Abstract

With the continuous growth of traffic in Internet Protocol (IP) networks, the issue of energy consumption in these networks has been growing in importance. “Next-generation networks” have been predicted as having a potential to reduce energy consumption of packet switched IP networks; however, these predictions have generally not been quantified. This paper provides a demonstration of how these energy savings could be achieved, through architectures including the appropriate application of both circuit switching and packet switching network layers. In this paper, we show that energy savings of around 70% could be achieved through a coordinated cross-layer aggregation and bypass process which can be conveniently implemented by network technologies such as automatically switched optical networks, and generalized multi-protocol label switching, compared to a network using full IP routing at each node.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. ITU-T, “Next Generation Networks—Frameworks and functional architecture models,” Y.2001, Dec.2004.
  2. N. Ghani, L. Qing, A. Gumaste, J. Lankford, A. Shami, C. Assi, A. Khalil, and D. Benhaddou, “Value-added services in next-generation SONET/SDH networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 64–73, Nov.2008.
    [CrossRef]
  3. ITU-T, “Interfaces for the Optical Transport Network (OTN),” G.709, Oct.2009.
  4. S. Dixit, IP over WDM: Building the Next Generation Optical Internet. Wiley, Feb.2003.
  5. J. Berthold, A. A. M. Saleh, L. Blair, and J. M. Simmons, “Optical networking: past, present, and future,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1104–1118, May2008.
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. A. M. Saleh and J. M. Simmons, “Evolution toward the next-generation core optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 3303–3321, Sept.2006.
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, B. Doverspike, J. Gannett, J. Klincewicz, G. Ligli, R. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Von Lehmen, and D. Xu, “Network design and architectures for highly-dynamic next-generation IP-over-optical long distance networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1878–1890, June2009.
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. A. M. Saleh and J. M. Simmons, “Technology and architecture to enable the explosive growth of the Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 126–132, Jan.2011.
    [CrossRef]
  9. Cisco, “Converge IP and DWDM layers in the core network,” White Paper, June2007.
  10. Juniper, “OTN interfaces for IP over DWDM,” White Paper, Apr.2010.
  11. J. Baliga, K. Hinton, R. Ayre, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in optical IP networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 2391–2403, July2009.
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. Tamm, C. Hermsmeyer, and A. Rush, “Eco-sustainable system and network architectures for future transport networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 311–327, Feb.2010.
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy-efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, Sept.2010.
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. S. Matthews, “Planning energy efficiency and eco sustainable telecommunications networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 147–167, June2010.
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communications networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 275–284, Mar./Apr.2011.
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Z. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet,” IEEE Network, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 6–12, Mar./Apr.2011.
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: Overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 62–69, June2011.
    [CrossRef]
  18. ITU-T, “Architecture for the automatically switched optical networks (ASON),” G.8080, June2006.
  19. E. Mannie, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” IETF RFC 3945, Oct.2004.
  20. A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, B. Turner, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of routing and management enhancements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 144–150, Jan.2001.
  21. Q. Song, Z. Li, I. Habib, and W. Alanqar, “Value-added proposition of the GMPLS control plane in IP optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 838–855, Dec.2005.
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Chahine, A. Kirstadter, A. Iselt, and S. Pasqualini, “Operational cost reduction using ASON/ASTN,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Anaheim, Mar. 2005.
  23. S. Pasqualini, A. Kirstadter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Influence of GMPLS on network providers’ operational expenditures: A quantitative study,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 28–38, July2005.
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F. J. Westphal, M. Jager, A. Iselt, A. Kirstadter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Modelling operational expenditures for telecom operators,” in Conf. on Optical Networks Design & Modelling, Milan, Feb. 2005.
  25. R. Parthiban, R. S. Tucker, and C. Leckie, “Waveband grooming and IP aggregation in optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2476–2488, Nov.2003.
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. M. Simmons, Optical Network Design and Planning. Springer, June2008.
  27. F. Vismara, V. Grkovic, F. Musumeci, M. Tornatore, and S. Bregni, “On the energy efficiency of IP-over-WDM networks,” in IEEE Latin-American Conf. on Communications (LATINCOM), 15–17 Sept. 2010, pp. 1–6.
  28. W. Van Heddeghem, M. De Groote, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming, (invited),” in Proc. of 14th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 2010, pp. 1–6.
  29. Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July2011.
    [CrossRef]
  30. L. Wang, R. Lu, Q. Li, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Energy efficient design for multi-shelf IP over WDM networks,” in IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM), Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Apr. 2011, pp. 349–354.
  31. M. Caria, M. Chamania, and A. Jukan, “A comparative performance study of load adaptive energy saving schemes for IP-over-WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 152–164, Mar.2012.
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Aleksic, “Analysis of power consumption in future high-capacity network nodes,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 245–258, Aug.2009.
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Fiorani, M. Casoni, and S. Aleksic, “Analysis of a GMPLS enabled hybrid optical switching network,” in 16th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Apr. 2012, pp. 1–6.
  34. K. Guan, D. C. Kilper, and G. Atkinson, “Evaluating the energy benefit of dynamic optical bypass for content delivery,” in IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM), Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Apr. 2011, pp. 313–318.
  35. P. Wiatr, P. Monti, and L. Wosinska, “Power savings versus network performance in dynamically provisioned WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 48–55, May2012.
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. V. Kartalopoulos, Understanding SONET/SDH and ATM: Communications Networks for the Next Millennium. Wiley-IEEE Press, Apr.1999.
  37. J. Vasseur, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, Network Recovery: Protection and Restoration of Optical, SONET-SDH, IP, and MPLS. Morgan Kaufmann, Aug.2004.
  38. Internet Engineering Task Force, “OSPF extensions in support of generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS),” RFC-4203, Oct.2005.
  39. Internet Engineering Task Force, “Evaluation of existing routing protocols against automatically switched optical network (ASON) routing requirements,” RFC-4652, Oct.2006.
  40. A. W. Moore, “Measurement-based management of network resources,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Apr.2002.
  41. A. Odlyzko, “Data networks are lightly utilized and will stay that way,” Rev. Netw. Econom., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 210–237, Sept.2003.
  42. Internet Engineering Task Force, “Routing extensions in support of generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS),” RFC-4202, Oct.2005.
  43. K. Chandra, “Statistical multiplexing,” in Wiley Encyclopaedia of Telecommunications. John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2003.
  44. A. Alimian, B. Nordman, and D. Kharitonov, “Network and Telecom Equipment—Energy and Performance Assessment,” ECR Initiative, Dec.2010.
  45. Cisco Data Sheets [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com.
  46. Infinera Data Sheets [Online]. Available: http://www.infinera.com.
  47. Calient Data Sheets [Online]. Available: http://www.calient.net.
  48. Transmode Data Sheets [Online]. Available: http://www.transmode.com.
  49. Juniper Data Sheets [Online]. Available: http://www.juniper.net.
  50. Infinera Optical Line Amplifier Data Sheets [Online]. Available: http://www.infinera.com.
  51. D. Mills and H. Braun, “The NSFNET backbone network,” in Proc. of SIGCOMM ’87 Workshop on Frontiers in Computer Communications Technology, Vermont, Aug. 1987, pp. 191–196.
  52. R. Sinha, C. Papadopoulos, and J. Heidemann, “Internet packet size distributions: Some observations,” Tech. Rep. ISI-TR-2007-643, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May2007.
  53. W. John and S. Tafvelin, “Analysis of Internet backbone traffic and header anomalies observed,” in SIGCOMM Conf. on Internet Measurement, San Diego, Aug. 2007.
  54. Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis Research, “Packet size distribution comparison between internet links in 1998 and 2008,” Mar.2008.
  55. T. Karagiannis, M. Molle, M. Faloutsos, and A. Broido, “A nonstationary Poisson view of Internet traffic,” in Proc. of INFOCOM, Mar. 2004, vol. 3, pp. 1558–1569.
  56. G. Terdik and T. Gyires, “Does the Internet still demonstrate fractal nature,” in Int. Conf. on Networks, Guadeloupe, May 2009, pp. 30–34.

2012 (2)

P. Wiatr, P. Monti, and L. Wosinska, “Power savings versus network performance in dynamically provisioned WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 48–55, May2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Caria, M. Chamania, and A. Jukan, “A comparative performance study of load adaptive energy saving schemes for IP-over-WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 152–164, Mar.2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July2011.
[CrossRef]

D. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communications networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 275–284, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Z. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet,” IEEE Network, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 6–12, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: Overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 62–69, June2011.
[CrossRef]

A. A. M. Saleh and J. M. Simmons, “Technology and architecture to enable the explosive growth of the Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 126–132, Jan.2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

O. Tamm, C. Hermsmeyer, and A. Rush, “Eco-sustainable system and network architectures for future transport networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 311–327, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy-efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

H. S. Matthews, “Planning energy efficiency and eco sustainable telecommunications networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 147–167, June2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

N. Ghani, L. Qing, A. Gumaste, J. Lankford, A. Shami, C. Assi, A. Khalil, and D. Benhaddou, “Value-added services in next-generation SONET/SDH networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 64–73, Nov.2008.
[CrossRef]

J. Berthold, A. A. M. Saleh, L. Blair, and J. M. Simmons, “Optical networking: past, present, and future,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1104–1118, May2008.
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

Q. Song, Z. Li, I. Habib, and W. Alanqar, “Value-added proposition of the GMPLS control plane in IP optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 838–855, Dec.2005.
[CrossRef]

S. Pasqualini, A. Kirstadter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Influence of GMPLS on network providers’ operational expenditures: A quantitative study,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 28–38, July2005.
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. Odlyzko, “Data networks are lightly utilized and will stay that way,” Rev. Netw. Econom., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 210–237, Sept.2003.

R. Parthiban, R. S. Tucker, and C. Leckie, “Waveband grooming and IP aggregation in optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2476–2488, Nov.2003.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, B. Turner, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of routing and management enhancements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 144–150, Jan.2001.

Alanqar, W.

Aleksic, S.

S. Aleksic, “Analysis of power consumption in future high-capacity network nodes,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 245–258, Aug.2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Fiorani, M. Casoni, and S. Aleksic, “Analysis of a GMPLS enabled hybrid optical switching network,” in 16th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Apr. 2012, pp. 1–6.

Alimian, A.

A. Alimian, B. Nordman, and D. Kharitonov, “Network and Telecom Equipment—Energy and Performance Assessment,” ECR Initiative, Dec.2010.

Assi, C.

N. Ghani, L. Qing, A. Gumaste, J. Lankford, A. Shami, C. Assi, A. Khalil, and D. Benhaddou, “Value-added services in next-generation SONET/SDH networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 64–73, Nov.2008.
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, G.

D. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communications networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 275–284, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Guan, D. C. Kilper, and G. Atkinson, “Evaluating the energy benefit of dynamic optical bypass for content delivery,” in IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM), Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Apr. 2011, pp. 313–318.

Ayre, R.

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Z. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet,” IEEE Network, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 6–12, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, K. Hinton, R. Ayre, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in optical IP networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 2391–2403, July2009.
[CrossRef]

Baliga, J.

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Z. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet,” IEEE Network, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 6–12, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, K. Hinton, R. Ayre, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in optical IP networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 2391–2403, July2009.
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, A.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, B. Turner, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of routing and management enhancements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 144–150, Jan.2001.

Benhaddou, D.

N. Ghani, L. Qing, A. Gumaste, J. Lankford, A. Shami, C. Assi, A. Khalil, and D. Benhaddou, “Value-added services in next-generation SONET/SDH networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 64–73, Nov.2008.
[CrossRef]

Berthold, J.

Blair, L.

Blume, O.

D. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communications networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 275–284, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

Braun, H.

D. Mills and H. Braun, “The NSFNET backbone network,” in Proc. of SIGCOMM ’87 Workshop on Frontiers in Computer Communications Technology, Vermont, Aug. 1987, pp. 191–196.

Bregni, S.

F. Vismara, V. Grkovic, F. Musumeci, M. Tornatore, and S. Bregni, “On the energy efficiency of IP-over-WDM networks,” in IEEE Latin-American Conf. on Communications (LATINCOM), 15–17 Sept. 2010, pp. 1–6.

Broido, A.

T. Karagiannis, M. Molle, M. Faloutsos, and A. Broido, “A nonstationary Poisson view of Internet traffic,” in Proc. of INFOCOM, Mar. 2004, vol. 3, pp. 1558–1569.

Bunse, S.

G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy-efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Caria, M.

Casoni, M.

M. Fiorani, M. Casoni, and S. Aleksic, “Analysis of a GMPLS enabled hybrid optical switching network,” in 16th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Apr. 2012, pp. 1–6.

Chahine, R.

S. Pasqualini, A. Kirstadter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Influence of GMPLS on network providers’ operational expenditures: A quantitative study,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 28–38, July2005.
[CrossRef]

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F. J. Westphal, M. Jager, A. Iselt, A. Kirstadter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Modelling operational expenditures for telecom operators,” in Conf. on Optical Networks Design & Modelling, Milan, Feb. 2005.

R. Chahine, A. Kirstadter, A. Iselt, and S. Pasqualini, “Operational cost reduction using ASON/ASTN,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Anaheim, Mar. 2005.

Chamania, M.

Chandra, K.

K. Chandra, “Statistical multiplexing,” in Wiley Encyclopaedia of Telecommunications. John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2003.

Chiu, A.

Choudhury, G.

Chowdhury, P.

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July2011.
[CrossRef]

Clapp, G.

Colle, D.

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: Overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 62–69, June2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Pasqualini, A. Kirstadter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Influence of GMPLS on network providers’ operational expenditures: A quantitative study,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 28–38, July2005.
[CrossRef]

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F. J. Westphal, M. Jager, A. Iselt, A. Kirstadter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Modelling operational expenditures for telecom operators,” in Conf. on Optical Networks Design & Modelling, Milan, Feb. 2005.

W. Van Heddeghem, M. De Groote, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming, (invited),” in Proc. of 14th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 2010, pp. 1–6.

De Groote, M.

W. Van Heddeghem, M. De Groote, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming, (invited),” in Proc. of 14th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 2010, pp. 1–6.

Dembeck, L.

G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy-efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P.

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: Overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 62–69, June2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Pasqualini, A. Kirstadter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Influence of GMPLS on network providers’ operational expenditures: A quantitative study,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 28–38, July2005.
[CrossRef]

W. Van Heddeghem, M. De Groote, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming, (invited),” in Proc. of 14th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 2010, pp. 1–6.

J. Vasseur, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, Network Recovery: Protection and Restoration of Optical, SONET-SDH, IP, and MPLS. Morgan Kaufmann, Aug.2004.

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F. J. Westphal, M. Jager, A. Iselt, A. Kirstadter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Modelling operational expenditures for telecom operators,” in Conf. on Optical Networks Design & Modelling, Milan, Feb. 2005.

Deruyck, M.

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: Overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 62–69, June2011.
[CrossRef]

Dixit, S.

S. Dixit, IP over WDM: Building the Next Generation Optical Internet. Wiley, Feb.2003.

Doverspike, B.

Drake, J.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, B. Turner, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of routing and management enhancements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 144–150, Jan.2001.

Eilenberger, G.

G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy-efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Faloutsos, M.

T. Karagiannis, M. Molle, M. Faloutsos, and A. Broido, “A nonstationary Poisson view of Internet traffic,” in Proc. of INFOCOM, Mar. 2004, vol. 3, pp. 1558–1569.

Feng, M. Z.

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Z. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet,” IEEE Network, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 6–12, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

Fiorani, M.

M. Fiorani, M. Casoni, and S. Aleksic, “Analysis of a GMPLS enabled hybrid optical switching network,” in 16th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Apr. 2012, pp. 1–6.

Gannett, J.

Gebhard, U.

G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy-efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Ghani, N.

N. Ghani, L. Qing, A. Gumaste, J. Lankford, A. Shami, C. Assi, A. Khalil, and D. Benhaddou, “Value-added services in next-generation SONET/SDH networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 64–73, Nov.2008.
[CrossRef]

Goyal, S.

D. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communications networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 275–284, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

Grkovic, V.

F. Vismara, V. Grkovic, F. Musumeci, M. Tornatore, and S. Bregni, “On the energy efficiency of IP-over-WDM networks,” in IEEE Latin-American Conf. on Communications (LATINCOM), 15–17 Sept. 2010, pp. 1–6.

Guan, K.

K. Guan, D. C. Kilper, and G. Atkinson, “Evaluating the energy benefit of dynamic optical bypass for content delivery,” in IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM), Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Apr. 2011, pp. 313–318.

Gumaste, A.

N. Ghani, L. Qing, A. Gumaste, J. Lankford, A. Shami, C. Assi, A. Khalil, and D. Benhaddou, “Value-added services in next-generation SONET/SDH networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 64–73, Nov.2008.
[CrossRef]

Gyires, T.

G. Terdik and T. Gyires, “Does the Internet still demonstrate fractal nature,” in Int. Conf. on Networks, Guadeloupe, May 2009, pp. 30–34.

Habib, I.

Heidemann, J.

R. Sinha, C. Papadopoulos, and J. Heidemann, “Internet packet size distributions: Some observations,” Tech. Rep. ISI-TR-2007-643, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May2007.

Hermsmeyer, C.

O. Tamm, C. Hermsmeyer, and A. Rush, “Eco-sustainable system and network architectures for future transport networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 311–327, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

Hinton, K.

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Z. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet,” IEEE Network, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 6–12, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, K. Hinton, R. Ayre, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in optical IP networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 2391–2403, July2009.
[CrossRef]

Ilchmann, F.

G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy-efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Iselt, A.

S. Pasqualini, A. Kirstadter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Influence of GMPLS on network providers’ operational expenditures: A quantitative study,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 28–38, July2005.
[CrossRef]

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F. J. Westphal, M. Jager, A. Iselt, A. Kirstadter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Modelling operational expenditures for telecom operators,” in Conf. on Optical Networks Design & Modelling, Milan, Feb. 2005.

R. Chahine, A. Kirstadter, A. Iselt, and S. Pasqualini, “Operational cost reduction using ASON/ASTN,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Anaheim, Mar. 2005.

Jager, M.

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F. J. Westphal, M. Jager, A. Iselt, A. Kirstadter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Modelling operational expenditures for telecom operators,” in Conf. on Optical Networks Design & Modelling, Milan, Feb. 2005.

John, W.

W. John and S. Tafvelin, “Analysis of Internet backbone traffic and header anomalies observed,” in SIGCOMM Conf. on Internet Measurement, San Diego, Aug. 2007.

Joseph, W.

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: Overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 62–69, June2011.
[CrossRef]

Jukan, A.

Karagiannis, T.

T. Karagiannis, M. Molle, M. Faloutsos, and A. Broido, “A nonstationary Poisson view of Internet traffic,” in Proc. of INFOCOM, Mar. 2004, vol. 3, pp. 1558–1569.

Kartalopoulos, S. V.

S. V. Kartalopoulos, Understanding SONET/SDH and ATM: Communications Networks for the Next Millennium. Wiley-IEEE Press, Apr.1999.

Khalil, A.

N. Ghani, L. Qing, A. Gumaste, J. Lankford, A. Shami, C. Assi, A. Khalil, and D. Benhaddou, “Value-added services in next-generation SONET/SDH networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 64–73, Nov.2008.
[CrossRef]

Kharitonov, D.

A. Alimian, B. Nordman, and D. Kharitonov, “Network and Telecom Equipment—Energy and Performance Assessment,” ECR Initiative, Dec.2010.

Kilper, D.

D. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communications networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 275–284, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

Kilper, D. C.

K. Guan, D. C. Kilper, and G. Atkinson, “Evaluating the energy benefit of dynamic optical bypass for content delivery,” in IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM), Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Apr. 2011, pp. 313–318.

Kirstadter, A.

S. Pasqualini, A. Kirstadter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Influence of GMPLS on network providers’ operational expenditures: A quantitative study,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 28–38, July2005.
[CrossRef]

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F. J. Westphal, M. Jager, A. Iselt, A. Kirstadter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Modelling operational expenditures for telecom operators,” in Conf. on Optical Networks Design & Modelling, Milan, Feb. 2005.

R. Chahine, A. Kirstadter, A. Iselt, and S. Pasqualini, “Operational cost reduction using ASON/ASTN,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Anaheim, Mar. 2005.

Klincewicz, J.

Kompella, K.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, B. Turner, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of routing and management enhancements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 144–150, Jan.2001.

Korotky, S. K.

D. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communications networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 275–284, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

Lang, J. P.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, B. Turner, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of routing and management enhancements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 144–150, Jan.2001.

Lankford, J.

N. Ghani, L. Qing, A. Gumaste, J. Lankford, A. Shami, C. Assi, A. Khalil, and D. Benhaddou, “Value-added services in next-generation SONET/SDH networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 64–73, Nov.2008.
[CrossRef]

Lannoo, B.

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: Overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 62–69, June2011.
[CrossRef]

Lautenschlaeger, W.

G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy-efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Leckie, C.

Li, Q.

L. Wang, R. Lu, Q. Li, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Energy efficient design for multi-shelf IP over WDM networks,” in IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM), Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Apr. 2011, pp. 349–354.

Li, Z.

Ligli, G.

Lu, R.

L. Wang, R. Lu, Q. Li, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Energy efficient design for multi-shelf IP over WDM networks,” in IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM), Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Apr. 2011, pp. 349–354.

Mannie, E.

E. Mannie, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” IETF RFC 3945, Oct.2004.

Martens, L.

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: Overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 62–69, June2011.
[CrossRef]

Matthews, H. S.

H. S. Matthews, “Planning energy efficiency and eco sustainable telecommunications networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 147–167, June2010.
[CrossRef]

Milbrandt, J.

G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy-efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Mills, D.

D. Mills and H. Braun, “The NSFNET backbone network,” in Proc. of SIGCOMM ’87 Workshop on Frontiers in Computer Communications Technology, Vermont, Aug. 1987, pp. 191–196.

Molle, M.

T. Karagiannis, M. Molle, M. Faloutsos, and A. Broido, “A nonstationary Poisson view of Internet traffic,” in Proc. of INFOCOM, Mar. 2004, vol. 3, pp. 1558–1569.

Monti, P.

P. Wiatr, P. Monti, and L. Wosinska, “Power savings versus network performance in dynamically provisioned WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 48–55, May2012.
[CrossRef]

Moore, A. W.

A. W. Moore, “Measurement-based management of network resources,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Apr.2002.

Mukherjee, B.

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July2011.
[CrossRef]

Musumeci, F.

F. Vismara, V. Grkovic, F. Musumeci, M. Tornatore, and S. Bregni, “On the energy efficiency of IP-over-WDM networks,” in IEEE Latin-American Conf. on Communications (LATINCOM), 15–17 Sept. 2010, pp. 1–6.

Nordman, B.

A. Alimian, B. Nordman, and D. Kharitonov, “Network and Telecom Equipment—Energy and Performance Assessment,” ECR Initiative, Dec.2010.

Odlyzko, A.

A. Odlyzko, “Data networks are lightly utilized and will stay that way,” Rev. Netw. Econom., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 210–237, Sept.2003.

Papadopoulos, C.

R. Sinha, C. Papadopoulos, and J. Heidemann, “Internet packet size distributions: Some observations,” Tech. Rep. ISI-TR-2007-643, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May2007.

Parthiban, R.

Pasqualini, S.

S. Pasqualini, A. Kirstadter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Influence of GMPLS on network providers’ operational expenditures: A quantitative study,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 28–38, July2005.
[CrossRef]

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F. J. Westphal, M. Jager, A. Iselt, A. Kirstadter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Modelling operational expenditures for telecom operators,” in Conf. on Optical Networks Design & Modelling, Milan, Feb. 2005.

R. Chahine, A. Kirstadter, A. Iselt, and S. Pasqualini, “Operational cost reduction using ASON/ASTN,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Anaheim, Mar. 2005.

Pickavet, M.

S. Pasqualini, A. Kirstadter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Influence of GMPLS on network providers’ operational expenditures: A quantitative study,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 28–38, July2005.
[CrossRef]

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F. J. Westphal, M. Jager, A. Iselt, A. Kirstadter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Modelling operational expenditures for telecom operators,” in Conf. on Optical Networks Design & Modelling, Milan, Feb. 2005.

W. Van Heddeghem, M. De Groote, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming, (invited),” in Proc. of 14th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 2010, pp. 1–6.

J. Vasseur, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, Network Recovery: Protection and Restoration of Optical, SONET-SDH, IP, and MPLS. Morgan Kaufmann, Aug.2004.

Puype, B.

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: Overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 62–69, June2011.
[CrossRef]

Qing, L.

N. Ghani, L. Qing, A. Gumaste, J. Lankford, A. Shami, C. Assi, A. Khalil, and D. Benhaddou, “Value-added services in next-generation SONET/SDH networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 64–73, Nov.2008.
[CrossRef]

Rekhter, Y.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, B. Turner, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of routing and management enhancements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 144–150, Jan.2001.

Rush, A.

O. Tamm, C. Hermsmeyer, and A. Rush, “Eco-sustainable system and network architectures for future transport networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 311–327, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

Saleh, A. A. M.

Shami, A.

N. Ghani, L. Qing, A. Gumaste, J. Lankford, A. Shami, C. Assi, A. Khalil, and D. Benhaddou, “Value-added services in next-generation SONET/SDH networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 64–73, Nov.2008.
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. M.

A. A. M. Saleh and J. M. Simmons, “Technology and architecture to enable the explosive growth of the Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 126–132, Jan.2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Berthold, A. A. M. Saleh, L. Blair, and J. M. Simmons, “Optical networking: past, present, and future,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1104–1118, May2008.
[CrossRef]

A. A. M. Saleh and J. M. Simmons, “Evolution toward the next-generation core optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 3303–3321, Sept.2006.
[CrossRef]

J. M. Simmons, Optical Network Design and Planning. Springer, June2008.

Sinha, R.

R. Sinha, C. Papadopoulos, and J. Heidemann, “Internet packet size distributions: Some observations,” Tech. Rep. ISI-TR-2007-643, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May2007.

Skoog, R.

Song, Q.

Sorin, W. V.

Strand, J.

Suvakovic, D.

D. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communications networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 275–284, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

Tafvelin, S.

W. John and S. Tafvelin, “Analysis of Internet backbone traffic and header anomalies observed,” in SIGCOMM Conf. on Internet Measurement, San Diego, Aug. 2007.

Tamm, O.

O. Tamm, C. Hermsmeyer, and A. Rush, “Eco-sustainable system and network architectures for future transport networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 311–327, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

Terdik, G.

G. Terdik and T. Gyires, “Does the Internet still demonstrate fractal nature,” in Int. Conf. on Networks, Guadeloupe, May 2009, pp. 30–34.

Tornatore, M.

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July2011.
[CrossRef]

F. Vismara, V. Grkovic, F. Musumeci, M. Tornatore, and S. Bregni, “On the energy efficiency of IP-over-WDM networks,” in IEEE Latin-American Conf. on Communications (LATINCOM), 15–17 Sept. 2010, pp. 1–6.

Tucker, R. S.

Turner, B.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, B. Turner, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of routing and management enhancements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 144–150, Jan.2001.

Van Heddeghem, W.

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: Overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 62–69, June2011.
[CrossRef]

W. Van Heddeghem, M. De Groote, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming, (invited),” in Proc. of 14th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 2010, pp. 1–6.

Vasseur, J.

J. Vasseur, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, Network Recovery: Protection and Restoration of Optical, SONET-SDH, IP, and MPLS. Morgan Kaufmann, Aug.2004.

Verbrugge, S.

S. Pasqualini, A. Kirstadter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Influence of GMPLS on network providers’ operational expenditures: A quantitative study,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 28–38, July2005.
[CrossRef]

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F. J. Westphal, M. Jager, A. Iselt, A. Kirstadter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Modelling operational expenditures for telecom operators,” in Conf. on Optical Networks Design & Modelling, Milan, Feb. 2005.

Vereecken, W.

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: Overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 62–69, June2011.
[CrossRef]

W. Van Heddeghem, M. De Groote, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming, (invited),” in Proc. of 14th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 2010, pp. 1–6.

Vetter, P.

D. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communications networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 275–284, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

Vismara, F.

F. Vismara, V. Grkovic, F. Musumeci, M. Tornatore, and S. Bregni, “On the energy efficiency of IP-over-WDM networks,” in IEEE Latin-American Conf. on Communications (LATINCOM), 15–17 Sept. 2010, pp. 1–6.

Von Lehmen, A.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, R. Lu, Q. Li, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Energy efficient design for multi-shelf IP over WDM networks,” in IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM), Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Apr. 2011, pp. 349–354.

Westphal, F. J.

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F. J. Westphal, M. Jager, A. Iselt, A. Kirstadter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Modelling operational expenditures for telecom operators,” in Conf. on Optical Networks Design & Modelling, Milan, Feb. 2005.

Wiatr, P.

P. Wiatr, P. Monti, and L. Wosinska, “Power savings versus network performance in dynamically provisioned WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 48–55, May2012.
[CrossRef]

Wosinska, L.

P. Wiatr, P. Monti, and L. Wosinska, “Power savings versus network performance in dynamically provisioned WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 48–55, May2012.
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.

Zhang, H.

L. Wang, R. Lu, Q. Li, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Energy efficient design for multi-shelf IP over WDM networks,” in IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM), Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Apr. 2011, pp. 349–354.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July2011.
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

L. Wang, R. Lu, Q. Li, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Energy efficient design for multi-shelf IP over WDM networks,” in IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM), Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Apr. 2011, pp. 349–354.

Bell Labs Tech. J. (3)

O. Tamm, C. Hermsmeyer, and A. Rush, “Eco-sustainable system and network architectures for future transport networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 311–327, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

G. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy-efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

H. S. Matthews, “Planning energy efficiency and eco sustainable telecommunications networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 147–167, June2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (6)

N. Ghani, L. Qing, A. Gumaste, J. Lankford, A. Shami, C. Assi, A. Khalil, and D. Benhaddou, “Value-added services in next-generation SONET/SDH networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 64–73, Nov.2008.
[CrossRef]

A. A. M. Saleh and J. M. Simmons, “Technology and architecture to enable the explosive growth of the Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 126–132, Jan.2011.
[CrossRef]

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: Overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 62–69, June2011.
[CrossRef]

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, B. Turner, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of routing and management enhancements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 144–150, Jan.2001.

P. Wiatr, P. Monti, and L. Wosinska, “Power savings versus network performance in dynamically provisioned WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 48–55, May2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Pasqualini, A. Kirstadter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Influence of GMPLS on network providers’ operational expenditures: A quantitative study,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 28–38, July2005.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communications networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 275–284, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network (1)

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Z. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet,” IEEE Network, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 6–12, Mar./Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Switching Netw. (1)

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July2011.
[CrossRef]

Rev. Netw. Econom. (1)

A. Odlyzko, “Data networks are lightly utilized and will stay that way,” Rev. Netw. Econom., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 210–237, Sept.2003.

Other (35)

Internet Engineering Task Force, “Routing extensions in support of generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS),” RFC-4202, Oct.2005.

K. Chandra, “Statistical multiplexing,” in Wiley Encyclopaedia of Telecommunications. John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2003.

A. Alimian, B. Nordman, and D. Kharitonov, “Network and Telecom Equipment—Energy and Performance Assessment,” ECR Initiative, Dec.2010.

Cisco Data Sheets [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com.

Infinera Data Sheets [Online]. Available: http://www.infinera.com.

Calient Data Sheets [Online]. Available: http://www.calient.net.

Transmode Data Sheets [Online]. Available: http://www.transmode.com.

Juniper Data Sheets [Online]. Available: http://www.juniper.net.

Infinera Optical Line Amplifier Data Sheets [Online]. Available: http://www.infinera.com.

D. Mills and H. Braun, “The NSFNET backbone network,” in Proc. of SIGCOMM ’87 Workshop on Frontiers in Computer Communications Technology, Vermont, Aug. 1987, pp. 191–196.

R. Sinha, C. Papadopoulos, and J. Heidemann, “Internet packet size distributions: Some observations,” Tech. Rep. ISI-TR-2007-643, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May2007.

W. John and S. Tafvelin, “Analysis of Internet backbone traffic and header anomalies observed,” in SIGCOMM Conf. on Internet Measurement, San Diego, Aug. 2007.

Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis Research, “Packet size distribution comparison between internet links in 1998 and 2008,” Mar.2008.

T. Karagiannis, M. Molle, M. Faloutsos, and A. Broido, “A nonstationary Poisson view of Internet traffic,” in Proc. of INFOCOM, Mar. 2004, vol. 3, pp. 1558–1569.

G. Terdik and T. Gyires, “Does the Internet still demonstrate fractal nature,” in Int. Conf. on Networks, Guadeloupe, May 2009, pp. 30–34.

R. Chahine, A. Kirstadter, A. Iselt, and S. Pasqualini, “Operational cost reduction using ASON/ASTN,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Anaheim, Mar. 2005.

Cisco, “Converge IP and DWDM layers in the core network,” White Paper, June2007.

Juniper, “OTN interfaces for IP over DWDM,” White Paper, Apr.2010.

ITU-T, “Interfaces for the Optical Transport Network (OTN),” G.709, Oct.2009.

S. Dixit, IP over WDM: Building the Next Generation Optical Internet. Wiley, Feb.2003.

S. V. Kartalopoulos, Understanding SONET/SDH and ATM: Communications Networks for the Next Millennium. Wiley-IEEE Press, Apr.1999.

J. Vasseur, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, Network Recovery: Protection and Restoration of Optical, SONET-SDH, IP, and MPLS. Morgan Kaufmann, Aug.2004.

Internet Engineering Task Force, “OSPF extensions in support of generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS),” RFC-4203, Oct.2005.

Internet Engineering Task Force, “Evaluation of existing routing protocols against automatically switched optical network (ASON) routing requirements,” RFC-4652, Oct.2006.

A. W. Moore, “Measurement-based management of network resources,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Apr.2002.

M. Fiorani, M. Casoni, and S. Aleksic, “Analysis of a GMPLS enabled hybrid optical switching network,” in 16th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Apr. 2012, pp. 1–6.

K. Guan, D. C. Kilper, and G. Atkinson, “Evaluating the energy benefit of dynamic optical bypass for content delivery,” in IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM), Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Apr. 2011, pp. 313–318.

ITU-T, “Architecture for the automatically switched optical networks (ASON),” G.8080, June2006.

E. Mannie, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” IETF RFC 3945, Oct.2004.

L. Wang, R. Lu, Q. Li, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Energy efficient design for multi-shelf IP over WDM networks,” in IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM), Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Apr. 2011, pp. 349–354.

S. Verbrugge, S. Pasqualini, F. J. Westphal, M. Jager, A. Iselt, A. Kirstadter, R. Chahine, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Modelling operational expenditures for telecom operators,” in Conf. on Optical Networks Design & Modelling, Milan, Feb. 2005.

J. M. Simmons, Optical Network Design and Planning. Springer, June2008.

F. Vismara, V. Grkovic, F. Musumeci, M. Tornatore, and S. Bregni, “On the energy efficiency of IP-over-WDM networks,” in IEEE Latin-American Conf. on Communications (LATINCOM), 15–17 Sept. 2010, pp. 1–6.

W. Van Heddeghem, M. De Groote, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming, (invited),” in Proc. of 14th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 2010, pp. 1–6.

ITU-T, “Next Generation Networks—Frameworks and functional architecture models,” Y.2001, Dec.2004.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Simplified diagram of an optical IP network.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Architectures of (a) IP/WDM Legacy , (b) IP/TDM/ WDM Legacy , (c) IP/TDM/WDM GMPLS , and (d) IP/WDM GMPLS nodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Cross-layer switching with IP/TDM/ WDM GMPLS node.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Relative power as a function of overall utilization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Energy-per-bit as a function of port utilization.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

NSFNET 14-node 21-link network.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Probability density function of payload utilization when the mean packet inter-arrival time is 2 µs and 1 µs, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Power savings ( PS IP/TDM/WDM _ Legacy ) and power consumption of IP/TDM/WDM Legacy and IP/WDM Legacy deployed networks, with 25% mean payload utilization for the locally sourced traffic.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Power savings and number of ports of IP/TDM/WDM Legacy , with a 25% mean payload utilization for the locally sourced traffic.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Power savings ( PS IP/TDM/WDM _ GMPLS ) and power consumption of IP/TDM/WDM GMPLS and IP/WDM Legacy deployed networks, with a 25% mean payload utilization for the locally sourced traffic.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Power savings and number of ports of IP/TDM/WDM GMPLS , with 25% mean payload utilization for the locally sourced traffic.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Power savings ( PS IP/TDM/WDM _ GMPLS shown in dotted lines for reference, and PS IP/WDM _ GMPLS shown in solid lines) and the power consumption of IP/WDM GMPLS and IP/WDM Legacy deployed networks, with 25% mean payload utilization for the locally sourced traffic.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Power savings and number of ports of IP/WDM GMPLS , with a 25% mean payload utilization for the locally sourced traffic.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Power savings (by IP/TDM/WDM GMPLS ) as a function of the mean payload utilization for (a) an aggregation limit of 60%, and (b) an aggregation limit of 70%.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(Color online) Power savings (by IP/WDM GMPLS ) as a function of the mean payload utilization for (a) an aggregation limit of 60%, and (b) an aggregation limit of 70%.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P Node = P IP + P TDM + P WDM + P CE = u = 1 N IP router port P IP router port , u ( U IP , u ) + v = 1 N TDM port P TDM port , v + w = 1 N WDM port P WDM port , w + P CE ,
Energy per bit = Power LR × 1 Port Utilization ,
P Link = m = 1 N WDM channel P per channel , m ,
P X _ Total = j = 1 14 P Node , j + k = 1 21 P Link , k ,
PS IP/TDM/WDM _ Legacy = P IP/WDM _ Legacy P IP/TDM/WDM _ Legacy P IP/WDM _ Legacy ,
PS IP/TDM/WDM _ GMPLS = P IP/WDM _ Legacy P IP/TDM/WDM _ GMPLS P IP/WDM _ Legacy ,
PS IP/WDM _ GMPLS = P IP/WDM _ Legacy P IP/WDM _ GMPLS P IP/WDM _ Legacy ,