Abstract

This study describes resilient access network structures in time-division multiplexing passive optical networks (TDM-PONs) and wave-division multiplexing (WDM)/ TDM-PONs, and compares their network unavailability versus outage scale. In addition, this study discusses the unavailability for media networks with simple ladder and more realistic ring-to-tree topologies for cases with simplex and full/partial duplex configurations between drop points and central offices. In large-scale networks, the unavailability in duplex networks is drastically improved by 4–5 orders of magnitude compared with that in simplex networks for large outage scales. Cable failure significantly affects the unavailability, especially in feeder sections, whereas failures due to optical fiber or optical add–drop multiplexers are mostly masked by cable failure in WDM/TDM-PONs. Consequently, there is little difference in the unavailability of the two PON schemes, except for the difference due to PON splitters. A comparison of the unavailability for fully and partially duplicated networks shows that the latter with a ring-to-tree topology has the advantage of lower unavailability in large-scale regions. These results imply that a realistic duplication scheme successfully enhances the network reliability regardless of imperfect duplex structure.

© 2012 OSA

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2011

2010

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, “Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 56–65, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Lee, K. Choi, and C. Lee, “A remotely reconfigurable remote node for next-generation access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 915–917, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

X. Sun, C. Chan, and L. Chen, “A survivable WDM-PON architecture with centralized alternate-path protection switching for traffic restoration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 631–633, 2006.
[CrossRef]

H. Nakamura, H. Suzuki, J. Kani, and K. Iwatsuki, “Reliable wide-area wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network accommodating gigabit Ethernet and 10-Gb Ethernet services,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, pp. 2045–2051, 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Funakoshi, H. Watanabe, and H. Yoshino, “A simple estimation method of network reliability with failure scale,” (in Japanese), IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. J88-B, pp. 1444–1453, 2005.

2003

1998

H. Dao and C. Silio, “Ring-network with a constrained number of consecutively-bypassed stations,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol. 47, pp. 35–43, 1998.
[CrossRef]

1994

J. Yin, “K-terminal reliability in ring networks,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol. 43, pp. 389–401, 1994.
[CrossRef]

1987

S. Nojo and H. Watanabe, “Reliability specification for communication networks based on failure-influence,” IEEE GLOBECOM, pp. 1135–1139, 1987.

Aihara, T.

Artundo, I.

Azuma, Y.

M. Tsubokawa, N. Honda, and Y. Azuma, “Resilient FTTH architecture with ladder and grid network structures,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, pp. 839–849, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Tsubokawa, N. Honda, and Y. Azuma, “Reliability and scalability of access networks with ladder structure,” in OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, 2012, NM2K.5.

Chan, C.

X. Sun, C. Chan, and L. Chen, “A survivable WDM-PON architecture with centralized alternate-path protection switching for traffic restoration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 631–633, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, “Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 56–65, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Chen and L. Wosinska, “Analysis of protection schemes in PON compatible with smooth migration from TDM-PON to hybrid WDM/TDM-PON,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, pp. 514–526, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

X. Sun, C. Chan, and L. Chen, “A survivable WDM-PON architecture with centralized alternate-path protection switching for traffic restoration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 631–633, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

A. Hunang, S. Liu, L. Xie, Z. Chen, and B. Mukherjee, “Self-healing optical access networks (SHOAN) operated by optical switching technologies,” IEEE Trans. Netw. Serv. Manage., vol. 8, pp. 234–244, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Choi, K.

J. Lee, K. Choi, and C. Lee, “A remotely reconfigurable remote node for next-generation access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 915–917, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Dao, H.

H. Dao and C. Silio, “Ring-network with a constrained number of consecutively-bypassed stations,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol. 47, pp. 35–43, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Funakoshi, Y.

Y. Funakoshi, H. Watanabe, and H. Yoshino, “A simple estimation method of network reliability with failure scale,” (in Japanese), IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. J88-B, pp. 1444–1453, 2005.

Garcia, D.

Hakozaki, H.

Ho, E.

D. J. Xu, W. Yen, and E. Ho, “Proposal of a new protection mechanism for ATM PON interface,” in IEEE ICC, Helsinki, 2001, pp. 2160–2165.

Hogari, K.

Honda, N.

M. Tsubokawa, N. Honda, and Y. Azuma, “Resilient FTTH architecture with ladder and grid network structures,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, pp. 839–849, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Tsubokawa, N. Honda, and Y. Azuma, “Reliability and scalability of access networks with ladder structure,” in OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, 2012, NM2K.5.

Hunang, A.

A. Hunang, S. Liu, L. Xie, Z. Chen, and B. Mukherjee, “Self-healing optical access networks (SHOAN) operated by optical switching technologies,” IEEE Trans. Netw. Serv. Manage., vol. 8, pp. 234–244, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Iwata, H.

Iwatsuki, K.

Jaeger, M.

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, “Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 56–65, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

Kaminov, I.

I. Kaminov and T. Li, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB. Academic Press, 2002, ch. 10, pp. 472–474.

Kanayama, M.

Kani, J.

Kawataka, J.

Lam, C. F.

C. F. Lam, Passive Optical Networks: Principle and Practice. Academic Press, 2007, Ch. 6.

Lee, C.

J. Lee, K. Choi, and C. Lee, “A remotely reconfigurable remote node for next-generation access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 915–917, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, K. Choi, and C. Lee, “A remotely reconfigurable remote node for next-generation access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 915–917, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

I. Kaminov and T. Li, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB. Academic Press, 2002, ch. 10, pp. 472–474.

Liu, S.

A. Hunang, S. Liu, L. Xie, Z. Chen, and B. Mukherjee, “Self-healing optical access networks (SHOAN) operated by optical switching technologies,” IEEE Trans. Netw. Serv. Manage., vol. 8, pp. 234–244, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Machuca, C.

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, “Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 56–65, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

A. Hunang, S. Liu, L. Xie, Z. Chen, and B. Mukherjee, “Self-healing optical access networks (SHOAN) operated by optical switching technologies,” IEEE Trans. Netw. Serv. Manage., vol. 8, pp. 234–244, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, H.

Nojo, S.

S. Nojo and H. Watanabe, “Reliability specification for communication networks based on failure-influence,” IEEE GLOBECOM, pp. 1135–1139, 1987.

Ortega, B.

Rados, I.

I. Rados, T. Sunaric, and P. Turalija, “Availability comparison of different protection mechanisms in SDH ring network,” in TCSET, Feb. 18–23, 2002, pp. 287–290.

Sato, K.

Silio, C.

H. Dao and C. Silio, “Ring-network with a constrained number of consecutively-bypassed stations,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol. 47, pp. 35–43, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

X. Sun, C. Chan, and L. Chen, “A survivable WDM-PON architecture with centralized alternate-path protection switching for traffic restoration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 631–633, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Sunaric, T.

I. Rados, T. Sunaric, and P. Turalija, “Availability comparison of different protection mechanisms in SDH ring network,” in TCSET, Feb. 18–23, 2002, pp. 287–290.

Suzuki, H.

Tsubokawa, M.

M. Tsubokawa, N. Honda, and Y. Azuma, “Resilient FTTH architecture with ladder and grid network structures,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, pp. 839–849, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Tsubokawa, N. Honda, and Y. Azuma, “Reliability and scalability of access networks with ladder structure,” in OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, 2012, NM2K.5.

Turalija, P.

I. Rados, T. Sunaric, and P. Turalija, “Availability comparison of different protection mechanisms in SDH ring network,” in TCSET, Feb. 18–23, 2002, pp. 287–290.

Watanabe, H.

Y. Funakoshi, H. Watanabe, and H. Yoshino, “A simple estimation method of network reliability with failure scale,” (in Japanese), IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. J88-B, pp. 1444–1453, 2005.

S. Nojo and H. Watanabe, “Reliability specification for communication networks based on failure-influence,” IEEE GLOBECOM, pp. 1135–1139, 1987.

Wosinska, L.

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, “Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 56–65, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Chen and L. Wosinska, “Analysis of protection schemes in PON compatible with smooth migration from TDM-PON to hybrid WDM/TDM-PON,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, pp. 514–526, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Xie, L.

A. Hunang, S. Liu, L. Xie, Z. Chen, and B. Mukherjee, “Self-healing optical access networks (SHOAN) operated by optical switching technologies,” IEEE Trans. Netw. Serv. Manage., vol. 8, pp. 234–244, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Xu, D. J.

D. J. Xu, W. Yen, and E. Ho, “Proposal of a new protection mechanism for ATM PON interface,” in IEEE ICC, Helsinki, 2001, pp. 2160–2165.

Yamamoto, H.

Yen, W.

D. J. Xu, W. Yen, and E. Ho, “Proposal of a new protection mechanism for ATM PON interface,” in IEEE ICC, Helsinki, 2001, pp. 2160–2165.

Yin, J.

J. Yin, “K-terminal reliability in ring networks,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol. 43, pp. 389–401, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, H.

Y. Funakoshi, H. Watanabe, and H. Yoshino, “A simple estimation method of network reliability with failure scale,” (in Japanese), IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. J88-B, pp. 1444–1453, 2005.

IEEE Commun. Mag.

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, “Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 56–65, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE GLOBECOM

S. Nojo and H. Watanabe, “Reliability specification for communication networks based on failure-influence,” IEEE GLOBECOM, pp. 1135–1139, 1987.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

X. Sun, C. Chan, and L. Chen, “A survivable WDM-PON architecture with centralized alternate-path protection switching for traffic restoration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 631–633, 2006.
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, K. Choi, and C. Lee, “A remotely reconfigurable remote node for next-generation access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 915–917, 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Netw. Serv. Manage.

A. Hunang, S. Liu, L. Xie, Z. Chen, and B. Mukherjee, “Self-healing optical access networks (SHOAN) operated by optical switching technologies,” IEEE Trans. Netw. Serv. Manage., vol. 8, pp. 234–244, 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Reliab.

J. Yin, “K-terminal reliability in ring networks,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol. 43, pp. 389–401, 1994.
[CrossRef]

H. Dao and C. Silio, “Ring-network with a constrained number of consecutively-bypassed stations,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol. 47, pp. 35–43, 1998.
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Commun.

Y. Funakoshi, H. Watanabe, and H. Yoshino, “A simple estimation method of network reliability with failure scale,” (in Japanese), IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. J88-B, pp. 1444–1453, 2005.

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

J. Opt. Netw.

Other

I. Rados, T. Sunaric, and P. Turalija, “Availability comparison of different protection mechanisms in SDH ring network,” in TCSET, Feb. 18–23, 2002, pp. 287–290.

M. Tsubokawa, N. Honda, and Y. Azuma, “Reliability and scalability of access networks with ladder structure,” in OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, 2012, NM2K.5.

“197 million FTTH/B in 2015” [Online]. Available: http://www.idate.org/en/News/FTTx-around-the-world_679.html.

I. Kaminov and T. Li, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB. Academic Press, 2002, ch. 10, pp. 472–474.

ITU-T Rec. G.983.1, Broadband optical access systems based on passive optical networks (PON), 1998.

C. F. Lam, Passive Optical Networks: Principle and Practice. Academic Press, 2007, Ch. 6.

D. J. Xu, W. Yen, and E. Ho, “Proposal of a new protection mechanism for ATM PON interface,” in IEEE ICC, Helsinki, 2001, pp. 2160–2165.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Duplex Type A PON configurations for (a) a TDM-PON and (b) a WDM/TDM-PON. The red dotted lines indicate Type B.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Ladder network structures for (a) a TDM-PON and (b) a WDM/TDM-PON. Two original parallel cables are connected by hookup cables to build single-/multiple-ring routes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Scale dependency of the unavailability for simplex and duplex networks for Q = 12 shown in Fig. 2. Figure 3(b) shows a comparison of the unavailability between single- and multiple-ring configurations. Here, three rings are assumed for every six drop areas.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Unavailability characteristics for different (a) frequencies of cable relocation and (b) FIT of an OADM in a WDM/TDM-PON with multiple rings. The three solid curves indicate duplex networks with their default value, 1/10 of their default value, and 10 times their default value. The dotted curve indicates a simplex network with 10 times its default value.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Cable route models in a TDM-PON. Distribution cables are installed with random tree topology over a distribution area unit, and several of those units are arranged along the feeder cable route.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Typical examples of multiple tree topologies. Red dotted lines indicate examples of hookup cables that partially reform the topologies from tree to ring.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Scale dependency of the unavailability for the three different network models shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) (a) Ring-to-tree topology model. In this figure, the ring has several branches with length j ( j = 0 3 ) . R j is the ratio of the number of j-branches to the total number of areas in the ring. (b) and (c) are examples when { K 0 , K 1 , K 2 , K 3 } is {5, 4, 3, 2} and {6, 7, 2, 1}, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Unavailability variations between full and partial ring configurations for a TDM-PON and a WDM/TDM-PON. Here, { K 0 , K 1 , K 2 , K 3 } is {5, 4, 3, 2} for the partial ring. Figure 9(b) shows the result with cable failure of 1/100 the default value.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) A large-scale redundant network model with M distribution area units arranged along two adjacent feeder cables. In the CO, feeder fibers are connected with the PON splitter in the TDM-PON, and with the AWG in the WDM/TDM-PON.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Scale dependency of the unavailability for the entire network, for M = 5 . Curves for combinations of full/partial ring and single/dual feeder are plotted.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Failure Rate and Unavailability Values Used in This Simulation

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U A TDM = { L f U A feeder_cable + L d U A distrib_cable } 2 and
U A WDM = { L f ( U A feeder_cable + U A fiber + U A Fsplice ) + L d ( U A distrib_cable + U A fiber ) + U A OADM + U A Msplice } 2 ,
U A TDM = ( 2 Q N / R 1 + 1 ) { L d U A distrib_cable } 2 + 2 L f L d U A feeder_cable U A distrib_cable and
U A WDM = ( 2 Q N / R 1 + 1 ) { L d U A distrib_cable + ( 2 Q N / R 1 ) L d U A fiber + U A OADM + 2 U A Msplice } 2 + 2 L f ( U A feeder_cable + U A fiber + U A Fsplice ) { L d U A distrib_cable + ( 2 Q N / R 1 ) L d U A fiber + U A OADM + 2 U A Msplice } ,
U A TDM = 2 Q [ { U A splitter + ( L d U A distrib_cable + U A Msplice + 2 Q L d U A fiber ) 2 } + 2 L f L d ( U A fiber + U A Fsplice ) × ( U A distrib_cable + U A fiber + U A Msplice ) ] and
U A WDM = 2 Q [ ( U A OADM + U A splitter ) + { L d ( U A distrib_cable + U A fiber ) + 2 U A Msplice } 2 ] + 2 L f ( U A feeder_cable + U A fiber + U A Fsplice ) × { L d ( U A distrib_cable + U A fiber ) + 2 U A Msplice } .
U A TDM = U A WDM = 2 Q R 1 { L d ( U A fiber + U A drop_cable ) + 2 U A Msplice } .