Abstract

The dramatic growth of Internet traffic is leading to a concern about the future power consumption of the Internet. Energy sustainability of communication networks is becoming a very important goal for the reduction of the global carbon footprint. As optical access networks gain more popularity, their share in the energy consumption of the data network will increase. Developing energy-efficient technologies for optical access networks is therefore crucial for the continuous scaling of the Internet. In this paper, we model the power consumption of different transceivers and demonstrate how various electronic and photonic technologies can help improve energy efficiency. We discuss the impact of different light sources and driver circuits on the transceiver power efficiency. We also show how energy efficiency is related to network topology.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (12)

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in wired and wireless access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 70–77, June2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Hooghe and M. Guenach, “Toward green copper broadband access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 87–93, Aug.2011.
[CrossRef]

D. C. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 275–284, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

R. S. Tucker, “Green optical communications-part II: energy limitations in networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 261–274, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Aleksic, “Energy efficiency of electronic and optical network elements,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 296–308, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication in telecommunication networks: overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 62–69, June2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Skubic, “Evaluation of ONU power saving modes for gigabit-capable passive optical networks,” IEEE Network, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 20–24, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

R. S. Tucker, “Green optical communications-part I: energy limitations in transport,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 261–274, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

C. Knochenhauer, B. Sedighi, and F. Ellinger, “40 Gbit/s transimpedance amplifier with high linearity range in 0.13 µm SiGe BiCMOS,” Electron. Lett., vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 605–606, May2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Muller, W. Hofmann, T. Grundl, M. Horn, P. Wolf, R. D. Nagel, E. Ronneberg, G. Bohm, D. Bimberg, and M.-C. Amann, “1550-nm high-speed short-cavity VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1158–1166, Sept./Oct.2011.
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 357–376, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

C. L. Schow, F. E. Doany, A. V. Rylyakov, B. G. Lee, C. V. Jahnes, Y. H. Kwark, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, and J. A. Kash, “A 24-channel, 300 Gb/s, 8.2 pJ/bit, full-duplex fiber-coupled optical transceiver module based on a single holey CMOS IC,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 542–553, Feb.2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 184–191, Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

C. Knochenhauer, S. Hauptmann, C. J. Scheytt, and F. Ellinger, “A jitter optimized differential 40 Gbit/s transimpedance amplifier in SiGe BiCMOS,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 2538–2548, Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

E. Kapon and A. Sirbu, “Long wavelength VCSELs: power-efficient answer,” Nat. Photonics, vol. 3, pp. 27–29, Jan.2009.
[CrossRef]

A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, E. Rönneberg, and M. Martinell, “1.3-µm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gb/s for metro access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 221, no. 12, pp. 778–780, June2009.
[CrossRef]

D. A. A. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 97, no. 7, pp. 1166–1185, July2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. Zhang, X. Jian, X. Han, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides,” Opt. Express, vol. 17, no. 17, pp. 14627–14663, Aug.2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. Manipatruni, R. K. Dokania, B. Schmidt, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, A. B. Apsel, and M. Lipson, “Wide temperature range operation of micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulators,” Opt. Lett., vol. 33, no. 19, pp. 2185–2187, Oct.2008.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, “1.55-µm VCSEL arrays for high-bandwidth WDM-PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 291–293, Feb.2008.
[CrossRef]

C.-F. Liao and S.-L. Liu, “40 Gb/s transimpedance-AGC amplifier and CDR circuit for broadband data receivers in 90 nm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 642–655, Mar.2008.
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

1999 (1)

E. Sackinger, Y. Ota, T. J. Gabara, and W. C. Fischer, “15 mW, 155 Mb/s CMOS burst-mode laser driver with automatic power control and end-of-life detection,” IEEE. J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 386–387, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Aleksic, S.

S. Aleksic, “Energy efficiency of electronic and optical network elements,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 296–308, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

Alias, M. S.

S. M. Mitani, M. S. Alias, M. F. Maulud, M. R. Yahya, and A. F. A. Ma, “Design and fabrication of power-efficient VCSEL-based optical transceiver,” in Int. Conf. on Advanced Technologies for Communications, Hanoi, Vietnam, Oct. 2008, pp. 117–119.

Amann, M. C.

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, “1.55-µm VCSEL arrays for high-bandwidth WDM-PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 291–293, Feb.2008.
[CrossRef]

Amann, M.-C.

M. Muller, W. Hofmann, T. Grundl, M. Horn, P. Wolf, R. D. Nagel, E. Ronneberg, G. Bohm, D. Bimberg, and M.-C. Amann, “1550-nm high-speed short-cavity VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1158–1166, Sept./Oct.2011.
[CrossRef]

Apsel, A. B.

Asghari, M.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 357–376, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, G.

D. C. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 275–284, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

Ayre, R.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in wired and wireless access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 70–77, June2011.
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Baks, C. W.

Baliga, J.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in wired and wireless access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 70–77, June2011.
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, “Maximizing the thermo-optic tuning range of silicon photonic structures,” in Proc. of IEEE Photonics in Switching, Cambridge, UK, Aug. 2007, TuB3.3.

Bimberg, D.

M. Muller, W. Hofmann, T. Grundl, M. Horn, P. Wolf, R. D. Nagel, E. Ronneberg, G. Bohm, D. Bimberg, and M.-C. Amann, “1550-nm high-speed short-cavity VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1158–1166, Sept./Oct.2011.
[CrossRef]

Block, B. A.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 184–191, Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

Blume, O.

D. C. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 275–284, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

Boffi, P.

A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, E. Rönneberg, and M. Martinell, “1.3-µm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gb/s for metro access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 221, no. 12, pp. 778–780, June2009.
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

Bohm, G.

M. Muller, W. Hofmann, T. Grundl, M. Horn, P. Wolf, R. D. Nagel, E. Ronneberg, G. Bohm, D. Bimberg, and M.-C. Amann, “1550-nm high-speed short-cavity VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1158–1166, Sept./Oct.2011.
[CrossRef]

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, “1.55-µm VCSEL arrays for high-bandwidth WDM-PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 291–293, Feb.2008.
[CrossRef]

Boletti, A.

A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, E. Rönneberg, and M. Martinell, “1.3-µm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gb/s for metro access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 221, no. 12, pp. 778–780, June2009.
[CrossRef]

Busico, G.

S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Athermal colourless C-band optical transmitter for passive optical networks,” in Proc. of European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Italy, Sept. 2010.

Campelo, D.

S. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S. Yen, D. Campelo, S. Yamashita, and L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: advantages and drawbacks,” in IEEE Globcom Workshops 2009, Stanford, CA, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Chang, P. L. D.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 184–191, Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Chow, H.

B. Sedighi, K.-L. Lee, R. S. Tucker, H. Chow, and P. Vetter, “Energy efficiency in future 40-Gb/s fiber access networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, JTh2A.59.

Colle, D.

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication in telecommunication networks: overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 62–69, June2011.
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “High-efficiency 25 Gb/s CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” in IEEE Group IV Photonics 2011, London, UK, Sept. 2011, WA2.

Cunningham, J. E.

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W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication in telecommunication networks: overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 62–69, June2011.
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A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, E. Rönneberg, and M. Martinell, “1.3-µm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gb/s for metro access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 221, no. 12, pp. 778–780, June2009.
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 357–376, Mar./Apr.2011.
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M. Muller, W. Hofmann, T. Grundl, M. Horn, P. Wolf, R. D. Nagel, E. Ronneberg, G. Bohm, D. Bimberg, and M.-C. Amann, “1550-nm high-speed short-cavity VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1158–1166, Sept./Oct.2011.
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F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, “Maximizing the thermo-optic tuning range of silicon photonic structures,” in Proc. of IEEE Photonics in Switching, Cambridge, UK, Aug. 2007, TuB3.3.

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C. Knochenhauer, B. Sedighi, and F. Ellinger, “40 Gbit/s transimpedance amplifier with high linearity range in 0.13 µm SiGe BiCMOS,” Electron. Lett., vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 605–606, May2011.
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D. C. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 275–284, Mar./Apr.2011.
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 357–376, Mar./Apr.2011.
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Kusaba, R.

M. Urano, T. Kawamura, S. Ohteru, H. Suto, K. Kawai, R. Kusaba, N. Miura, J. Kato, A. Miyazaki, T. Hatano, S. Yasuda, N. Tanaka, S. Shigematsu, M. Nakanishi, and T. Shibata, “The 10G-EPON OLT and ONU LSIs for the coexistence of 10G-EPON and GE-PON toward the next FTTH era,” in Symp. on VLSI Circuits, Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, 13-1.

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Lexau, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 357–376, Mar./Apr.2011.
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 357–376, Mar./Apr.2011.
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G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “High-efficiency 25 Gb/s CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” in IEEE Group IV Photonics 2011, London, UK, Sept. 2011, WA2.

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C.-F. Liao and S.-L. Liu, “40 Gb/s transimpedance-AGC amplifier and CDR circuit for broadband data receivers in 90 nm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 642–655, Mar.2008.
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I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, Jan.2010.
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Liu, F.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 357–376, Mar./Apr.2011.
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C.-F. Liao and S.-L. Liu, “40 Gb/s transimpedance-AGC amplifier and CDR circuit for broadband data receivers in 90 nm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 642–655, Mar.2008.
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C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Yong, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, May 2010, CThJ3.

Luo, Y.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “High-efficiency 25 Gb/s CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” in IEEE Group IV Photonics 2011, London, UK, Sept. 2011, WA2.

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S. M. Mitani, M. S. Alias, M. F. Maulud, M. R. Yahya, and A. F. A. Ma, “Design and fabrication of power-efficient VCSEL-based optical transceiver,” in Int. Conf. on Advanced Technologies for Communications, Hanoi, Vietnam, Oct. 2008, pp. 117–119.

Maeda, Y.

M. Ichino, S. Yoshikawa, H. Oomori, Y. Maeda, N. Nishiyama, T. Takayama, T. Mizue, I. Tounai, and M. Nishie, “Small form factor pluggable optical transceiver module with extremely low power consumption for dense wavelength division multiplexing applications,” in Proc. of the 55th Electronic Components and Technology Conf., May 2005, pp. 1044–1048.

Manipatruni, S.

Martens, L.

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication in telecommunication networks: overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 62–69, June2011.
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A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, E. Rönneberg, and M. Martinell, “1.3-µm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gb/s for metro access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 221, no. 12, pp. 778–780, June2009.
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S. M. Mitani, M. S. Alias, M. F. Maulud, M. R. Yahya, and A. F. A. Ma, “Design and fabrication of power-efficient VCSEL-based optical transceiver,” in Int. Conf. on Advanced Technologies for Communications, Hanoi, Vietnam, Oct. 2008, pp. 117–119.

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M. Urano, T. Kawamura, S. Ohteru, H. Suto, K. Kawai, R. Kusaba, N. Miura, J. Kato, A. Miyazaki, T. Hatano, S. Yasuda, N. Tanaka, S. Shigematsu, M. Nakanishi, and T. Shibata, “The 10G-EPON OLT and ONU LSIs for the coexistence of 10G-EPON and GE-PON toward the next FTTH era,” in Symp. on VLSI Circuits, Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, 13-1.

Miyazaki, A.

M. Urano, T. Kawamura, S. Ohteru, H. Suto, K. Kawai, R. Kusaba, N. Miura, J. Kato, A. Miyazaki, T. Hatano, S. Yasuda, N. Tanaka, S. Shigematsu, M. Nakanishi, and T. Shibata, “The 10G-EPON OLT and ONU LSIs for the coexistence of 10G-EPON and GE-PON toward the next FTTH era,” in Symp. on VLSI Circuits, Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, 13-1.

Mizue, T.

M. Ichino, S. Yoshikawa, H. Oomori, Y. Maeda, N. Nishiyama, T. Takayama, T. Mizue, I. Tounai, and M. Nishie, “Small form factor pluggable optical transceiver module with extremely low power consumption for dense wavelength division multiplexing applications,” in Proc. of the 55th Electronic Components and Technology Conf., May 2005, pp. 1044–1048.

Mohammed, E.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 184–191, Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, Jan.2010.
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Muller, M.

M. Muller, W. Hofmann, T. Grundl, M. Horn, P. Wolf, R. D. Nagel, E. Ronneberg, G. Bohm, D. Bimberg, and M.-C. Amann, “1550-nm high-speed short-cavity VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1158–1166, Sept./Oct.2011.
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M. Muller, W. Hofmann, T. Grundl, M. Horn, P. Wolf, R. D. Nagel, E. Ronneberg, G. Bohm, D. Bimberg, and M.-C. Amann, “1550-nm high-speed short-cavity VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1158–1166, Sept./Oct.2011.
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M. Urano, T. Kawamura, S. Ohteru, H. Suto, K. Kawai, R. Kusaba, N. Miura, J. Kato, A. Miyazaki, T. Hatano, S. Yasuda, N. Tanaka, S. Shigematsu, M. Nakanishi, and T. Shibata, “The 10G-EPON OLT and ONU LSIs for the coexistence of 10G-EPON and GE-PON toward the next FTTH era,” in Symp. on VLSI Circuits, Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, 13-1.

Neumeyr, C.

A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, E. Rönneberg, and M. Martinell, “1.3-µm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gb/s for metro access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 221, no. 12, pp. 778–780, June2009.
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C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Yong, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, May 2010, CThJ3.

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M. Ichino, S. Yoshikawa, H. Oomori, Y. Maeda, N. Nishiyama, T. Takayama, T. Mizue, I. Tounai, and M. Nishie, “Small form factor pluggable optical transceiver module with extremely low power consumption for dense wavelength division multiplexing applications,” in Proc. of the 55th Electronic Components and Technology Conf., May 2005, pp. 1044–1048.

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T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, S. Tsuji, T. Saito, and S. Nishimura, “A 25 Gb/s × 4-channel 74 mW/ch transimpedance amplifier in 65 nm CMOS,” in IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conf. (CICC), 2010.

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M. Ichino, S. Yoshikawa, H. Oomori, Y. Maeda, N. Nishiyama, T. Takayama, T. Mizue, I. Tounai, and M. Nishie, “Small form factor pluggable optical transceiver module with extremely low power consumption for dense wavelength division multiplexing applications,” in Proc. of the 55th Electronic Components and Technology Conf., May 2005, pp. 1044–1048.

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M. Urano, T. Kawamura, S. Ohteru, H. Suto, K. Kawai, R. Kusaba, N. Miura, J. Kato, A. Miyazaki, T. Hatano, S. Yasuda, N. Tanaka, S. Shigematsu, M. Nakanishi, and T. Shibata, “The 10G-EPON OLT and ONU LSIs for the coexistence of 10G-EPON and GE-PON toward the next FTTH era,” in Symp. on VLSI Circuits, Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, 13-1.

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M. Ichino, S. Yoshikawa, H. Oomori, Y. Maeda, N. Nishiyama, T. Takayama, T. Mizue, I. Tounai, and M. Nishie, “Small form factor pluggable optical transceiver module with extremely low power consumption for dense wavelength division multiplexing applications,” in Proc. of the 55th Electronic Components and Technology Conf., May 2005, pp. 1044–1048.

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A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, E. Rönneberg, and M. Martinell, “1.3-µm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gb/s for metro access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 221, no. 12, pp. 778–780, June2009.
[CrossRef]

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, “1.55-µm VCSEL arrays for high-bandwidth WDM-PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 291–293, Feb.2008.
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I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, Jan.2010.
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 357–376, Mar./Apr.2011.
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S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Athermal colourless C-band optical transmitter for passive optical networks,” in Proc. of European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Italy, Sept. 2010.

Pinguet, T.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 357–376, Mar./Apr.2011.
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W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication in telecommunication networks: overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 62–69, June2011.
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G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “High-efficiency 25 Gb/s CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” in IEEE Group IV Photonics 2011, London, UK, Sept. 2011, WA2.

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F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, “Maximizing the thermo-optic tuning range of silicon photonic structures,” in Proc. of IEEE Photonics in Switching, Cambridge, UK, Aug. 2007, TuB3.3.

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I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, Jan.2010.
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I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 184–191, Oct.2010.
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M. Muller, W. Hofmann, T. Grundl, M. Horn, P. Wolf, R. D. Nagel, E. Ronneberg, G. Bohm, D. Bimberg, and M.-C. Amann, “1550-nm high-speed short-cavity VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1158–1166, Sept./Oct.2011.
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A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, E. Rönneberg, and M. Martinell, “1.3-µm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gb/s for metro access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 221, no. 12, pp. 778–780, June2009.
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 357–376, Mar./Apr.2011.
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Sackinger, E.

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T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, S. Tsuji, T. Saito, and S. Nishimura, “A 25 Gb/s × 4-channel 74 mW/ch transimpedance amplifier in 65 nm CMOS,” in IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conf. (CICC), 2010.

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C. Knochenhauer, S. Hauptmann, C. J. Scheytt, and F. Ellinger, “A jitter optimized differential 40 Gbit/s transimpedance amplifier in SiGe BiCMOS,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 2538–2548, Oct.2010.
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Shibata, T.

M. Urano, T. Kawamura, S. Ohteru, H. Suto, K. Kawai, R. Kusaba, N. Miura, J. Kato, A. Miyazaki, T. Hatano, S. Yasuda, N. Tanaka, S. Shigematsu, M. Nakanishi, and T. Shibata, “The 10G-EPON OLT and ONU LSIs for the coexistence of 10G-EPON and GE-PON toward the next FTTH era,” in Symp. on VLSI Circuits, Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, 13-1.

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M. Urano, T. Kawamura, S. Ohteru, H. Suto, K. Kawai, R. Kusaba, N. Miura, J. Kato, A. Miyazaki, T. Hatano, S. Yasuda, N. Tanaka, S. Shigematsu, M. Nakanishi, and T. Shibata, “The 10G-EPON OLT and ONU LSIs for the coexistence of 10G-EPON and GE-PON toward the next FTTH era,” in Symp. on VLSI Circuits, Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, 13-1.

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G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “High-efficiency 25 Gb/s CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” in IEEE Group IV Photonics 2011, London, UK, Sept. 2011, WA2.

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M. Urano, T. Kawamura, S. Ohteru, H. Suto, K. Kawai, R. Kusaba, N. Miura, J. Kato, A. Miyazaki, T. Hatano, S. Yasuda, N. Tanaka, S. Shigematsu, M. Nakanishi, and T. Shibata, “The 10G-EPON OLT and ONU LSIs for the coexistence of 10G-EPON and GE-PON toward the next FTTH era,” in Symp. on VLSI Circuits, Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, 13-1.

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T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, S. Tsuji, T. Saito, and S. Nishimura, “A 25 Gb/s × 4-channel 74 mW/ch transimpedance amplifier in 65 nm CMOS,” in IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conf. (CICC), 2010.

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M. Urano, T. Kawamura, S. Ohteru, H. Suto, K. Kawai, R. Kusaba, N. Miura, J. Kato, A. Miyazaki, T. Hatano, S. Yasuda, N. Tanaka, S. Shigematsu, M. Nakanishi, and T. Shibata, “The 10G-EPON OLT and ONU LSIs for the coexistence of 10G-EPON and GE-PON toward the next FTTH era,” in Symp. on VLSI Circuits, Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, 13-1.

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Thacker, H.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “High-efficiency 25 Gb/s CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” in IEEE Group IV Photonics 2011, London, UK, Sept. 2011, WA2.

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M. Ichino, S. Yoshikawa, H. Oomori, Y. Maeda, N. Nishiyama, T. Takayama, T. Mizue, I. Tounai, and M. Nishie, “Small form factor pluggable optical transceiver module with extremely low power consumption for dense wavelength division multiplexing applications,” in Proc. of the 55th Electronic Components and Technology Conf., May 2005, pp. 1044–1048.

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C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Yong, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, May 2010, CThJ3.

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T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, S. Tsuji, T. Saito, and S. Nishimura, “A 25 Gb/s × 4-channel 74 mW/ch transimpedance amplifier in 65 nm CMOS,” in IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conf. (CICC), 2010.

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M. Urano, T. Kawamura, S. Ohteru, H. Suto, K. Kawai, R. Kusaba, N. Miura, J. Kato, A. Miyazaki, T. Hatano, S. Yasuda, N. Tanaka, S. Shigematsu, M. Nakanishi, and T. Shibata, “The 10G-EPON OLT and ONU LSIs for the coexistence of 10G-EPON and GE-PON toward the next FTTH era,” in Symp. on VLSI Circuits, Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, 13-1.

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S. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S. Yen, D. Campelo, S. Yamashita, and L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: advantages and drawbacks,” in IEEE Globcom Workshops 2009, Stanford, CA, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

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W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication in telecommunication networks: overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 62–69, June2011.
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S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Athermal colourless C-band optical transmitter for passive optical networks,” in Proc. of European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Italy, Sept. 2010.

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G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “High-efficiency 25 Gb/s CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” in IEEE Group IV Photonics 2011, London, UK, Sept. 2011, WA2.

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S. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S. Yen, D. Campelo, S. Yamashita, and L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: advantages and drawbacks,” in IEEE Globcom Workshops 2009, Stanford, CA, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

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I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 184–191, Oct.2010.
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T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, S. Tsuji, T. Saito, and S. Nishimura, “A 25 Gb/s × 4-channel 74 mW/ch transimpedance amplifier in 65 nm CMOS,” in IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conf. (CICC), 2010.

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Zhao, M.

Zheng, X.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Architecture of (a) a PtMP PON and (b) a PtP PON. N is the number of ONUs connected to a single OLT port.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Typical optical transceiver building blocks. Considered components in the energy model. PIN: photo-detector, APD: avalanche photo-detector, TIA: trans-impedance amplifier, LA: limiting amplifier. Other low speed signals: PD bias: photo-detector bias, SCLK: serial clock, SDATA: serial data, EN: transmitter enable, and SD: signal detect.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Power consumption of commercially available optical transceivers from different manufacturers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) (a) High-bit-rate laser diode driver; (b) low-speed open-drain laser diode driver. (In both circuits, the bias current of the laser is not shown).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Power efficiency of state-of-the-art high-gain TIAs from various sources [2429]. The publication year is also shown.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Estimated power consumption of DFB-LD-based optical transceivers at different bit-rates with different signaling interfaces as depicted in Table II.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Power distribution in different optimized optical transceivers. The receiver (Rx) includes an avalanche photo-detector, a trans-impedance amplifier, and a limiting amplifier. I/O: electrical interfaces. ˆ The power consumption of CMOS I/O is negligible.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Experimental receiver bathtub curve, for normal operation of a VCSEL (−5 dBm) and for low-power operation (−11 dBm).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) (a) PtP passive optical network topology using an externally modulated shared laser diode. (b) Capacitive-loaded driver. M is the number of EOMs (and ONUs) connected to a single continuous-wave laser at the OLT and is governed by the available link budget. CW: continuous wave.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Estimated power consumption of optical transceivers using different light sources and corresponding signaling technologies at 155 Mb/s. Receiver: APD  +  TIA  +  LA (refer to Table II).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Optical transceiver power consumption per user among different topologies.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Optical transceiver energy efficiency versus maximum number of ONUs in a single OLT port (the topology of the driver in the PtP network changes when going from N = 32 to N = 16 because of higher access rate).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Link Budgets for Different PON Standards

Tables Icon

Table II Technologies Considered in Different Optimized Optical Transceivers at Different Bit-rates

Tables Icon

Table III Optical Transceiver Technologies Considered in Different Topologies

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P transceiver = ( P laser + P driver + P I / O ) transmitter + ( P photo-detector + P amplifiers + P I / O ) receiver ,
P user = ( P light source + P driver + P receiver ) OLT N + ( P light source + P driver + P receiver ) ONU ,