Abstract

A low-complexity soft-decision 12.5 Gb/s optical receiver for decoding low-density parity-check codes reusing conventional hard-decision receivers is investigated. The simulated and experimental results show that the proposed optical receiver exhibits coding gains of 2.75 and 6.73 dB for post-forward-error-correction bit error rates of 104 and 109, respectively, over a hard-decision uncoded system for a 60 km single-mode optical fiber transmission. The soft-decision circuitry consumes approximately 5 W and is optimized to provide two confidence levels, one above and one below the hard-decision levels.

© 2011 OSA

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2010

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, "Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, (3), S48‒S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Tehrani, C. Winstead, W. Gross, S. Mannor, S. Howard, and V. Gaudet, "Relaxation dynamics in stochastic iterative decoders," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58, (11), 5955‒5961 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Mohsenin, D. Truong, and B. Baas, "A low-complexity message passing algorithm for reduced routing congestion in LDPC decoders," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., I: Regul. Pap. 57, (5), 1048‒1061 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Yang, A. Amin, X. Chen, Y. Ma, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, "428-Gb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission over 960-km SSMF with constellation expansion and LDPC coding," Opt. Express 18, (16), 16883‒16889 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. B. Djordjevic, L. Xu, and T. Wang, "On the reduced-complexity of LDPC decoders for ultra-high-speed optical transmission," Opt. Express 18, (22), 23371‒23377 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

T. Mizuochi, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, K. Onohara, S. Kametani, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, T. Kobayashi, and T. Ichikawa, "Experimental demonstration of concatenated LDPC and RS codes by FPGAs emulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (18), 1302‒1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Djordjevic, M. Arabaci, and L. L. Minkov, "Next generation FEC for high-capacity communication in optical transport networks (Invited)," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, (16), 3518‒3530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

D. Declercq and M. Fossorier, "Decoding algorithms for nonbinary LDPC codes over GF(q)," IEEE Trans. Commun. 55, (4), 633‒643 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Tychopoulos, O. Koufopavlou, and I. Tomkos, "FEC in optical communications—a tutorial overview on the evolution of architectures and the future prospects of outband and inband FEC for optical communications," IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 22, (6), 79‒86 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizuochi, "Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, (4), 544‒554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Djordjevic, S. Sankaranarayanan, S. K. Chilappagari, and B. Vasic, "Low-density parity-check codes for 40-Gb/s optical transmission system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, (4), 555‒562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. Bosco, G. Montorsi, and S. Benedetto, "Soft decoding in optical systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, (8), 1258‒1265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

B. Vasic and I. B. Djordjevic, "Low-density parity check codes for long haul optical communications systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, (8), 1208‒1210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Y. Chung, G. D. Forney, T. J. Richardson, and R. Urbanke, "On the design of low-density parity-check codes within 0.0045 dB of the Shannon limit," IEEE Commun. Lett. 5, (2), 58‒60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1981

R. Tanner, "A recursive approach to low complexity codes," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 27, (5), 533‒547 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1975

V. Zyavlov and M. Pinsker, "Estimation of the error-correction complexity of Gallager low density codes," Probl. Peredachi Inf. 11, (1), 23‒26 (1975).

1962

R. Gallager, "Low-density parity-check codes," IRE Trans. Inf. Theory 8, (1), 21‒28 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Lightwave Technology: Telecommunication Systems, Wiley, 2005, ch. 6, p. 202.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 4th ed., Wiley, 2010, ch. 4.

Amin, A.

Arabaci, M.

Baas, B.

T. Mohsenin, D. Truong, and B. Baas, "A low-complexity message passing algorithm for reduced routing congestion in LDPC decoders," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., I: Regul. Pap. 57, (5), 1048‒1061 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Benedetto, S.

G. Bosco, G. Montorsi, and S. Benedetto, "Soft decoding in optical systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, (8), 1258‒1265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco and S. Benedetto, "Soft decoding in optical systems: turbo product codes vs. LDPC codes," Optical Communication Theory and Techniques, Springer, 2005, pp. 79‒86.

Berrou, C.

C. Berrou, A. Glavieux, and P. Thitimajshima, "Near Shannon limit error-correcting coding and decoding: turbo-codes," Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC 1993), Vol. 2, May 1993, pp. 1064‒1070.

Bosco, G.

G. Bosco, G. Montorsi, and S. Benedetto, "Soft decoding in optical systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, (8), 1258‒1265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco and S. Benedetto, "Soft decoding in optical systems: turbo product codes vs. LDPC codes," Optical Communication Theory and Techniques, Springer, 2005, pp. 79‒86.

Bülow, H.

E. Masalkina, H. Bülow, R. Dischler, M. Matuszak, and R. Urbansky, "Soft-FEC implementation for high-speed coherent optical OFDM systems," Proc. Photonische Netze (ITG-FB 222), Mar. 2010.

Chang, F.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, "Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, (3), S48‒S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

Chilappagari, S. K.

I. B. Djordjevic, S. Sankaranarayanan, S. K. Chilappagari, and B. Vasic, "Low-density parity-check codes for 40-Gb/s optical transmission system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, (4), 555‒562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S. Y.

S. Y. Chung, G. D. Forney, T. J. Richardson, and R. Urbanke, "On the design of low-density parity-check codes within 0.0045 dB of the Shannon limit," IEEE Commun. Lett. 5, (2), 58‒60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Declercq, D.

D. Declercq and M. Fossorier, "Decoding algorithms for nonbinary LDPC codes over GF(q)," IEEE Trans. Commun. 55, (4), 633‒643 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dischler, R.

E. Masalkina, H. Bülow, R. Dischler, M. Matuszak, and R. Urbansky, "Soft-FEC implementation for high-speed coherent optical OFDM systems," Proc. Photonische Netze (ITG-FB 222), Mar. 2010.

Djordjevic, I. B.

I. B. Djordjevic, L. Xu, and T. Wang, "On the reduced-complexity of LDPC decoders for ultra-high-speed optical transmission," Opt. Express 18, (22), 23371‒23377 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. B. Djordjevic, M. Arabaci, and L. L. Minkov, "Next generation FEC for high-capacity communication in optical transport networks (Invited)," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, (16), 3518‒3530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Djordjevic, S. Sankaranarayanan, S. K. Chilappagari, and B. Vasic, "Low-density parity-check codes for 40-Gb/s optical transmission system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, (4), 555‒562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Vasic and I. B. Djordjevic, "Low-density parity check codes for long haul optical communications systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, (8), 1208‒1210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forney, G. D.

S. Y. Chung, G. D. Forney, T. J. Richardson, and R. Urbanke, "On the design of low-density parity-check codes within 0.0045 dB of the Shannon limit," IEEE Commun. Lett. 5, (2), 58‒60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fossorier, M.

D. Declercq and M. Fossorier, "Decoding algorithms for nonbinary LDPC codes over GF(q)," IEEE Trans. Commun. 55, (4), 633‒643 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gallager, R.

R. Gallager, "Low-density parity-check codes," IRE Trans. Inf. Theory 8, (1), 21‒28 (1962).
[CrossRef]

R. Gallager, Low density parity check codes (Ph.D. dissertation), Cambridge, MA, MIT, 1963.

Gaudet, V.

S. Tehrani, C. Winstead, W. Gross, S. Mannor, S. Howard, and V. Gaudet, "Relaxation dynamics in stochastic iterative decoders," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58, (11), 5955‒5961 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Glavieux, A.

C. Berrou, A. Glavieux, and P. Thitimajshima, "Near Shannon limit error-correcting coding and decoding: turbo-codes," Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC 1993), Vol. 2, May 1993, pp. 1064‒1070.

Gross, W.

S. Tehrani, C. Winstead, W. Gross, S. Mannor, S. Howard, and V. Gaudet, "Relaxation dynamics in stochastic iterative decoders," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58, (11), 5955‒5961 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. P.

K. P. Ho and H. C. Wang, "Soft-decoding of low-density parity check codes for DPSK signals," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Mar. 2007, OWE7.

Howard, S.

S. Tehrani, C. Winstead, W. Gross, S. Mannor, S. Howard, and V. Gaudet, "Relaxation dynamics in stochastic iterative decoders," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58, (11), 5955‒5961 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, T.

T. Mizuochi, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, K. Onohara, S. Kametani, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, T. Kobayashi, and T. Ichikawa, "Experimental demonstration of concatenated LDPC and RS codes by FPGAs emulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (18), 1302‒1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, T.

T. Mizuochi, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, K. Onohara, S. Kametani, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, T. Kobayashi, and T. Ichikawa, "Experimental demonstration of concatenated LDPC and RS codes by FPGAs emulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (18), 1302‒1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kametani, S.

T. Mizuochi, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, K. Onohara, S. Kametani, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, T. Kobayashi, and T. Ichikawa, "Experimental demonstration of concatenated LDPC and RS codes by FPGAs emulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (18), 1302‒1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, S. Kametani, K. Shimizu, K. Onohara, H. Tagami, and T. Mizuochi, "Soft-decision LSI operating at 32 Gsample/s for LDPC FEC-based optical transmission systems," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2009, OWE2.

Kobayashi, T.

T. Mizuochi, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, K. Onohara, S. Kametani, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, T. Kobayashi, and T. Ichikawa, "Experimental demonstration of concatenated LDPC and RS codes by FPGAs emulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (18), 1302‒1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, S. Kametani, K. Shimizu, K. Onohara, H. Tagami, and T. Mizuochi, "Soft-decision LSI operating at 32 Gsample/s for LDPC FEC-based optical transmission systems," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2009, OWE2.

K. Shimuzu, Y. Miyata, T. Mizuochi, K. Ouchi, T. Kobayashi, H. Yoshida, and K. Motoshima, "Optimum soft-decision FEC thresholds for on–off optical receiver using block turbo code," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Dec. 2004, WM2.

Konishi, Y.

T. Mizuochi, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, K. Onohara, S. Kametani, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, T. Kobayashi, and T. Ichikawa, "Experimental demonstration of concatenated LDPC and RS codes by FPGAs emulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (18), 1302‒1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koufopavlou, O.

A. Tychopoulos, O. Koufopavlou, and I. Tomkos, "FEC in optical communications—a tutorial overview on the evolution of architectures and the future prospects of outband and inband FEC for optical communications," IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 22, (6), 79‒86 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, K.

T. Mizuochi, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, K. Onohara, S. Kametani, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, T. Kobayashi, and T. Ichikawa, "Experimental demonstration of concatenated LDPC and RS codes by FPGAs emulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (18), 1302‒1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, "A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100 Gb/s optical transmission," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, OThL3.

K. Onohara, Y. Miyata, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, "Soft-decision FEC for 100G transport systems," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, OThL1.

Ma, Y.

Mannor, S.

S. Tehrani, C. Winstead, W. Gross, S. Mannor, S. Howard, and V. Gaudet, "Relaxation dynamics in stochastic iterative decoders," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58, (11), 5955‒5961 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Masalkina, E.

E. Masalkina, H. Bülow, R. Dischler, M. Matuszak, and R. Urbansky, "Soft-FEC implementation for high-speed coherent optical OFDM systems," Proc. Photonische Netze (ITG-FB 222), Mar. 2010.

Matsumoto, W.

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, "A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100 Gb/s optical transmission," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, OThL3.

Matuszak, M.

E. Masalkina, H. Bülow, R. Dischler, M. Matuszak, and R. Urbansky, "Soft-FEC implementation for high-speed coherent optical OFDM systems," Proc. Photonische Netze (ITG-FB 222), Mar. 2010.

Minkov, L. L.

Miyata, Y.

T. Mizuochi, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, K. Onohara, S. Kametani, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, T. Kobayashi, and T. Ichikawa, "Experimental demonstration of concatenated LDPC and RS codes by FPGAs emulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (18), 1302‒1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, "A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100 Gb/s optical transmission," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, OThL3.

K. Onohara, Y. Miyata, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, "Soft-decision FEC for 100G transport systems," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, OThL1.

K. Shimuzu, Y. Miyata, T. Mizuochi, K. Ouchi, T. Kobayashi, H. Yoshida, and K. Motoshima, "Optimum soft-decision FEC thresholds for on–off optical receiver using block turbo code," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Dec. 2004, WM2.

Mizuochi, T.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, "Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, (3), S48‒S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizuochi, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, K. Onohara, S. Kametani, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, T. Kobayashi, and T. Ichikawa, "Experimental demonstration of concatenated LDPC and RS codes by FPGAs emulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (18), 1302‒1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizuochi, "Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, (4), 544‒554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, S. Kametani, K. Shimizu, K. Onohara, H. Tagami, and T. Mizuochi, "Soft-decision LSI operating at 32 Gsample/s for LDPC FEC-based optical transmission systems," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2009, OWE2.

K. Onohara, Y. Miyata, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, "Soft-decision FEC for 100G transport systems," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, OThL1.

K. Shimuzu, Y. Miyata, T. Mizuochi, K. Ouchi, T. Kobayashi, H. Yoshida, and K. Motoshima, "Optimum soft-decision FEC thresholds for on–off optical receiver using block turbo code," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Dec. 2004, WM2.

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, "A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100 Gb/s optical transmission," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, OThL3.

Mohsenin, T.

T. Mohsenin, D. Truong, and B. Baas, "A low-complexity message passing algorithm for reduced routing congestion in LDPC decoders," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., I: Regul. Pap. 57, (5), 1048‒1061 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Montorsi, G.

G. Bosco, G. Montorsi, and S. Benedetto, "Soft decoding in optical systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, (8), 1258‒1265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Motoshima, K.

K. Shimuzu, Y. Miyata, T. Mizuochi, K. Ouchi, T. Kobayashi, H. Yoshida, and K. Motoshima, "Optimum soft-decision FEC thresholds for on–off optical receiver using block turbo code," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Dec. 2004, WM2.

Onohara, K.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, "Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, (3), S48‒S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizuochi, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, K. Onohara, S. Kametani, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, T. Kobayashi, and T. Ichikawa, "Experimental demonstration of concatenated LDPC and RS codes by FPGAs emulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (18), 1302‒1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, "A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100 Gb/s optical transmission," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, OThL3.

K. Onohara, Y. Miyata, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, "Soft-decision FEC for 100G transport systems," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, OThL1.

T. Kobayashi, S. Kametani, K. Shimizu, K. Onohara, H. Tagami, and T. Mizuochi, "Soft-decision LSI operating at 32 Gsample/s for LDPC FEC-based optical transmission systems," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2009, OWE2.

Ouchi, K.

K. Shimuzu, Y. Miyata, T. Mizuochi, K. Ouchi, T. Kobayashi, H. Yoshida, and K. Motoshima, "Optimum soft-decision FEC thresholds for on–off optical receiver using block turbo code," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Dec. 2004, WM2.

Pinsker, M.

V. Zyavlov and M. Pinsker, "Estimation of the error-correction complexity of Gallager low density codes," Probl. Peredachi Inf. 11, (1), 23‒26 (1975).

Richardson, T. J.

S. Y. Chung, G. D. Forney, T. J. Richardson, and R. Urbanke, "On the design of low-density parity-check codes within 0.0045 dB of the Shannon limit," IEEE Commun. Lett. 5, (2), 58‒60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sankaranarayanan, S.

I. B. Djordjevic, S. Sankaranarayanan, S. K. Chilappagari, and B. Vasic, "Low-density parity-check codes for 40-Gb/s optical transmission system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, (4), 555‒562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, W.

Shimizu, K.

T. Kobayashi, S. Kametani, K. Shimizu, K. Onohara, H. Tagami, and T. Mizuochi, "Soft-decision LSI operating at 32 Gsample/s for LDPC FEC-based optical transmission systems," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2009, OWE2.

Shimuzu, K.

K. Shimuzu, Y. Miyata, T. Mizuochi, K. Ouchi, T. Kobayashi, H. Yoshida, and K. Motoshima, "Optimum soft-decision FEC thresholds for on–off optical receiver using block turbo code," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Dec. 2004, WM2.

Sugihara, K.

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, "A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100 Gb/s optical transmission," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, OThL3.

Sugihara, T.

T. Mizuochi, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, K. Onohara, S. Kametani, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, T. Kobayashi, and T. Ichikawa, "Experimental demonstration of concatenated LDPC and RS codes by FPGAs emulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (18), 1302‒1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, "A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100 Gb/s optical transmission," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, OThL3.

K. Onohara, Y. Miyata, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, "Soft-decision FEC for 100G transport systems," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, OThL1.

Tagami, H.

T. Kobayashi, S. Kametani, K. Shimizu, K. Onohara, H. Tagami, and T. Mizuochi, "Soft-decision LSI operating at 32 Gsample/s for LDPC FEC-based optical transmission systems," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2009, OWE2.

Tanner, R.

R. Tanner, "A recursive approach to low complexity codes," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 27, (5), 533‒547 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tehrani, S.

S. Tehrani, C. Winstead, W. Gross, S. Mannor, S. Howard, and V. Gaudet, "Relaxation dynamics in stochastic iterative decoders," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58, (11), 5955‒5961 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thitimajshima, P.

C. Berrou, A. Glavieux, and P. Thitimajshima, "Near Shannon limit error-correcting coding and decoding: turbo-codes," Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC 1993), Vol. 2, May 1993, pp. 1064‒1070.

Tomkos, I.

A. Tychopoulos, O. Koufopavlou, and I. Tomkos, "FEC in optical communications—a tutorial overview on the evolution of architectures and the future prospects of outband and inband FEC for optical communications," IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 22, (6), 79‒86 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Truong, D.

T. Mohsenin, D. Truong, and B. Baas, "A low-complexity message passing algorithm for reduced routing congestion in LDPC decoders," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., I: Regul. Pap. 57, (5), 1048‒1061 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tychopoulos, A.

A. Tychopoulos, O. Koufopavlou, and I. Tomkos, "FEC in optical communications—a tutorial overview on the evolution of architectures and the future prospects of outband and inband FEC for optical communications," IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 22, (6), 79‒86 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Urbanke, R.

S. Y. Chung, G. D. Forney, T. J. Richardson, and R. Urbanke, "On the design of low-density parity-check codes within 0.0045 dB of the Shannon limit," IEEE Commun. Lett. 5, (2), 58‒60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Urbansky, R.

E. Masalkina, H. Bülow, R. Dischler, M. Matuszak, and R. Urbansky, "Soft-FEC implementation for high-speed coherent optical OFDM systems," Proc. Photonische Netze (ITG-FB 222), Mar. 2010.

Vasic, B.

I. B. Djordjevic, S. Sankaranarayanan, S. K. Chilappagari, and B. Vasic, "Low-density parity-check codes for 40-Gb/s optical transmission system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, (4), 555‒562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Vasic and I. B. Djordjevic, "Low-density parity check codes for long haul optical communications systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, (8), 1208‒1210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. C.

K. P. Ho and H. C. Wang, "Soft-decoding of low-density parity check codes for DPSK signals," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Mar. 2007, OWE7.

Wang, T.

Winstead, C.

S. Tehrani, C. Winstead, W. Gross, S. Mannor, S. Howard, and V. Gaudet, "Relaxation dynamics in stochastic iterative decoders," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58, (11), 5955‒5961 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Yang, Q.

Yoshida, H.

T. Mizuochi, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, K. Onohara, S. Kametani, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, T. Kobayashi, and T. Ichikawa, "Experimental demonstration of concatenated LDPC and RS codes by FPGAs emulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (18), 1302‒1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Onohara, Y. Miyata, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, "Soft-decision FEC for 100G transport systems," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, OThL1.

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, "A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100 Gb/s optical transmission," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, OThL3.

K. Shimuzu, Y. Miyata, T. Mizuochi, K. Ouchi, T. Kobayashi, H. Yoshida, and K. Motoshima, "Optimum soft-decision FEC thresholds for on–off optical receiver using block turbo code," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Dec. 2004, WM2.

Zyavlov, V.

V. Zyavlov and M. Pinsker, "Estimation of the error-correction complexity of Gallager low density codes," Probl. Peredachi Inf. 11, (1), 23‒26 (1975).

IEEE Circuits Devices Mag.

A. Tychopoulos, O. Koufopavlou, and I. Tomkos, "FEC in optical communications—a tutorial overview on the evolution of architectures and the future prospects of outband and inband FEC for optical communications," IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 22, (6), 79‒86 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett.

S. Y. Chung, G. D. Forney, T. J. Richardson, and R. Urbanke, "On the design of low-density parity-check codes within 0.0045 dB of the Shannon limit," IEEE Commun. Lett. 5, (2), 58‒60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, "Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, (3), S48‒S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

T. Mizuochi, "Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, (4), 544‒554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Djordjevic, S. Sankaranarayanan, S. K. Chilappagari, and B. Vasic, "Low-density parity-check codes for 40-Gb/s optical transmission system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, (4), 555‒562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Mizuochi, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, K. Onohara, S. Kametani, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, T. Kobayashi, and T. Ichikawa, "Experimental demonstration of concatenated LDPC and RS codes by FPGAs emulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (18), 1302‒1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Vasic and I. B. Djordjevic, "Low-density parity check codes for long haul optical communications systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, (8), 1208‒1210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., I: Regul. Pap.

T. Mohsenin, D. Truong, and B. Baas, "A low-complexity message passing algorithm for reduced routing congestion in LDPC decoders," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., I: Regul. Pap. 57, (5), 1048‒1061 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun.

D. Declercq and M. Fossorier, "Decoding algorithms for nonbinary LDPC codes over GF(q)," IEEE Trans. Commun. 55, (4), 633‒643 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, G. Montorsi, and S. Benedetto, "Soft decoding in optical systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, (8), 1258‒1265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory

R. Tanner, "A recursive approach to low complexity codes," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 27, (5), 533‒547 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Signal Process.

S. Tehrani, C. Winstead, W. Gross, S. Mannor, S. Howard, and V. Gaudet, "Relaxation dynamics in stochastic iterative decoders," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58, (11), 5955‒5961 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Probl. Peredachi Inf.

V. Zyavlov and M. Pinsker, "Estimation of the error-correction complexity of Gallager low density codes," Probl. Peredachi Inf. 11, (1), 23‒26 (1975).

Other

R. Gallager, Low density parity check codes (Ph.D. dissertation), Cambridge, MA, MIT, 1963.

C. Berrou, A. Glavieux, and P. Thitimajshima, "Near Shannon limit error-correcting coding and decoding: turbo-codes," Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC 1993), Vol. 2, May 1993, pp. 1064‒1070.

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T. Kobayashi, S. Kametani, K. Shimizu, K. Onohara, H. Tagami, and T. Mizuochi, "Soft-decision LSI operating at 32 Gsample/s for LDPC FEC-based optical transmission systems," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2009, OWE2.

K. Onohara, Y. Miyata, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, "Soft-decision FEC for 100G transport systems," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, OThL1.

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, "A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100 Gb/s optical transmission," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, OThL3.

E. Masalkina, H. Bülow, R. Dischler, M. Matuszak, and R. Urbansky, "Soft-FEC implementation for high-speed coherent optical OFDM systems," Proc. Photonische Netze (ITG-FB 222), Mar. 2010.

G. P. Agrawal, Lightwave Technology: Telecommunication Systems, Wiley, 2005, ch. 6, p. 202.

K. Shimuzu, Y. Miyata, T. Mizuochi, K. Ouchi, T. Kobayashi, H. Yoshida, and K. Motoshima, "Optimum soft-decision FEC thresholds for on–off optical receiver using block turbo code," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Dec. 2004, WM2.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Physical interpretation of the soft-decision thresholds.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Low complexity soft-decision circuit with x % of optical power used for the hard decision and ( 1 x )% for the soft decision.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Output eye of the soft-decision circuit at 12.5 Gb/s.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Optical test bed for performance evaluation of the soft-decision circuit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Received optical spectrum at (a) point C, after the MZM, and (b) point G, just before photodetection (0.1 nm).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Captured frames in the time domain: (a) 3 frames and (b) zoomed at the frame intersection.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Experimental amplitude histogram of the captured signal (1-frame) input to the soft-decision circuit and threshold positions for Q = 8 . 6 dB.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Optimized decision thresholds as a function of Q in the waterfall region of the curve (squares: experimental results).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Decoding performance of the soft-decision circuit (squares: experimental results).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Optical power penalty as a function of coupling ratio.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) (a) Magnitude and (b) delay response of the delay line (squares: measured results).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Pre-FEC BER as a function of pre-FEC Q (squares: experimental results).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Logic Table for Hard and Soft Decisions

Tables Icon

Table II Power Consumed by the Components in the Soft-Decision Circuit

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V C o n f = V T h 1 V T h 0 ¯ ,
P ( x j | y j ) = P ( y j | x j ) P ( x j ) p ( y j | x j = 0 ) P ( x j = 0 ) + P ( y j | x j = 1 ) P ( x j = 1 ) ,
L L R ( x j ) = log P ( x j = 0 | y j ) P ( x j = 1 | y j ) .
B E R = 1 2 e r f c Q 2 ,