Abstract

In this paper a proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller to efficiently allocate bandwidth in high coverage passive optical networks (PONs) is presented. The novelty of this proposal relies on the fact that this is the first proposal to use a PID to control a network parameter in PONs. As the PID takes into account present, past and possible future errors in the bandwidth adjustment, this self-adapting technique results in a very robust process. Simulation results exhibit that not only is it faster and more stable than other algorithms, but also it auto-adapts the resources very efficiently when facing real time changes in the network parameters or in the bandwidth conditions. In fact, the standard deviation of the difference between the allocated and the guaranteed bandwidth is reduced by up to 50% and the convergence speed is up to four times quicker than other proposals.

© 2012 OSA

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2011

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Bandwidth distribution solutions for performance enhancement in long-reach passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1–20, Sept.2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Merayo, T. Jimenez, P. Fernandez, R. J. Duran, R. M. Lorenzo, I. de Miguel, and E. J. Abril, “A bandwidth assignment polling algorithm to enhance the efficiency in QoS long-reach EPONs,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 35–44, Dec.2011.
[CrossRef]

2010

C. A. Chan, M. Attygalle, and A. Nirmalathas, “Remote repeater-based EPON with MAC forwarding for long-reach and high-split-ratio passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 28–37, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

N. Xiong, X. Jia, L. T. Yang, A. V. Vasilakos, Y. Li, and Y. Pan, “A distributed efficient flow control scheme for multirate multicast networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1254–1266, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

S. Yin and N. Ansari, “Nonlinear predictor-based dynamic resource allocation over point-to-multipoint (P2PM) networks: A control theoretical approach,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 1052–1062, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Song, B. W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey of research challenges, demonstrations and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Kantarci and M. T. Mouftah, “Periodic GATE optimization (PGO): A new service scheme for long-reach passive optical networks,” IEEE Syst. J., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 440–448, 2010.
[CrossRef]

N. Merayo, T. Jiménez, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, I. de Miguel, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “Adaptive polling algorithm to provide subscriber differentiation in a long-reach EPON,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 257–264, 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, F. Auzarda, and M. Scheutzow, “Shortest propagation delay (SPD) first scheduling for EPONs with heterogeneous propagation delays,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 849–861, 2010.
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chang, N. M. Alvarez, P. Kourtessis, R. M. Lorenzo, and J. M. Senior, “Full-service MAC protocol for metro-reach GPONs,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1016–1022, 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, B. Chen, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for long-reach PON: overcoming performance degradation,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 100–108, Nov.2010.
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

M. Mcgarry, M. Reisslein, and M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network architectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 46–60, Sept.2008.
[CrossRef]

2006

M.-T. Ho and Y.-W. Tu, “Position control of a single-link flexible manipulator using Hinf-based PID control,” IEE Proc.: Control Theory Appl., vol. 153, no. 5, Sept.2006.

C. Knospe, “PID control,” IEEE Control Syst. Mag., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 30–31, Feb.2006.
[CrossRef]

2005

K. H. Ang, G. Chong, and Y. Li, “PID control system analysis, design and technology,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 559–576, July2005.
[CrossRef]

2003

H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, and J.-T. Lim, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in Ethernet passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 13, pp. 1001–1002, June2003.
[CrossRef]

C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, and M. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb.2002.

P. Cominos and N. Munro, “PID controllers: recent tuning methods and design to specification,” IEE Proc.: Control Theory Appl., vol. 149, no. I, pp. 46–53, Jan.2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, and R. Hirth, “Supporting differentiated classes of service in Ethernet passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 1, no. 8, pp. 280–298, 2002.

2001

K. J. Aström and T. Hägglund, “The future of PID control,” Control Eng. Pract., vol. 9, pp. 1163–1175, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Abril, E. J.

N. Merayo, T. Jimenez, P. Fernandez, R. J. Duran, R. M. Lorenzo, I. de Miguel, and E. J. Abril, “A bandwidth assignment polling algorithm to enhance the efficiency in QoS long-reach EPONs,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 35–44, Dec.2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Merayo, T. Jiménez, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, I. de Miguel, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “Adaptive polling algorithm to provide subscriber differentiation in a long-reach EPON,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 257–264, 2010.
[CrossRef]

T. Jiménez, N. Merayo, I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, J. C. Aguado, N. Fernández, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “PID strategies for the dynamic allocation of resources in LR-Ethernet passive optical networks,” in 16th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.

T. Jiménez, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, R. J. Durán, R. M. Lorenzo, I. de Miguel, and E. J. Abril, “Self-adapted algorithm to provide multi-profile bandwidth guarantees in PONs with symmetric and asymmetric traffic load,” Photonic Network Commun., to be published.

Aguado, J. C.

T. Jiménez, N. Merayo, I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, J. C. Aguado, N. Fernández, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “PID strategies for the dynamic allocation of resources in LR-Ethernet passive optical networks,” in 16th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.

Ahmed, J.

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, B. Chen, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for long-reach PON: overcoming performance degradation,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 100–108, Nov.2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Cheng, M. De Andrade, B. Skubic, J. Ahmed, and L. Wosinska, “Enhancing IPACT with limited service for multi-thread DBA in long-reach EPON,” in Communications and Photonics Conf. and Exhibition (ACP), Asia, 2010.

Ali, M.

C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, and M. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, N. M.

Ang, K. H.

K. H. Ang, G. Chong, and Y. Li, “PID control system analysis, design and technology,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 559–576, July2005.
[CrossRef]

Ansari, N.

S. Yin and N. Ansari, “Nonlinear predictor-based dynamic resource allocation over point-to-multipoint (P2PM) networks: A control theoretical approach,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 1052–1062, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, Y. Luo, N. Ansari, and T. Wang, “Non-linear predictor-based dynamic bandwidth allocation over TDM-PONs: Stability analysis and controller design,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5186–5190.

Antunes, N.

N. Antunes, C. Fricker, P. Robert, and J. Roberts, “GATE-driven dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation for WDM-EPONs,” in IEEE Global Telecomm. Conf., 2010, pp. 1–5.

Arumugam, M.

V. Dharmalingam, S. Sundaram, and M. Arumugam, “Conductivity based PID tuning for long time delay process using simulation technique,” in Proc. SICE 2003 Annu. Conf., Aug.2003, vol. 1, pp. 191–196.

Assi, C.

C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, and M. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Assi, C. M.

Aström, K. J.

K. J. Aström and T. Hägglund, “The future of PID control,” Control Eng. Pract., vol. 9, pp. 1163–1175, 2001.
[CrossRef]

K. J. Aström and T. Hägglund, “Advanced PID Control,” ISA-The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2006.

K. J. Aström and T. Hägglund, PID Controllers: Theory, Design and Tuning, 2nd ed.Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1995.

Attygalle, M.

Auzarda, F.

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, F. Auzarda, and M. Scheutzow, “Shortest propagation delay (SPD) first scheduling for EPONs with heterogeneous propagation delays,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 849–861, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, A.

H. Song, A. Banerjee, B. W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Multi-thread polling: A dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134–142, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

Byun, H.-J.

H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, and J.-T. Lim, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in Ethernet passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 13, pp. 1001–1002, June2003.
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. A.

Chang, C.-H.

Chen, B.

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, B. Chen, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for long-reach PON: overcoming performance degradation,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 100–108, Nov.2010.
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, B. Chen, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for long-reach PON: overcoming performance degradation,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 100–108, Nov.2010.
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Cheng, M. De Andrade, B. Skubic, J. Ahmed, and L. Wosinska, “Enhancing IPACT with limited service for multi-thread DBA in long-reach EPON,” in Communications and Photonics Conf. and Exhibition (ACP), Asia, 2010.

Chong, G.

K. H. Ang, G. Chong, and Y. Li, “PID control system analysis, design and technology,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 559–576, July2005.
[CrossRef]

Cominos, P.

P. Cominos and N. Munro, “PID controllers: recent tuning methods and design to specification,” IEE Proc.: Control Theory Appl., vol. 149, no. I, pp. 46–53, Jan.2002.
[CrossRef]

De Andrade, M.

J. Cheng, M. De Andrade, B. Skubic, J. Ahmed, and L. Wosinska, “Enhancing IPACT with limited service for multi-thread DBA in long-reach EPON,” in Communications and Photonics Conf. and Exhibition (ACP), Asia, 2010.

de Miguel, I.

N. Merayo, T. Jimenez, P. Fernandez, R. J. Duran, R. M. Lorenzo, I. de Miguel, and E. J. Abril, “A bandwidth assignment polling algorithm to enhance the efficiency in QoS long-reach EPONs,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 35–44, Dec.2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Merayo, T. Jiménez, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, I. de Miguel, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “Adaptive polling algorithm to provide subscriber differentiation in a long-reach EPON,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 257–264, 2010.
[CrossRef]

T. Jiménez, N. Merayo, I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, J. C. Aguado, N. Fernández, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “PID strategies for the dynamic allocation of resources in LR-Ethernet passive optical networks,” in 16th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.

T. Jiménez, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, R. J. Durán, R. M. Lorenzo, I. de Miguel, and E. J. Abril, “Self-adapted algorithm to provide multi-profile bandwidth guarantees in PONs with symmetric and asymmetric traffic load,” Photonic Network Commun., to be published.

Dhaini, A. R.

Dharmalingam, V.

V. Dharmalingam, S. Sundaram, and M. Arumugam, “Conductivity based PID tuning for long time delay process using simulation technique,” in Proc. SICE 2003 Annu. Conf., Aug.2003, vol. 1, pp. 191–196.

Dixit, S.

C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, and M. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, 2003.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, and R. Hirth, “Supporting differentiated classes of service in Ethernet passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 1, no. 8, pp. 280–298, 2002.

Duran, R. J.

N. Merayo, T. Jimenez, P. Fernandez, R. J. Duran, R. M. Lorenzo, I. de Miguel, and E. J. Abril, “A bandwidth assignment polling algorithm to enhance the efficiency in QoS long-reach EPONs,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 35–44, Dec.2011.
[CrossRef]

Durán, R. J.

N. Merayo, T. Jiménez, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, I. de Miguel, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “Adaptive polling algorithm to provide subscriber differentiation in a long-reach EPON,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 257–264, 2010.
[CrossRef]

T. Jiménez, N. Merayo, I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, J. C. Aguado, N. Fernández, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “PID strategies for the dynamic allocation of resources in LR-Ethernet passive optical networks,” in 16th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.

T. Jiménez, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, R. J. Durán, R. M. Lorenzo, I. de Miguel, and E. J. Abril, “Self-adapted algorithm to provide multi-profile bandwidth guarantees in PONs with symmetric and asymmetric traffic load,” Photonic Network Commun., to be published.

Ferguson, J. R.

Fernandez, P.

N. Merayo, T. Jimenez, P. Fernandez, R. J. Duran, R. M. Lorenzo, I. de Miguel, and E. J. Abril, “A bandwidth assignment polling algorithm to enhance the efficiency in QoS long-reach EPONs,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 35–44, Dec.2011.
[CrossRef]

Fernández, N.

T. Jiménez, N. Merayo, I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, J. C. Aguado, N. Fernández, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “PID strategies for the dynamic allocation of resources in LR-Ethernet passive optical networks,” in 16th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.

Fernández, P.

N. Merayo, T. Jiménez, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, I. de Miguel, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “Adaptive polling algorithm to provide subscriber differentiation in a long-reach EPON,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 257–264, 2010.
[CrossRef]

T. Jiménez, N. Merayo, I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, J. C. Aguado, N. Fernández, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “PID strategies for the dynamic allocation of resources in LR-Ethernet passive optical networks,” in 16th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.

T. Jiménez, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, R. J. Durán, R. M. Lorenzo, I. de Miguel, and E. J. Abril, “Self-adapted algorithm to provide multi-profile bandwidth guarantees in PONs with symmetric and asymmetric traffic load,” Photonic Network Commun., to be published.

Fricker, C.

N. Antunes, C. Fricker, P. Robert, and J. Roberts, “GATE-driven dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation for WDM-EPONs,” in IEEE Global Telecomm. Conf., 2010, pp. 1–5.

Hägglund, T.

K. J. Aström and T. Hägglund, “The future of PID control,” Control Eng. Pract., vol. 9, pp. 1163–1175, 2001.
[CrossRef]

K. J. Aström and T. Hägglund, PID Controllers: Theory, Design and Tuning, 2nd ed.Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1995.

K. J. Aström and T. Hägglund, “Advanced PID Control,” ISA-The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2006.

Hirth, R.

Ho, M.-T.

M.-T. Ho and Y.-W. Tu, “Position control of a single-link flexible manipulator using Hinf-based PID control,” IEE Proc.: Control Theory Appl., vol. 153, no. 5, Sept.2006.

Isermann, R.

R. Isermann, Digital Control Systems Vol I: Fundamentals, Deterministic Control, 2nd ed.Springer-Verlag, 1989.

Jia, X.

N. Xiong, X. Jia, L. T. Yang, A. V. Vasilakos, Y. Li, and Y. Pan, “A distributed efficient flow control scheme for multirate multicast networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1254–1266, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, T.

N. Merayo, T. Jimenez, P. Fernandez, R. J. Duran, R. M. Lorenzo, I. de Miguel, and E. J. Abril, “A bandwidth assignment polling algorithm to enhance the efficiency in QoS long-reach EPONs,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 35–44, Dec.2011.
[CrossRef]

Jiménez, T.

N. Merayo, T. Jiménez, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, I. de Miguel, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “Adaptive polling algorithm to provide subscriber differentiation in a long-reach EPON,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 257–264, 2010.
[CrossRef]

T. Jiménez, N. Merayo, I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, J. C. Aguado, N. Fernández, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “PID strategies for the dynamic allocation of resources in LR-Ethernet passive optical networks,” in 16th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.

T. Jiménez, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, R. J. Durán, R. M. Lorenzo, I. de Miguel, and E. J. Abril, “Self-adapted algorithm to provide multi-profile bandwidth guarantees in PONs with symmetric and asymmetric traffic load,” Photonic Network Commun., to be published.

Kantarci, B.

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Bandwidth distribution solutions for performance enhancement in long-reach passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1–20, Sept.2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Kantarci and M. T. Mouftah, “Periodic GATE optimization (PGO): A new service scheme for long-reach passive optical networks,” IEEE Syst. J., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 440–448, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. W.

H. Song, B. W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey of research challenges, demonstrations and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, 2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Song, A. Banerjee, B. W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Multi-thread polling: A dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134–142, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

Knospe, C.

C. Knospe, “PID control,” IEEE Control Syst. Mag., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 30–31, Feb.2006.
[CrossRef]

Kogiso, K.

T. Tachibana, K. Kogiso, and K. Sugimoto, “Dynamic management of computing and network resources with PID control in optical grid networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Commun., May 2008, pp. 396–400.

Kourtessis, P.

Kramer, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, and R. Hirth, “Supporting differentiated classes of service in Ethernet passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 1, no. 8, pp. 280–298, 2002.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb.2002.

Li, Y.

N. Xiong, X. Jia, L. T. Yang, A. V. Vasilakos, Y. Li, and Y. Pan, “A distributed efficient flow control scheme for multirate multicast networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1254–1266, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

K. H. Ang, G. Chong, and Y. Li, “PID control system analysis, design and technology,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 559–576, July2005.
[CrossRef]

Lim, J.-T.

H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, and J.-T. Lim, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in Ethernet passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 13, pp. 1001–1002, June2003.
[CrossRef]

Lorenzo, R. M.

N. Merayo, T. Jimenez, P. Fernandez, R. J. Duran, R. M. Lorenzo, I. de Miguel, and E. J. Abril, “A bandwidth assignment polling algorithm to enhance the efficiency in QoS long-reach EPONs,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 35–44, Dec.2011.
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chang, N. M. Alvarez, P. Kourtessis, R. M. Lorenzo, and J. M. Senior, “Full-service MAC protocol for metro-reach GPONs,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1016–1022, 2010.
[CrossRef]

N. Merayo, T. Jiménez, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, I. de Miguel, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “Adaptive polling algorithm to provide subscriber differentiation in a long-reach EPON,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 257–264, 2010.
[CrossRef]

T. Jiménez, N. Merayo, I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, J. C. Aguado, N. Fernández, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “PID strategies for the dynamic allocation of resources in LR-Ethernet passive optical networks,” in 16th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.

T. Jiménez, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, R. J. Durán, R. M. Lorenzo, I. de Miguel, and E. J. Abril, “Self-adapted algorithm to provide multi-profile bandwidth guarantees in PONs with symmetric and asymmetric traffic load,” Photonic Network Commun., to be published.

Luo, Y.

S. Yin, Y. Luo, N. Ansari, and T. Wang, “Non-linear predictor-based dynamic bandwidth allocation over TDM-PONs: Stability analysis and controller design,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5186–5190.

Maier, M.

L. Meng, C. M. Assi, M. Maier, and A. R. Dhaini, “Resource management in STARGATE-based Ethernet passive optical networks (SG-EPONs),” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 279–293, Sept.2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Mcgarry, M. Reisslein, and M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network architectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 46–60, Sept.2008.
[CrossRef]

Mcgarry, M.

M. Mcgarry, M. Reisslein, and M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network architectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 46–60, Sept.2008.
[CrossRef]

McGarry, M. P.

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, F. Auzarda, and M. Scheutzow, “Shortest propagation delay (SPD) first scheduling for EPONs with heterogeneous propagation delays,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 849–861, 2010.
[CrossRef]

J. R. Ferguson, M. Reisslein, and M. P. McGarry, “Online excess bandwidth distribution for Ethernet passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 8, pp. 358–369, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Meng, L.

Merayo, N.

N. Merayo, T. Jimenez, P. Fernandez, R. J. Duran, R. M. Lorenzo, I. de Miguel, and E. J. Abril, “A bandwidth assignment polling algorithm to enhance the efficiency in QoS long-reach EPONs,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 35–44, Dec.2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Merayo, T. Jiménez, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, I. de Miguel, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “Adaptive polling algorithm to provide subscriber differentiation in a long-reach EPON,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 257–264, 2010.
[CrossRef]

T. Jiménez, N. Merayo, I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, J. C. Aguado, N. Fernández, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “PID strategies for the dynamic allocation of resources in LR-Ethernet passive optical networks,” in 16th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.

T. Jiménez, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, R. J. Durán, R. M. Lorenzo, I. de Miguel, and E. J. Abril, “Self-adapted algorithm to provide multi-profile bandwidth guarantees in PONs with symmetric and asymmetric traffic load,” Photonic Network Commun., to be published.

Mouftah, H. T.

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Bandwidth distribution solutions for performance enhancement in long-reach passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1–20, Sept.2011.
[CrossRef]

Mouftah, M. T.

B. Kantarci and M. T. Mouftah, “Periodic GATE optimization (PGO): A new service scheme for long-reach passive optical networks,” IEEE Syst. J., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 440–448, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, B. Chen, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for long-reach PON: overcoming performance degradation,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 100–108, Nov.2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Song, B. W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey of research challenges, demonstrations and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, 2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Song, A. Banerjee, B. W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Multi-thread polling: A dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134–142, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb.2002.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, and R. Hirth, “Supporting differentiated classes of service in Ethernet passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 1, no. 8, pp. 280–298, 2002.

Munro, N.

P. Cominos and N. Munro, “PID controllers: recent tuning methods and design to specification,” IEE Proc.: Control Theory Appl., vol. 149, no. I, pp. 46–53, Jan.2002.
[CrossRef]

Nho, J.-M.

H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, and J.-T. Lim, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in Ethernet passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 13, pp. 1001–1002, June2003.
[CrossRef]

Nirmalathas, A.

Pan, Y.

N. Xiong, X. Jia, L. T. Yang, A. V. Vasilakos, Y. Li, and Y. Pan, “A distributed efficient flow control scheme for multirate multicast networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1254–1266, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Pesavento, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb.2002.

Qiao, C.

S. Ryu, C. Rump, and C. Qiao, “A predictive and robust active queue management for Internet congestion control,” in Proc. of ISCC’03, 2003.

Reisslein, M.

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, F. Auzarda, and M. Scheutzow, “Shortest propagation delay (SPD) first scheduling for EPONs with heterogeneous propagation delays,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 849–861, 2010.
[CrossRef]

J. R. Ferguson, M. Reisslein, and M. P. McGarry, “Online excess bandwidth distribution for Ethernet passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 8, pp. 358–369, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Mcgarry, M. Reisslein, and M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network architectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 46–60, Sept.2008.
[CrossRef]

Robert, P.

N. Antunes, C. Fricker, P. Robert, and J. Roberts, “GATE-driven dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation for WDM-EPONs,” in IEEE Global Telecomm. Conf., 2010, pp. 1–5.

Roberts, J.

N. Antunes, C. Fricker, P. Robert, and J. Roberts, “GATE-driven dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation for WDM-EPONs,” in IEEE Global Telecomm. Conf., 2010, pp. 1–5.

Rump, C.

S. Ryu, C. Rump, and C. Qiao, “A predictive and robust active queue management for Internet congestion control,” in Proc. of ISCC’03, 2003.

Ryu, S.

S. Ryu, C. Rump, and C. Qiao, “A predictive and robust active queue management for Internet congestion control,” in Proc. of ISCC’03, 2003.

Scheutzow, M.

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, F. Auzarda, and M. Scheutzow, “Shortest propagation delay (SPD) first scheduling for EPONs with heterogeneous propagation delays,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 849–861, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Senior, J. M.

Skubic, B.

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, B. Chen, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for long-reach PON: overcoming performance degradation,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 100–108, Nov.2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Cheng, M. De Andrade, B. Skubic, J. Ahmed, and L. Wosinska, “Enhancing IPACT with limited service for multi-thread DBA in long-reach EPON,” in Communications and Photonics Conf. and Exhibition (ACP), Asia, 2010.

Song, H.

H. Song, B. W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey of research challenges, demonstrations and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, 2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Song, A. Banerjee, B. W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Multi-thread polling: A dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134–142, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, K.

T. Tachibana and K. Sugimoto, “Light-path establishment with PID control for effective wavelength utilization in all-optical wavelength-division multiplexing networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 383–392, Apr.2009.
[CrossRef]

T. Tachibana, K. Kogiso, and K. Sugimoto, “Dynamic management of computing and network resources with PID control in optical grid networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Commun., May 2008, pp. 396–400.

Sundaram, S.

V. Dharmalingam, S. Sundaram, and M. Arumugam, “Conductivity based PID tuning for long time delay process using simulation technique,” in Proc. SICE 2003 Annu. Conf., Aug.2003, vol. 1, pp. 191–196.

Tachibana, T.

T. Tachibana and K. Sugimoto, “Light-path establishment with PID control for effective wavelength utilization in all-optical wavelength-division multiplexing networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 383–392, Apr.2009.
[CrossRef]

T. Tachibana, K. Kogiso, and K. Sugimoto, “Dynamic management of computing and network resources with PID control in optical grid networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Commun., May 2008, pp. 396–400.

Tu, Y.-W.

M.-T. Ho and Y.-W. Tu, “Position control of a single-link flexible manipulator using Hinf-based PID control,” IEE Proc.: Control Theory Appl., vol. 153, no. 5, Sept.2006.

Vasilakos, A. V.

N. Xiong, X. Jia, L. T. Yang, A. V. Vasilakos, Y. Li, and Y. Pan, “A distributed efficient flow control scheme for multirate multicast networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1254–1266, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

S. Yin, Y. Luo, N. Ansari, and T. Wang, “Non-linear predictor-based dynamic bandwidth allocation over TDM-PONs: Stability analysis and controller design,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5186–5190.

Wei, T.

T. Wei and S.-Y. Zhang, “Active queue management based on single neural adaptive PID algorithm,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Computer Science and Software Engineering, Dec. 2008, vol. 4, pp. 923–926.

Wosinska, L.

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, B. Chen, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for long-reach PON: overcoming performance degradation,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 100–108, Nov.2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Cheng, M. De Andrade, B. Skubic, J. Ahmed, and L. Wosinska, “Enhancing IPACT with limited service for multi-thread DBA in long-reach EPON,” in Communications and Photonics Conf. and Exhibition (ACP), Asia, 2010.

Xiong, N.

N. Xiong, X. Jia, L. T. Yang, A. V. Vasilakos, Y. Li, and Y. Pan, “A distributed efficient flow control scheme for multirate multicast networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1254–1266, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Yang, L. T.

N. Xiong, X. Jia, L. T. Yang, A. V. Vasilakos, Y. Li, and Y. Pan, “A distributed efficient flow control scheme for multirate multicast networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1254–1266, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Ye, Y.

C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, and M. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, 2003.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, and R. Hirth, “Supporting differentiated classes of service in Ethernet passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 1, no. 8, pp. 280–298, 2002.

Yin, S.

S. Yin and N. Ansari, “Nonlinear predictor-based dynamic resource allocation over point-to-multipoint (P2PM) networks: A control theoretical approach,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 1052–1062, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, Y. Luo, N. Ansari, and T. Wang, “Non-linear predictor-based dynamic bandwidth allocation over TDM-PONs: Stability analysis and controller design,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5186–5190.

Zhang, S.-Y.

T. Wei and S.-Y. Zhang, “Active queue management based on single neural adaptive PID algorithm,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Computer Science and Software Engineering, Dec. 2008, vol. 4, pp. 923–926.

Control Eng. Pract.

K. J. Aström and T. Hägglund, “The future of PID control,” Control Eng. Pract., vol. 9, pp. 1163–1175, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, and J.-T. Lim, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in Ethernet passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 13, pp. 1001–1002, June2003.
[CrossRef]

Eur. Trans. Telecommun.

N. Merayo, T. Jimenez, P. Fernandez, R. J. Duran, R. M. Lorenzo, I. de Miguel, and E. J. Abril, “A bandwidth assignment polling algorithm to enhance the efficiency in QoS long-reach EPONs,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 35–44, Dec.2011.
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc.: Control Theory Appl.

M.-T. Ho and Y.-W. Tu, “Position control of a single-link flexible manipulator using Hinf-based PID control,” IEE Proc.: Control Theory Appl., vol. 153, no. 5, Sept.2006.

P. Cominos and N. Munro, “PID controllers: recent tuning methods and design to specification,” IEE Proc.: Control Theory Appl., vol. 149, no. I, pp. 46–53, Jan.2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, B. Chen, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for long-reach PON: overcoming performance degradation,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 100–108, Nov.2010.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb.2002.

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials

M. Mcgarry, M. Reisslein, and M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network architectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 46–60, Sept.2008.
[CrossRef]

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Bandwidth distribution solutions for performance enhancement in long-reach passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1–20, Sept.2011.
[CrossRef]

H. Song, B. W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey of research challenges, demonstrations and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Control Syst. Mag.

C. Knospe, “PID control,” IEEE Control Syst. Mag., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 30–31, Feb.2006.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

H. Song, A. Banerjee, B. W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Multi-thread polling: A dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134–142, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, F. Auzarda, and M. Scheutzow, “Shortest propagation delay (SPD) first scheduling for EPONs with heterogeneous propagation delays,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 849–861, 2010.
[CrossRef]

C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, and M. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Syst. J.

B. Kantarci and M. T. Mouftah, “Periodic GATE optimization (PGO): A new service scheme for long-reach passive optical networks,” IEEE Syst. J., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 440–448, 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol.

K. H. Ang, G. Chong, and Y. Li, “PID control system analysis, design and technology,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 559–576, July2005.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.

N. Xiong, X. Jia, L. T. Yang, A. V. Vasilakos, Y. Li, and Y. Pan, “A distributed efficient flow control scheme for multirate multicast networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1254–1266, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

J. Opt. Netw.

Photonic Network Commun.

T. Jiménez, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, R. J. Durán, R. M. Lorenzo, I. de Miguel, and E. J. Abril, “Self-adapted algorithm to provide multi-profile bandwidth guarantees in PONs with symmetric and asymmetric traffic load,” Photonic Network Commun., to be published.

N. Merayo, T. Jiménez, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, I. de Miguel, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “Adaptive polling algorithm to provide subscriber differentiation in a long-reach EPON,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 257–264, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Other

K. J. Aström and T. Hägglund, PID Controllers: Theory, Design and Tuning, 2nd ed.Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1995.

K. J. Aström and T. Hägglund, “Advanced PID Control,” ISA-The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2006.

R. Isermann, Digital Control Systems Vol I: Fundamentals, Deterministic Control, 2nd ed.Springer-Verlag, 1989.

T. Wei and S.-Y. Zhang, “Active queue management based on single neural adaptive PID algorithm,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Computer Science and Software Engineering, Dec. 2008, vol. 4, pp. 923–926.

S. Ryu, C. Rump, and C. Qiao, “A predictive and robust active queue management for Internet congestion control,” in Proc. of ISCC’03, 2003.

T. Tachibana, K. Kogiso, and K. Sugimoto, “Dynamic management of computing and network resources with PID control in optical grid networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Commun., May 2008, pp. 396–400.

S. Yin, Y. Luo, N. Ansari, and T. Wang, “Non-linear predictor-based dynamic bandwidth allocation over TDM-PONs: Stability analysis and controller design,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5186–5190.

Opnet Modeler [Online]. Available: http://www.opnet.com.

IEEE 802.3ah Ethernet in the First File Task Force [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee802.org/3/efm/public/.

NTT VDSL service plan [Online]. Available: http://www.asist.co.jp/jensspinnet/bflets.html.

T. Jiménez, N. Merayo, I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, P. Fernández, J. C. Aguado, N. Fernández, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, “PID strategies for the dynamic allocation of resources in LR-Ethernet passive optical networks,” in 16th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.

J. Cheng, M. De Andrade, B. Skubic, J. Ahmed, and L. Wosinska, “Enhancing IPACT with limited service for multi-thread DBA in long-reach EPON,” in Communications and Photonics Conf. and Exhibition (ACP), Asia, 2010.

V. Dharmalingam, S. Sundaram, and M. Arumugam, “Conductivity based PID tuning for long time delay process using simulation technique,” in Proc. SICE 2003 Annu. Conf., Aug.2003, vol. 1, pp. 191–196.

N. Antunes, C. Fricker, P. Robert, and J. Roberts, “GATE-driven dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation for WDM-EPONs,” in IEEE Global Telecomm. Conf., 2010, pp. 1–5.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of a system controlled by a PID.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of the proposed PID process to control the bandwidth allocation in LR-PONs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Variation of the mean allocated bandwidth for (a) low Ku values and (b) high Ku values.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Variation of the mean allocated bandwidth versus the time for different values of T (Eq. (2)) .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Variation of the mean allocated bandwidth along the time for (a) high values of T and (b) low values of T.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Evolution of the mean allocated bandwidth along the time to the guaranteed bandwidth for SLA0 in SPID and DySGAB.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Instant variation of the maximum permitted bandwidth of SLA0 along the time for SPID and DySGAB.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Standard deviation of the mean allocated bandwidth over the maximum permitted bandwidth of SLA0..

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Demanded and offered bandwidth to each ONU of SLA0, SLA1 and SLA2 under the three scenarios for SPID and DySGAB.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Evolution of the mean allocated bandwidth along the time of the SLA0 profile assuming different initial bandwidth conditions.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Variation of the mean allocated bandwidth versus the time for different execution frequency times in DySGAB.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Variation of the mean allocated bandwidth of the SLA1 profile when the guaranteed bandwidth levels vary along the time.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Mean packet delay versus the ONU load for SLA0, SLA1 and SLA2 when comparing SPID and DySGAB.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Considered Weights to Establish Different Initial Maximum Bandwidths for SLA0, SLA1 and SLA2

Tables Icon

Table II Different Guaranteed Bandwidth Levels for SLA1 Along the Time