Abstract

Multicast communication in wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks is traditionally supported by the assumption that the optical crossconnects are multicast capable, i.e., they are capable of switching an incoming signal to more than one output interface. A naïve method of supporting this functionality in a multicast-incapable (MI) environment is by creating a virtual topology consisting of lightpaths from the multicast source to each destination of the multicast session. For large sets of multicast requests, however, the network bandwidth consumed by such a scheme may become unacceptable due to the unicasting nature of the lightpaths. We refer to this method as achieving multicast via WDM unicast (MVWU). To support users’ multicast requests (from higher electronic layers) in MI networks, we propose two overlay solutions: drop at member node (DMN) and drop at any node (DAN). In these solutions, we achieve multicasting by creating a set of lightpath routes (possibly multiple hops) in the overlay layer from the source node of a request to each destination member. In the DMN case, we allow a lightpath route to originate/terminate only at source and destination members of a request, whereas in the DAN model we impose no such restrictions. We first consider a static traffic model, wherein the set of multicast requests is known ahead of time, and present integer linear programs (ILPs) to solve these problems (MVWU, DMN, and DAN) with the goal of minimizing the total number of wavelengths required to service the set. We also present an efficient heuristic and compare its performance to the ILP for a small network, and run simulations over real-world, large-scale networks. Moreover, we present lower bounds to calculate the minimum number of wavelengths required by the DMN and DAN models. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the heuristic (minimization of the number of wavelengths) under a dynamic traffic scenario and also evaluate the blocking performance for a fixed number of wavelengths.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. Networking for the Future of DOE Science [Online]. Available: https://es.net/assets/Uploads/ESnet4-Networking-for-the-Future-of-Science-2008-05-05.NP.v1.pdf.
  2. R. Malli, X. Zhang, and C. Qiao, “Benefits of multicasting in all-optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3531, pp. 209–220, Nov.1998.
  3. L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb.1999.
  4. G. Rouskas, “Optical layer multicast: rationale, building blocks, and challenges,” IEEE Network, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 60–65, Feb.2003.
  5. R. M. Karp, “Reducibility among combinatorial problems,” in Proc. Complexity of Computer Computations, 1972, pp. 85–103.
  6. H. Takahashi and A. Matsuyama, “An approximate solution for the Steiner problem in graphs,” Math. Japonica, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 573–577, 1980.
  7. W. S. Hu and Q. J. Zeng, “Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 970–972, 1998.
  8. J. Leuthold and C. H. Joyner, “Multimode interference couplers with tunable power splitting ratios,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 700–707, May2001.
  9. M. Ali and S. Deogun, “Power-efficient design of multicast wavelength routed networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1852–1862, Oct.2000.
  10. G. Sahin and M. Azizoglu, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in wide-area networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3531, pp. 196–208, 1998.
  11. T. Szymanski, “Future internet video multicasting with essentially perfect resource utilization and QoS guarantees,” in Proc. IEEE 19th Int. Workshop on Quality of Service, 2011, pp. 1–3.
  12. Worldwide LHC Computing Grid [Online]. Available: http://lcg.web.cern.ch/lcg/.
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  14. H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan.2000.
  15. J. Bermond, L. Gargano, S. Perennes, A. A. Rescigno, and U. Vaccaro, “Efficient collective communication in optical networks,” Theor. Comput. Sci., vol. 233, no. 1–2, pp. 165–189, 2000.
  16. X. Zhang, J. Y. Wei, and C. Qiao, “Constrained multicast routing in WDM networks with sparse light splitting,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1917–1927, Dec.2000.
  17. R. Libeskind-Hadas and R. Melhem, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 621–629, 2002.
  18. B. Chen and J. Wang, “Efficient routing and wavelength assignment for multicast in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 97–109, Jan.2002.
  19. S. Sankaranarayanan and S. Subramaniam, “Comprehensive performance modeling and analysis of multicasting in optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1399–1413, Nov.2003.
  20. N. Charbonneau, V. M. Vokkarane, C. Guok, and I. Monga, “Advance reservation frameworks in hybrid IP-WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 132–139, May2011.
  21. J. Kuri, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, E. Dotaro, and R. Douville, “Routing and wavelength assignment of scheduled lightpath demands,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1231–1240, 2003.
  22. D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, “A practical approach for routing and wavelength assignment in large wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 903–908, June1996.
  23. R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 840–851, June1996.
  24. N. Charbonneau and V. M. Vokkarane, “Routing and wavelength assignment of static manycast demands over all-optical wavelength-routed WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 427–440, July2010.
  25. A. Gadkar, J. Plante, and V. M. Vokkarane, “Static multicast overlay in WDM unicast networks for large-scale scientific applications,” in Proc. ICCN, July 2011.
  26. A. Gadkar and J. Plante, “Dynamic multicasting in WDM optical unicast networks for bandwidth-intensive applications,” in Proc. Globecom, Dec. 2011.

2011

N. Charbonneau, V. M. Vokkarane, C. Guok, and I. Monga, “Advance reservation frameworks in hybrid IP-WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 132–139, May2011.

2010

2003

J. Kuri, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, E. Dotaro, and R. Douville, “Routing and wavelength assignment of scheduled lightpath demands,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1231–1240, 2003.

S. Sankaranarayanan and S. Subramaniam, “Comprehensive performance modeling and analysis of multicasting in optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1399–1413, Nov.2003.

G. Rouskas, “Optical layer multicast: rationale, building blocks, and challenges,” IEEE Network, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 60–65, Feb.2003.

2002

R. Libeskind-Hadas and R. Melhem, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 621–629, 2002.

B. Chen and J. Wang, “Efficient routing and wavelength assignment for multicast in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 97–109, Jan.2002.

2001

2000

X. Zhang, J. Y. Wei, and C. Qiao, “Constrained multicast routing in WDM networks with sparse light splitting,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1917–1927, Dec.2000.

M. Ali and S. Deogun, “Power-efficient design of multicast wavelength routed networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1852–1862, Oct.2000.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan.2000.

J. Bermond, L. Gargano, S. Perennes, A. A. Rescigno, and U. Vaccaro, “Efficient collective communication in optical networks,” Theor. Comput. Sci., vol. 233, no. 1–2, pp. 165–189, 2000.

1999

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb.1999.

1998

R. Malli, X. Zhang, and C. Qiao, “Benefits of multicasting in all-optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3531, pp. 209–220, Nov.1998.

G. Sahin and M. Azizoglu, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in wide-area networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3531, pp. 196–208, 1998.

W. S. Hu and Q. J. Zeng, “Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 970–972, 1998.

1996

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, “A practical approach for routing and wavelength assignment in large wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 903–908, June1996.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 840–851, June1996.

1980

H. Takahashi and A. Matsuyama, “An approximate solution for the Steiner problem in graphs,” Math. Japonica, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 573–577, 1980.

Ali, M.

M. Ali and S. Deogun, “Power-efficient design of multicast wavelength routed networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1852–1862, Oct.2000.

Azizoglu, M.

G. Sahin and M. Azizoglu, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in wide-area networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3531, pp. 196–208, 1998.

Banerjee, D.

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, “A practical approach for routing and wavelength assignment in large wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 903–908, June1996.

Bermond, J.

J. Bermond, L. Gargano, S. Perennes, A. A. Rescigno, and U. Vaccaro, “Efficient collective communication in optical networks,” Theor. Comput. Sci., vol. 233, no. 1–2, pp. 165–189, 2000.

Charbonneau, N.

N. Charbonneau, V. M. Vokkarane, C. Guok, and I. Monga, “Advance reservation frameworks in hybrid IP-WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 132–139, May2011.

N. Charbonneau and V. M. Vokkarane, “Routing and wavelength assignment of static manycast demands over all-optical wavelength-routed WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 427–440, July2010.

Chen, B.

B. Chen and J. Wang, “Efficient routing and wavelength assignment for multicast in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 97–109, Jan.2002.

Deogun, S.

M. Ali and S. Deogun, “Power-efficient design of multicast wavelength routed networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1852–1862, Oct.2000.

Dotaro, E.

J. Kuri, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, E. Dotaro, and R. Douville, “Routing and wavelength assignment of scheduled lightpath demands,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1231–1240, 2003.

Douville, R.

J. Kuri, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, E. Dotaro, and R. Douville, “Routing and wavelength assignment of scheduled lightpath demands,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1231–1240, 2003.

Gadkar, A.

A. Gadkar, J. Plante, and V. M. Vokkarane, “Static multicast overlay in WDM unicast networks for large-scale scientific applications,” in Proc. ICCN, July 2011.

A. Gadkar and J. Plante, “Dynamic multicasting in WDM optical unicast networks for bandwidth-intensive applications,” in Proc. Globecom, Dec. 2011.

Gagnaire, M.

J. Kuri, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, E. Dotaro, and R. Douville, “Routing and wavelength assignment of scheduled lightpath demands,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1231–1240, 2003.

Gargano, L.

J. Bermond, L. Gargano, S. Perennes, A. A. Rescigno, and U. Vaccaro, “Efficient collective communication in optical networks,” Theor. Comput. Sci., vol. 233, no. 1–2, pp. 165–189, 2000.

Guok, C.

N. Charbonneau, V. M. Vokkarane, C. Guok, and I. Monga, “Advance reservation frameworks in hybrid IP-WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 132–139, May2011.

Hu, W. S.

W. S. Hu and Q. J. Zeng, “Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 970–972, 1998.

Joyner, C. H.

Jue, J. P.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan.2000.

Karp, R. M.

R. M. Karp, “Reducibility among combinatorial problems,” in Proc. Complexity of Computer Computations, 1972, pp. 85–103.

Kuri, J.

J. Kuri, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, E. Dotaro, and R. Douville, “Routing and wavelength assignment of scheduled lightpath demands,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1231–1240, 2003.

Leuthold, J.

Libeskind-Hadas, R.

R. Libeskind-Hadas and R. Melhem, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 621–629, 2002.

Malli, R.

R. Malli, X. Zhang, and C. Qiao, “Benefits of multicasting in all-optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3531, pp. 209–220, Nov.1998.

Matsuyama, A.

H. Takahashi and A. Matsuyama, “An approximate solution for the Steiner problem in graphs,” Math. Japonica, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 573–577, 1980.

Melhem, R.

R. Libeskind-Hadas and R. Melhem, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 621–629, 2002.

Monga, I.

N. Charbonneau, V. M. Vokkarane, C. Guok, and I. Monga, “Advance reservation frameworks in hybrid IP-WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 132–139, May2011.

Mukherjee, B.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan.2000.

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb.1999.

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, “A practical approach for routing and wavelength assignment in large wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 903–908, June1996.

Perennes, S.

J. Bermond, L. Gargano, S. Perennes, A. A. Rescigno, and U. Vaccaro, “Efficient collective communication in optical networks,” Theor. Comput. Sci., vol. 233, no. 1–2, pp. 165–189, 2000.

Plante, J.

A. Gadkar and J. Plante, “Dynamic multicasting in WDM optical unicast networks for bandwidth-intensive applications,” in Proc. Globecom, Dec. 2011.

A. Gadkar, J. Plante, and V. M. Vokkarane, “Static multicast overlay in WDM unicast networks for large-scale scientific applications,” in Proc. ICCN, July 2011.

Puech, N.

J. Kuri, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, E. Dotaro, and R. Douville, “Routing and wavelength assignment of scheduled lightpath demands,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1231–1240, 2003.

Qiao, C.

X. Zhang, J. Y. Wei, and C. Qiao, “Constrained multicast routing in WDM networks with sparse light splitting,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1917–1927, Dec.2000.

R. Malli, X. Zhang, and C. Qiao, “Benefits of multicasting in all-optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3531, pp. 209–220, Nov.1998.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 840–851, June1996.

Rescigno, A. A.

J. Bermond, L. Gargano, S. Perennes, A. A. Rescigno, and U. Vaccaro, “Efficient collective communication in optical networks,” Theor. Comput. Sci., vol. 233, no. 1–2, pp. 165–189, 2000.

Rouskas, G.

G. Rouskas, “Optical layer multicast: rationale, building blocks, and challenges,” IEEE Network, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 60–65, Feb.2003.

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb.1999.

Sahin, G.

G. Sahin and M. Azizoglu, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in wide-area networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3531, pp. 196–208, 1998.

Sankaranarayanan, S.

S. Sankaranarayanan and S. Subramaniam, “Comprehensive performance modeling and analysis of multicasting in optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1399–1413, Nov.2003.

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 840–851, June1996.

Subramaniam, S.

S. Sankaranarayanan and S. Subramaniam, “Comprehensive performance modeling and analysis of multicasting in optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1399–1413, Nov.2003.

Szymanski, T.

T. Szymanski, “Future internet video multicasting with essentially perfect resource utilization and QoS guarantees,” in Proc. IEEE 19th Int. Workshop on Quality of Service, 2011, pp. 1–3.

Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi and A. Matsuyama, “An approximate solution for the Steiner problem in graphs,” Math. Japonica, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 573–577, 1980.

Vaccaro, U.

J. Bermond, L. Gargano, S. Perennes, A. A. Rescigno, and U. Vaccaro, “Efficient collective communication in optical networks,” Theor. Comput. Sci., vol. 233, no. 1–2, pp. 165–189, 2000.

Vokkarane, V. M.

N. Charbonneau, V. M. Vokkarane, C. Guok, and I. Monga, “Advance reservation frameworks in hybrid IP-WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 132–139, May2011.

A. Gadkar, J. Plante, and V. M. Vokkarane, “Static multicast overlay in WDM unicast networks for large-scale scientific applications,” in Proc. ICCN, July 2011.

Vokkarane, V. M.

Wang, J.

B. Chen and J. Wang, “Efficient routing and wavelength assignment for multicast in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 97–109, Jan.2002.

Wei, J. Y.

Zang, H.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan.2000.

Zeng, Q. J.

W. S. Hu and Q. J. Zeng, “Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 970–972, 1998.

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, J. Y. Wei, and C. Qiao, “Constrained multicast routing in WDM networks with sparse light splitting,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1917–1927, Dec.2000.

R. Malli, X. Zhang, and C. Qiao, “Benefits of multicasting in all-optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3531, pp. 209–220, Nov.1998.

IEEE Commun. Mag.

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb.1999.

N. Charbonneau, V. M. Vokkarane, C. Guok, and I. Monga, “Advance reservation frameworks in hybrid IP-WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 132–139, May2011.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

J. Kuri, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, E. Dotaro, and R. Douville, “Routing and wavelength assignment of scheduled lightpath demands,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1231–1240, 2003.

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, “A practical approach for routing and wavelength assignment in large wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 903–908, June1996.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 840–851, June1996.

M. Ali and S. Deogun, “Power-efficient design of multicast wavelength routed networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1852–1862, Oct.2000.

B. Chen and J. Wang, “Efficient routing and wavelength assignment for multicast in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 97–109, Jan.2002.

S. Sankaranarayanan and S. Subramaniam, “Comprehensive performance modeling and analysis of multicasting in optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1399–1413, Nov.2003.

IEEE Network

G. Rouskas, “Optical layer multicast: rationale, building blocks, and challenges,” IEEE Network, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 60–65, Feb.2003.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

W. S. Hu and Q. J. Zeng, “Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 970–972, 1998.

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

R. Libeskind-Hadas and R. Melhem, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 621–629, 2002.

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

Math. Japonica

H. Takahashi and A. Matsuyama, “An approximate solution for the Steiner problem in graphs,” Math. Japonica, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 573–577, 1980.

Opt. Networks Mag.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan.2000.

Proc. SPIE

R. Malli, X. Zhang, and C. Qiao, “Benefits of multicasting in all-optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3531, pp. 209–220, Nov.1998.

G. Sahin and M. Azizoglu, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in wide-area networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3531, pp. 196–208, 1998.

Theor. Comput. Sci.

J. Bermond, L. Gargano, S. Perennes, A. A. Rescigno, and U. Vaccaro, “Efficient collective communication in optical networks,” Theor. Comput. Sci., vol. 233, no. 1–2, pp. 165–189, 2000.

Other

A. Gadkar, J. Plante, and V. M. Vokkarane, “Static multicast overlay in WDM unicast networks for large-scale scientific applications,” in Proc. ICCN, July 2011.

A. Gadkar and J. Plante, “Dynamic multicasting in WDM optical unicast networks for bandwidth-intensive applications,” in Proc. Globecom, Dec. 2011.

T. Szymanski, “Future internet video multicasting with essentially perfect resource utilization and QoS guarantees,” in Proc. IEEE 19th Int. Workshop on Quality of Service, 2011, pp. 1–3.

Worldwide LHC Computing Grid [Online]. Available: http://lcg.web.cern.ch/lcg/.

Workshop Report on Advanced Networking for Distributed Petascale Science: R&D Challenges and Opportunities, 2008 [Online]. Available: http://science.energy.gov/ /media/ascr/pdf/program-documents/docs/Network_research_workshop_report_08.pdf.

Networking for the Future of DOE Science [Online]. Available: https://es.net/assets/Uploads/ESnet4-Networking-for-the-Future-of-Science-2008-05-05.NP.v1.pdf.

R. M. Karp, “Reducibility among combinatorial problems,” in Proc. Complexity of Computer Computations, 1972, pp. 85–103.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Illustration: number of wavelengths required to satisfy the multicast requests R 1 : { 1 , ( 2 , 5 , 6 ) } and R 2 : { 4 , ( 2 , 3 , 5 ) } using (a) MVWU and (b) DMN; the corresponding logical overlays for (c) MVWU and (d) DMN.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustrative example of SPOH for a specific multicast request.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

WDM mesh networks used for heuristic evaluation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Performance comparison of MVWU and DMN for K = 2 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Performance comparison of MVWU and DMN for K = 3 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Comparison of run times for ILP and heuristic (SPOH) for K = 2 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Performance comparison: average number of logical hops.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) NSFnet: average number of wavelengths ( D max = 10 ) .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) ESnet: average number of wavelengths ( D max = 10 ) .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) NSFnet: comparison of logical hops ( D max = 10 ).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) ESnet: comparison of logical hops ( D max = 10 ).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) ESnet: comparison of run times ( D max = 10 ).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) NSFnet: blocking probability ( D max = 10 , W = 16 ).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) ESnet: blocking probability ( D max = 10 , W = 16 ).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(Color online) NSFnet: average number of logical hops ( D max = 10 , W = 16 ).

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(Color online) ESnet: average number of logical hops ( D max = 10 , W = 16 ).

Tables (8)

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Table I Comparison of Optimal ILP Solution to Lower Bounds for the Network Shown in Fig. 1  ( K = 2 )

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Table II Comparison of Heuristic Approximation to Lower Bounds for the Network Shown in Fig. 1  ( K = 2 )

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Table III Average Number of Wavelengths Required ( K = 2 )

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Table IV Average Number of Wavelengths Required ( K = 3 )

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Table V Average Number of Wavelengths Required ( K = 4 )

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Table VI Comparison of Average Number of Logical Hops

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Table VII NSFnet: Average Number of Wavelengths Required

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Table VIII ESnet: Average Number of Wavelengths Required

Equations (4)

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L B 1 = max j max O ( j ) d j , T ( j ) d j .
L B 2 = r R ¯ L r 2 | E | .