Abstract

Recent advances in nanophotonic fabrication have made the optical network-on-chip an attractive interconnect option for next-generation multi-/many-core systems, providing high bandwidth and power efficiency. Both post-fabrication and runtime calibration of the optical components (ring resonators) are essential to building a robust optical communication system, as they are highly sensitive to process and thermal variation. Existing tuning methods based on bias voltage and temperature adjustment require excessive power to fully compensate for these variations. In this work, we propose a set of complementary techniques to address this challenge and significantly reduce the tuning power consumption: 1) a subchannel remapping scheme to decrease the required tuning from the free spectral range to less than one channel (typically less than 1 nm); 2) a transceiver-based network topology capable of building and tuning far fewer rings while maintaining the same system throughput. Our results show that the proposed methods can together reduce the tuning power by as much as 99.85%.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

2011

R. Loiacono, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, R. Gwilliam, S. J. Henley, Y. Hu, R. Feldesh, and R. Jones, “Laser erasable implanted gratings for integrated silicon photonics,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 10728–10734, 2011.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Ackert, J. K. Doylend, D. F. Logan, P. E. Jessop, R. Vafaei, L. Chrostowski, and A. P. Knights, “Defect-mediated resonance shift of silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 11969–11976, 2011.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sherwood-Droz and M. Lipson, “Scalable 3D dense integration of photonics on bulk silicon,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, pp. 17758–17765, 2011.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 567–579, June2011.
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, M. Mohamed, X. Chen, E. Dudley, K. Meng, L. Shang, A. R. Mickelson, R. Joseph, M. Vachharajani, B. Schwartz, and Y. Sun, “Reliability modeling and management of nanophotonic on-chip networks,” IEEE Trans. VLSI Syst., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 98–111, 2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Hyundai, M. N. Sysak, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. B. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, “Device and integration technology for silicon photonic transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 671–688, Mar.2011.
[CrossRef]

S. K. Moore, “Top 11 technologies of the decade; #5: Multicore CPUs,” IEEE Spectrum, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 40–42, Jan.2011.

D. Liang, S. Srinivasan, S. T. Todd, G. Kurczveil, J. E. Bowers, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Optimization of hybrid silicon microring lasers,” IEEE Photonics J., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 580–587, June2011.
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Athermalizing and trimming of slotted silicon microring resonators with UV-sensitive PMMA upper-cladding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 17, pp. 1175–1177, Sept.2009.
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, X. Luo, and A. W. Poon, “Cavity-enhanced photocurrent generation by 1.55 µm wavelengths linear absorption in a p–i–n diode embedded silicon microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 95, 171111, 2009.
[PubMed]

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 989–997, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-µm radius,” Opt. Express, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 4309–4315, Mar.2008.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Hegde and S. K. Sitaraman, “Thermal aging reliability of package-level polymer optical waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 410–416, May2008.
[CrossRef]

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. Carloni, “Photonic networks on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 1246–1260, Sept.2008.
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 767–769, May2008.
[CrossRef]

2007

2005

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature, vol. 435, pp. 325–327, May2005.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature, vol. 431, pp. 1081–1084, 2004.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ackert, J. J.

Ahn, H.

Ahn, J.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 989–997, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J. H.

N. Binkert, A. Davis, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, N. Muralimanohar, R. Schreiber, and J. H. Ahn, “The role of optics in future high radix switch design,” in ISCA, San Jose, CA, June 2011.

D. Vantrease, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. H. Ahn, “Corona: System implications of emerging nanophotonic technology,” in ISCA, 2008.

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature, vol. 431, pp. 1081–1084, 2004.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asanovic, K.

A. Joshi, C. Batten, Y. J. Kwon, S. Beamer, I. Shamim, K. Asanovic, and V. Stojanovic, “Silicon-photonic Clos networks for global on-chip communication,” in NOCS-3, May 2009.

Asghari, M.

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 10941–10946, 2010.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Broadly tunable high speed silicon micro-ring modulator,” in IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, July 2010, pp. 197–198.

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature, vol. 431, pp. 1081–1084, 2004.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Batten, C.

A. Joshi, C. Batten, Y. J. Kwon, S. Beamer, I. Shamim, K. Asanovic, and V. Stojanovic, “Silicon-photonic Clos networks for global on-chip communication,” in NOCS-3, May 2009.

Beamer, S.

A. Joshi, C. Batten, Y. J. Kwon, S. Beamer, I. Shamim, K. Asanovic, and V. Stojanovic, “Silicon-photonic Clos networks for global on-chip communication,” in NOCS-3, May 2009.

Beausoleil, R. G.

D. Liang, S. Srinivasan, S. T. Todd, G. Kurczveil, J. E. Bowers, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Optimization of hybrid silicon microring lasers,” IEEE Photonics J., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 580–587, June2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 989–997, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-µm radius,” Opt. Express, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 4309–4315, Mar.2008.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Vantrease, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. H. Ahn, “Corona: System implications of emerging nanophotonic technology,” in ISCA, 2008.

Bergman, K.

J. Chan and K. Bergman, “Photonic interconnection network architectures using wavelength-selective spatial routing for chip-scale communications,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 189–201, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. Carloni, “Photonic networks on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 1246–1260, Sept.2008.
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 767–769, May2008.
[CrossRef]

G. Hendry, J. Chan, S. Kamil, L. Oliker, J. Shalf, L. Carloni, and K. Bergman, “Silicon nanophotonic network-on-chip using TDM arbitration,” in 2010 IEEE 18th Annu. Symp. on High Performance Interconnects (HOTI), Aug. 2010, pp. 88–95.

Bernier, E.

E. Bernier, M. Vukovic, D. J. Goodwill, P. F. Daspit, and G. Q. Wang, “OMNInet: A metropolitan 10 Gb/s DWDM photonic switched network trial,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Feb. 2004.

Biberman, A.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 767–769, May2008.
[CrossRef]

Binkert, N.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 989–997, 2009.
[CrossRef]

D. Vantrease, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. H. Ahn, “Corona: System implications of emerging nanophotonic technology,” in ISCA, 2008.

N. Binkert, A. Davis, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, N. Muralimanohar, R. Schreiber, and J. H. Ahn, “The role of optics in future high radix switch design,” in ISCA, San Jose, CA, June 2011.

Borkar, N.

S. R. Vangal, J. Howard, G. Ruhl, S. Dighe, H. Wilson, J. Tschanz, D. Finan, A. Singh, T. Jacob, S. Jain, V. Erraguntla, C. Roberts, Y. Hoskote, N. Borkar, and S. Borkar, “An 80-tile sub-100-W TeraFLOPS processor in 65-nm CMOS,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf., Jan. 2008.

Borkar, S.

S. R. Vangal, J. Howard, G. Ruhl, S. Dighe, H. Wilson, J. Tschanz, D. Finan, A. Singh, T. Jacob, S. Jain, V. Erraguntla, C. Roberts, Y. Hoskote, N. Borkar, and S. Borkar, “An 80-tile sub-100-W TeraFLOPS processor in 65-nm CMOS,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf., Jan. 2008.

Bovington, J.

P. Hyundai, M. N. Sysak, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. B. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, “Device and integration technology for silicon photonic transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 671–688, Mar.2011.
[CrossRef]

Y. Zheng, P. Lisherness, M. Gao, J. Bovington, S. Yang, and K. T. Cheng, “Power-efficient calibration and reconfiguration for on-chip optical communication,” in DATE12, Dresden, Germany, Mar. 2012.

Bowers, J. E.

D. Liang, S. Srinivasan, S. T. Todd, G. Kurczveil, J. E. Bowers, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Optimization of hybrid silicon microring lasers,” IEEE Photonics J., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 580–587, June2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Hyundai, M. N. Sysak, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. B. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, “Device and integration technology for silicon photonic transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 671–688, Mar.2011.
[CrossRef]

B. R. Koch, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode-locked silicon evanescent lasers,” Opt. Express, vol. 15, no. 18, pp. 11225–11233, 2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carloni, L.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) (a) Ring resonator structure; (b) optical switch structure; (c) transmission spectra of a ring resonator with respect to the resonant wavelength controlled by the bias voltage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Example of FSR and 3-channel WDM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Optical WDM network topology in Corona.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) A 3-channel optical communication example. LC: logic channel; TDD: tuning distance for the direct tuning method; TDC: tuning distance after channel remapping.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Subchannel redundant ring: (a) one ring per channel; (b) 1/3 subchannel rings with tuning-on and tuning-away distance denoted.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Parameters in one waveguide subchannel configuration.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Transceiver-based communication mechanism.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) (a) Transceiver-based communication mechanism for 4 nodes (one channel). Thick arrows denote the additional communication options provided by transceivers. (b) Asymmetry in the transceiver-based topology. (c) Symmetric transceiver-based topology.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Topology with 3 nodes per channel.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Waveguide with active and inactive segments.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Saving in number of rings that need tuning, with methods proposed in Section V, normalized to the original transceiver-based network in Fig. 8(c).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Total tuning power of 64-node systems with the same throughput (20 TB/s) using different combinations of tuning power saving methods.