Abstract

Optimization of IP over dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) networks is studied under the constraints of energy and cost minimization. Realistic IP traffic mapped to the optical DWDM layer together with leased lines form the basic traffic load, which is expanded by factors of 33 and 100 for a 10-year projection. The DWDM core network (USA 66) is analyzed for mixed-line-rate (MLR) and reach/bandwidth-adaptive scenarios; the latter is realized by optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. Both scenarios are studied for flat and hierarchical network approaches and for different channel grid configurations. Network optimization due to capital expenditure and power consumption yield no significant differences for the IP layer regarding different scenarios (flat and hierarchical) or network approaches (MLR and adaptive network). In contrast, the wavelength division multiplexing layer shows benefits for the hierarchical network regarding cost and power and for the adaptive approach regarding the total number of transponders and fibers used. We show that elastic and MLR networks can achieve comparable performance levels using a 12.5 GHz grid. This article is a more detailed version of Klekamp et al., OFC, 2012, OTh3B.1, and extends previous studies in a German network [J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, p. 215, 2012], now comparing the techniques in a US network under different conditions regarding distances and topology.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. A. Klekamp, U. Gebhard, and F. Ilchmann, “Efficiency of adaptive and mixed-line-rate IP over DWDM networks regarding CAPEX and power consumption,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2012, OTh3B.1.
  2. A. Klekamp, U. Gebhard, and F. Ilchmann, “Energy and cost efficiency of adaptive and mixed-line-rate IP over DWDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 215–221, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 466–475, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Klekamp, F. Buchali, and R. Dischler, “Comparison of DWDM network topologies with bit-rate adaptive optical OFDM regarding restoration,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010, P5.05.
  5. A. Bocoi, “Reach-dependent capacity in optical networks enabled by OFDM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2009, OMQ4.
  6. A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Transmission reach of optical-OFDM superchannels with 10–600 Gb/s for transparent bit-rate adaptive networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Tu3.K.2.
  7. G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  8. Cisco [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com, http://www.ciscobuy.com.
  9. A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “First shared path protection scheme for generalized network connectivity in gridless optical WDM networks,” in Asian Communications and Photonics Conf. and Exhibition (ACP), 2010, PD6.
  10. NetWorks [Online]. Available: www.networks.detecon.com.
  11. K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2010, ONS06.
  12. K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Vararigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2011, OTuI8.

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, 2010.
[CrossRef]

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 466–475, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Bocoi, A.

A. Bocoi, “Reach-dependent capacity in optical networks enabled by OFDM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2009, OMQ4.

Buchali, F.

A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Transmission reach of optical-OFDM superchannels with 10–600 Gb/s for transparent bit-rate adaptive networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Tu3.K.2.

A. Klekamp, F. Buchali, and R. Dischler, “Comparison of DWDM network topologies with bit-rate adaptive optical OFDM regarding restoration,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010, P5.05.

Bunse, S.

G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Christodoulopoulos, K.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Vararigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2010, ONS06.

Dembeck, L.

G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Dischler, R.

A. Klekamp, F. Buchali, and R. Dischler, “Comparison of DWDM network topologies with bit-rate adaptive optical OFDM regarding restoration,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010, P5.05.

A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Transmission reach of optical-OFDM superchannels with 10–600 Gb/s for transparent bit-rate adaptive networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Tu3.K.2.

Eilenberger, G.

G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Gebhard, U.

A. Klekamp, U. Gebhard, and F. Ilchmann, “Energy and cost efficiency of adaptive and mixed-line-rate IP over DWDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 215–221, 2012.
[CrossRef]

G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, 2010.
[CrossRef]

A. Klekamp, U. Gebhard, and F. Ilchmann, “Efficiency of adaptive and mixed-line-rate IP over DWDM networks regarding CAPEX and power consumption,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2012, OTh3B.1.

Ilchmann, F.

A. Klekamp, U. Gebhard, and F. Ilchmann, “Energy and cost efficiency of adaptive and mixed-line-rate IP over DWDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 215–221, 2012.
[CrossRef]

G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, 2010.
[CrossRef]

A. Klekamp, U. Gebhard, and F. Ilchmann, “Efficiency of adaptive and mixed-line-rate IP over DWDM networks regarding CAPEX and power consumption,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2012, OTh3B.1.

Ji, P. N.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “First shared path protection scheme for generalized network connectivity in gridless optical WDM networks,” in Asian Communications and Photonics Conf. and Exhibition (ACP), 2010, PD6.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2011, OTuI8.

Jue, J. P.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2011, OTuI8.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “First shared path protection scheme for generalized network connectivity in gridless optical WDM networks,” in Asian Communications and Photonics Conf. and Exhibition (ACP), 2010, PD6.

Klekamp, A.

A. Klekamp, U. Gebhard, and F. Ilchmann, “Energy and cost efficiency of adaptive and mixed-line-rate IP over DWDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 215–221, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Transmission reach of optical-OFDM superchannels with 10–600 Gb/s for transparent bit-rate adaptive networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Tu3.K.2.

A. Klekamp, F. Buchali, and R. Dischler, “Comparison of DWDM network topologies with bit-rate adaptive optical OFDM regarding restoration,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010, P5.05.

A. Klekamp, U. Gebhard, and F. Ilchmann, “Efficiency of adaptive and mixed-line-rate IP over DWDM networks regarding CAPEX and power consumption,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2012, OTh3B.1.

Lautenschlaeger, W.

G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Milbrandt, J.

G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

Nag, A.

Patel, A. N.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “First shared path protection scheme for generalized network connectivity in gridless optical WDM networks,” in Asian Communications and Photonics Conf. and Exhibition (ACP), 2010, PD6.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2011, OTuI8.

Tomkos, I.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Vararigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2010, ONS06.

Tornatore, M.

Vararigos, E. A.

Varvarigos, E. A.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2010, ONS06.

Wang, T.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “First shared path protection scheme for generalized network connectivity in gridless optical WDM networks,” in Asian Communications and Photonics Conf. and Exhibition (ACP), 2010, PD6.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2011, OTuI8.

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, 2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Other (9)

A. Klekamp, F. Buchali, and R. Dischler, “Comparison of DWDM network topologies with bit-rate adaptive optical OFDM regarding restoration,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010, P5.05.

A. Bocoi, “Reach-dependent capacity in optical networks enabled by OFDM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2009, OMQ4.

A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Transmission reach of optical-OFDM superchannels with 10–600 Gb/s for transparent bit-rate adaptive networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Tu3.K.2.

Cisco [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com, http://www.ciscobuy.com.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “First shared path protection scheme for generalized network connectivity in gridless optical WDM networks,” in Asian Communications and Photonics Conf. and Exhibition (ACP), 2010, PD6.

NetWorks [Online]. Available: www.networks.detecon.com.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2010, ONS06.

A. Klekamp, U. Gebhard, and F. Ilchmann, “Efficiency of adaptive and mixed-line-rate IP over DWDM networks regarding CAPEX and power consumption,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2012, OTh3B.1.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2011, OTuI8.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) DWDM layer (top) and IP layer (bottom, start configuration before optimization) of the network used for simulations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Results for the optimized IP layer: IP link capacity for 2010 (left) and 2020 (right), hierarchical (top) and flat (bottom) scenarios, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Results for the WDM layer: Allocation of WDM links for 2010 (left) and 2020 (right), hierarchical (top) and flat (bottom) scenarios, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Results for the optimized network: normalized CAPEX (top) and power consumption (bottom).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) WDM layer: Normalized CAPEX (top) and power consumption (bottom). See text for explanation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) WDM layer: Number of transponders.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) WDM layer: Mean number of fibers used per link for different frequency grids. See text for explanation.

Tables (2)

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Table I IP Router Parameters (Normalized)

Tables Icon

Table II WDM Parameters

Equations (1)

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R=804.3ln(BR)+5584.6,