Ye, “Final report for the IRA energy-efficient use of network core resources,” TREND Project, , June 2012.

Jinno, M.

W. Shen, Y. Tsukishima, K. Yamada, and M. Jinno, “Power-efficient multi-layer traffic networking: Design and evaluation,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.

Katrinis, K.

Kosiankowski, D.

A. Betker, D. Kosiankowski, C. Lange, F. Pfeuffer, C. Raack, and A. Werner, “Energy efficiency in extensive multilayer core and regional networks with protection,” Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin, , 2012.

C. Lange, D. Kosiankowski, C. Gerlach, F.-J. Westphal, and A. Gladisch, “Energy consumption of telecommunication networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009.

Lange, C.

C. Lange, D. Kosiankowski, C. Gerlach, F.-J. Westphal, and A. Gladisch, “Energy consumption of telecommunication networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009.

A. Betker, D. Kosiankowski, C. Lange, F. Pfeuffer, C. Raack, and A. Werner, “Energy efficiency in extensive multilayer core and regional networks with protection,” Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin, , 2012.

Le Briand, J.

O. Renais and J. Le Briand, “Tracks for transport network architecture optimization,” in Int. Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning Symp. (NETWORKS), Rome, Italy, Oct. 2012.

Le Rouzic, E.

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, Ł. Budzisz, L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, R. Duque, W. Van Heddeghem, F. Jiménez, J. López Vizcaíno, F. Matera, I. Monroy, F. Musumeci, A. Pattavina, E. Le Rouzic, A. Valenti, and Y. Ye, “Final report for the IRA energy-efficient use of network core resources,” TREND Project, , June 2012.

Li, Q.

L. Wang, R. Lu, Q. Li, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Energy efficient design for multi-shelf IP over WDM networks,” in INFOCOM Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Shanghai, China, Apr. 2011.

Listanti, M.

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, T. Squarcia, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Energy-minimised virtual topology design in IP over WDM backbone networks,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  6, no. 4, pp. 165–172, Aug. 2012.
[CrossRef]

López Vizcaíno, J.

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, Ł. Budzisz, L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, R. Duque, W. Van Heddeghem, F. Jiménez, J. López Vizcaíno, F. Matera, I. Monroy, F. Musumeci, A. Pattavina, E. Le Rouzic, A. Valenti, and Y. Ye, “Final report for the IRA energy-efficient use of network core resources,” TREND Project, , June 2012.

Lu, R.

L. Wang, R. Lu, Q. Li, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Energy efficient design for multi-shelf IP over WDM networks,” in INFOCOM Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Shanghai, China, Apr. 2011.

Magnanti, T.

R. Ahuja, T. Magnanti, and J. Orlin, Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications. Prentice-Hall, 1993.

Matera, F.

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, T. Squarcia, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Energy-minimised virtual topology design in IP over WDM backbone networks,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  6, no. 4, pp. 165–172, Aug. 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, Ł. Budzisz, L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, R. Duque, W. Van Heddeghem, F. Jiménez, J. López Vizcaíno, F. Matera, I. Monroy, F. Musumeci, A. Pattavina, E. Le Rouzic, A. Valenti, and Y. Ye, “Final report for the IRA energy-efficient use of network core resources,” TREND Project, , June 2012.

Monroy, I.

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, Ł. Budzisz, L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, R. Duque, W. Van Heddeghem, F. Jiménez, J. López Vizcaíno, F. Matera, I. Monroy, F. Musumeci, A. Pattavina, E. Le Rouzic, A. Valenti, and Y. Ye, “Final report for the IRA energy-efficient use of network core resources,” TREND Project, , June 2012.

Monti, P.

Morea, A.

G. Rizzelli, A. Morea, M. Tornatore, and O. Rival, “Energy efficient traffic-aware design of on–off multi-layer translucent optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 2443–2455, July 2012.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Musumeci, F.

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, Ł. Budzisz, L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, R. Duque, W. Van Heddeghem, F. Jiménez, J. López Vizcaíno, F. Matera, I. Monroy, F. Musumeci, A. Pattavina, E. Le Rouzic, A. Valenti, and Y. Ye, “Final report for the IRA energy-efficient use of network core resources,” TREND Project, , June 2012.

Nag, A.

O’Mahony, M. J.

Orlin, J.

R. Ahuja, T. Magnanti, and J. Orlin, Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications. Prentice-Hall, 1993.

Orlowski, S.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Dynamic routing at different layers in IP-over-WDM networks—maximizing energy savings,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 181–200, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Orlowski, “Optimal design of survivable multi-layer telecommunication networks,” Ph.D. dissertation, Technische Universität Berlin, May 2009.

Palkopoulou, E.

E. Palkopoulou, D. A. Schupke, and T. Bauschert, “Energy efficiency and CAPEX minimization for backbone network planning: Is there a tradeoff?” in Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, New Delhi, India, Dec. 2009.

Pattavina, A.

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, Ł. Budzisz, L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, R. Duque, W. Van Heddeghem, F. Jiménez, J. López Vizcaíno, F. Matera, I. Monroy, F. Musumeci, A. Pattavina, E. Le Rouzic, A. Valenti, and Y. Ye, “Final report for the IRA energy-efficient use of network core resources,” TREND Project, , June 2012.

Pfeuffer, F.

A. Betker, D. Kosiankowski, C. Lange, F. Pfeuffer, C. Raack, and A. Werner, “Energy efficiency in extensive multilayer core and regional networks with protection,” Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin, , 2012.

Pickavet, M.

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Tzanakaki, K. Katrinis, T. Politi, A. Stavdas, M. Pickavet, P. Van Daele, D. Simeonidou, M. J. O’Mahony, S. Aleksić, L. Wosinska, and P. Monti, “Dimensioning the future pan-European optical network with energy efficiency considerations,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 4, pp. 272–280, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

W. Van Heddeghem, M. De Grotte, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Politi, T.

Portoso, F.

F. Idzikowski, L. Chiaraviglio, and F. Portoso, “Optimal design of green multi-layer core networks,” in Proc. of the 3rd Int. Conf. on Future Energy Systems (e-Energy), Madrid, Spain, May 2012.

Raack, C.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Dynamic routing at different layers in IP-over-WDM networks—maximizing energy savings,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 181–200, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

A. Betker, D. Kosiankowski, C. Lange, F. Pfeuffer, C. Raack, and A. Werner, “Energy efficiency in extensive multilayer core and regional networks with protection,” Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin, , 2012.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami and K. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE. J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  14, no. 5, pp. 840–851, 1996.
[CrossRef]

Renais, O.

O. Renais and J. Le Briand, “Tracks for transport network architecture optimization,” in Int. Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning Symp. (NETWORKS), Rome, Italy, Oct. 2012.

Rival, O.

G. Rizzelli, A. Morea, M. Tornatore, and O. Rival, “Energy efficient traffic-aware design of on–off multi-layer translucent optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 2443–2455, July 2012.
[CrossRef]

Rizzelli, G.

G. Rizzelli, A. Morea, M. Tornatore, and O. Rival, “Energy efficient traffic-aware design of on–off multi-layer translucent optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 2443–2455, July 2012.
[CrossRef]

Rossi, D.

A. P. Bianzino, C. Chaudet, D. Rossi, and J. Rougier, “A survey of green networking research,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 3–20, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Rougier, J.

A. P. Bianzino, C. Chaudet, D. Rossi, and J. Rougier, “A survey of green networking research,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 3–20, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Schupke, D. A.

E. Palkopoulou, D. A. Schupke, and T. Bauschert, “Energy efficiency and CAPEX minimization for backbone network planning: Is there a tradeoff?” in Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, New Delhi, India, Dec. 2009.

Shen, G.

Shen, W.

W. Shen, Y. Tsukishima, K. Yamada, and M. Jinno, “Power-efficient multi-layer traffic networking: Design and evaluation,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.

Simeonidou, D.

Sivarajan, K.

R. Ramaswami and K. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE. J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  14, no. 5, pp. 840–851, 1996.
[CrossRef]

Squarcia, T.

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, T. Squarcia, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Energy-minimised virtual topology design in IP over WDM backbone networks,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  6, no. 4, pp. 165–172, Aug. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Stavdas, A.

Tornatore, M.

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

G. Rizzelli, A. Morea, M. Tornatore, and O. Rival, “Energy efficient traffic-aware design of on–off multi-layer translucent optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 2443–2455, July 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Tsukishima, Y.

W. Shen, Y. Tsukishima, K. Yamada, and M. Jinno, “Power-efficient multi-layer traffic networking: Design and evaluation,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.

Tucker, R. S.

Tzanakaki, A.

Valenti, A.

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, T. Squarcia, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Energy-minimised virtual topology design in IP over WDM backbone networks,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  6, no. 4, pp. 165–172, Aug. 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, Ł. Budzisz, L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, R. Duque, W. Van Heddeghem, F. Jiménez, J. López Vizcaíno, F. Matera, I. Monroy, F. Musumeci, A. Pattavina, E. Le Rouzic, A. Valenti, and Y. Ye, “Final report for the IRA energy-efficient use of network core resources,” TREND Project, , June 2012.

Van Daele, P.

Van Heddeghem, W.

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

W. Van Heddeghem, M. De Grotte, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, Ł. Budzisz, L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, R. Duque, W. Van Heddeghem, F. Jiménez, J. López Vizcaíno, F. Matera, I. Monroy, F. Musumeci, A. Pattavina, E. Le Rouzic, A. Valenti, and Y. Ye, “Final report for the IRA energy-efficient use of network core resources,” TREND Project, , June 2012.

Vereecken, W.

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

W. Van Heddeghem, M. De Grotte, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Vermeulen, B.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, R. Lu, Q. Li, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Energy efficient design for multi-shelf IP over WDM networks,” in INFOCOM Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Shanghai, China, Apr. 2011.

Wang, T.

Werner, A.

A. Betker, D. Kosiankowski, C. Lange, F. Pfeuffer, C. Raack, and A. Werner, “Energy efficiency in extensive multilayer core and regional networks with protection,” Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin, , 2012.

Westphal, F.-J.

C. Lange, D. Kosiankowski, C. Gerlach, F.-J. Westphal, and A. Gladisch, “Energy consumption of telecommunication networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009.

Woesner, H.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Dynamic routing at different layers in IP-over-WDM networks—maximizing energy savings,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 181–200, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

Wolisz, A.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Dynamic routing at different layers in IP-over-WDM networks—maximizing energy savings,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 181–200, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

Wosinska, L.

Yamada, K.

W. Shen, Y. Tsukishima, K. Yamada, and M. Jinno, “Power-efficient multi-layer traffic networking: Design and evaluation,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.

Ye, Y.

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, Ł. Budzisz, L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, R. Duque, W. Van Heddeghem, F. Jiménez, J. López Vizcaíno, F. Matera, I. Monroy, F. Musumeci, A. Pattavina, E. Le Rouzic, A. Valenti, and Y. Ye, “Final report for the IRA energy-efficient use of network core resources,” TREND Project, , June 2012.

Zhang, H.

L. Wang, R. Lu, Q. Li, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Energy efficient design for multi-shelf IP over WDM networks,” in INFOCOM Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Shanghai, China, Apr. 2011.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

L. Wang, R. Lu, Q. Li, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Energy efficient design for multi-shelf IP over WDM networks,” in INFOCOM Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Shanghai, China, Apr. 2011.

Comput. Netw. (1)

G. Rizzelli, A. Morea, M. Tornatore, and O. Rival, “Energy efficient traffic-aware design of on–off multi-layer translucent optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 2443–2455, July 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (3)

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bianzino, C. Chaudet, D. Rossi, and J. Rougier, “A survey of green networking research,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 3–20, 2012.
[CrossRef]

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, and F. Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: A survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE. J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

R. Ramaswami and K. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE. J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  14, no. 5, pp. 840–851, 1996.
[CrossRef]

IET Optoelectron. (1)

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, T. Squarcia, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Energy-minimised virtual topology design in IP over WDM backbone networks,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  6, no. 4, pp. 165–172, Aug. 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

Opt. Switching Networking (1)

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Dynamic routing at different layers in IP-over-WDM networks—maximizing energy savings,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 181–200, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

Photon. Netw. Commun. (1)

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Other (18)

IBM–ILOG, “CPLEX,” 2009, http://www.ilog.com/products/cplex/ .

DAUIN—Politecnico di Torino, “HPC project,” 2011, http://www.dauin-hpc.polito.it .

S. Orlowski, “Optimal design of survivable multi-layer telecommunication networks,” Ph.D. dissertation, Technische Universität Berlin, May 2009.

sndlib, “Library of test instances for survivable fixed telecommunication network design,” 2011, http://sndlib.zib.de/home.action .

Towards Real Energy-efficient Network Design (TREND), 2010, http://www.fp7-trend.eu .

O. Renais and J. Le Briand, “Tracks for transport network architecture optimization,” in Int. Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning Symp. (NETWORKS), Rome, Italy, Oct. 2012.

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, Ł. Budzisz, L. Chiaraviglio, A. Cianfrani, A. Coiro, R. Duque, W. Van Heddeghem, F. Jiménez, J. López Vizcaíno, F. Matera, I. Monroy, F. Musumeci, A. Pattavina, E. Le Rouzic, A. Valenti, and Y. Ye, “Final report for the IRA energy-efficient use of network core resources,” TREND Project, , June 2012.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

A. Betker, D. Kosiankowski, C. Lange, F. Pfeuffer, C. Raack, and A. Werner, “Energy efficiency in extensive multilayer core and regional networks with protection,” Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin, , 2012.

L. Wang, R. Lu, Q. Li, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Energy efficient design for multi-shelf IP over WDM networks,” in INFOCOM Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Shanghai, China, Apr. 2011.

W. Van Heddeghem, M. De Grotte, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.

W. Shen, Y. Tsukishima, K. Yamada, and M. Jinno, “Power-efficient multi-layer traffic networking: Design and evaluation,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.

R. Ahuja, T. Magnanti, and J. Orlin, Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications. Prentice-Hall, 1993.

F. Idzikowski, L. Chiaraviglio, and F. Portoso, “Optimal design of green multi-layer core networks,” in Proc. of the 3rd Int. Conf. on Future Energy Systems (e-Energy), Madrid, Spain, May 2012.

A. Bianco, E. Bonetto, and A. Ahmad, “Energy awareness in the design of optical core networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013.

C. Lange, D. Kosiankowski, C. Gerlach, F.-J. Westphal, and A. Gladisch, “Energy consumption of telecommunication networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009.

F. Idzikowski, “Power consumption of network elements in IP over WDM networks,” Technical University of Berlin, Telecommunication Networks Group, , July 2009.

E. Palkopoulou, D. A. Schupke, and T. Bauschert, “Energy efficiency and CAPEX minimization for backbone network planning: Is there a tradeoff?” in Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, New Delhi, India, Dec. 2009.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

IP-over-WDM multilayer core network architecture.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Physical supply topology of the Abilene network.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Physical supply topology of the Germany17 network.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Breakdown of power consumption for the Abilene network.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Physical and logical topologies of the Abilene network designed with the MILP, 300 Gpn, δ = 0.5 , β a = 622 W , and β t = 811 W .

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Physical and logical topologies of the Abilene network designed with the GAGD, 300 Gpn, δ = 0.5 , β a = 622 W , and β t = 811 W .

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Breakdown of power consumption for the Germany17 network.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Physical and logical topologies of the Germany17 network designed with the MILP, 300 Gpn, δ = 0.5 , β a = 622 W , and β t = 811 W .

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Physical and logical topologies of the Germany17 network designed with the GAGD, 300 Gpn, δ = 0.5 , β a = 622 W , and β t = 811 W .

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Breakdown of power consumption for the FT network designed with the GAGD.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Installed routers (ordered by ascending capacity and power consumption) for MILP and the GAGD in the Abilene and Germany17 networks.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Installed routers (ordered by ascending capacity and power consumption) for the GAGD in FT network.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Comparison of networks designed with the MILP constraints for the Abilene network (gap between SPR and MCF).

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Comparison of networks designed with the MILP for the Germany17 network (gap between SPR and MCF).

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Comparison of networks designed with the GAGD (gap between SPR and MCF) with β a = 110 W and β t = 240 W .

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Two-step versus the joint GAGD comparison.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Notation Used in the MILPs, GAGD, and Metrics

Tables Icon

Algorithm 1 Pseudo-code of the GAGD

Tables Icon

TABLE II Power Consumption Values of Optical Components and of Line Cards [7,29]

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

min i V , n N α n x i n + γ p P y p + e E β e z e ,
j V { i } ( f i j a b f j i a b ) = { 0 i a , i b 1 i = a 1 i = b , ( a , b ) V × V , i V ,
p P ( i , j ) δ C y p a V b V d a b ( f i j a b + f j i a b ) 0 , ( i , j ) V × V ,
n N R n x i n p P i C y p d i , i V ,
n N x i n 1 , i V ,
B z e p P e y p 0 , e E .
d i k = { j V d i j for i = k d k i otherwise .
i V d i k = 0
d i = k K | d i k | .
j V { i } ( f i j k f j i k ) = d i k , i V , k K ,
p P ( i , j ) δ C y p k K ( f i j k + f j i k ) 0 , ( i , j ) V × V ,
α n = P LCS · LCS n + P FCS · FCS n ,
β e = N a e · β a + 2 · β t ,
Δ L SPR MCF = L SPR L MCF L MCF · 100 .
Δ P SPR MCF = P SPR P MCF P MCF · 100 .
Δ P 2 S J = P 2 S P J P J · 100 .