Abstract

In this paper, we leverage the torus topology to design a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) backbone network for operation in hazardous avionic environments. The proposed WDM local area network offers efficient data delivery and fast fault recovery via establishing four non-overlapping lightpaths for any source–destination pair. First, we describe a torus-based architecture and propose an efficient non-overlapping lightpath setup algorithm: FOLD (Four-way Optimal Disjoint Routing). The algorithm is proved to achieve optimal link utilization. Second, based on the proposed lightpath setup algorithm, a wavelength allocation and reuse (WAR) scheme enforcing wavelength continuity is proposed to minimize the wavelength utilization for all-to-all communication. An analytical calculation on wavelength utilization shows that the proposed WAR performs very close to an ideal wavelength assignment scheme without wavelength continuity being enforced. Lastly, the probabilistic and capacity analysis demonstrates vast reliability improvement via applying the proposed network architecture in terms of network-failure-induced impact on connection reliability and network capacity degradation.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. S. F. Habiby and R. Vaidyanathan, "WDM optical backbone networks in aircraft applications: networking challenges and standards progress," Military Communications Conf., 2009. MILCOM 2009, 2009, pp. 1‒6.
  2. R. D. Gardner, I. Andonovic, D. K. Hunter, A. J. McLaughlin, J. S. Aitchison, and J. H. Marsh, "High performance photonic avionics networking using WDM," Military Communications Conf., 1999. MILCOM 1999, Vol. 2, 1999, pp. 958‒962.
  3. C. Reardon, J. Profumo, and A. D. George, "Comparative simulative analysis of WDM LANs for avionics platforms," Military Communications Conf., 2006. MILCOM 2006, 2006, pp. 1‒7.
  4. G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, and M. Medard, "High-reliability topological architectures for networks under stress," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, (9), 1830‒1845 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Yuan, R. Melhem, and R. Gupta, "Performance of multihop communications using logical topologies on optical torus networks," Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Computer Communications and Networks, 1998, pp. 494‒501.
  6. S. Stefanakos and T. Erlebach, "Routing in all-optical ring networks revisited," Proc. ISCC 2004. 9th Int. Symp. on Computers and Communications, Vol. 1, 2004, pp. 288‒293.
  7. D. Wang, A. Kumar, M. Sivakumar, and J. Y. McNair, "A fault-tolerant backbone network architecture targeting time-critical communication for avionic WDM LANs," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications. ICC’09, 2009, pp. 1‒5.
  8. S. Ramamurthy, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, "Survivable WDM mesh networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, (4), 870‒883 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Sun and E. Modiano, "Capacity provisioning and failure recovery for Low Earth Orbit satellite constellation," Int. J. Satellite Commun. Netw. 21, 259‒284 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Wen and V. W. S. Chan, "Ultra-reliable communication over unreliable optical networks via lightpath diversity: system characterization and optimization," Global Telecommunications Conf. GLOBECOM’03, Vol. 5, 2003, pp. 2529‒2535.
  11. W. Ni, X. Zheng, C. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Guo, and H. Zhang, "Achieving resource-efficient survivable provisioning in service differentiated WDM mesh networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, (16), 2831‒2839 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approach for wavelength routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, (1), 47‒60 (2000).
  13. B. Beauquier, "All-to-all communication for some wavelength-routed all-optical networks," Networks 33, 179‒187 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. F. Habiby and M. J. Hackert, "RONIA results: WDM-based optical networks in aircraft applications," Avionics, Fiber-Optics and Photonics Technology Conf., 2008, pp. 71‒72.
  15. J. Bowers, "Low power 3D MEMS optical switches," IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics, 2009, pp. 152‒153.
  16. J. W. Suurballe, "Disjoint paths in a network," Networks 4, 125‒145 (1974).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2004 (1)

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, and M. Medard, "High-reliability topological architectures for networks under stress," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, (9), 1830‒1845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. Sun and E. Modiano, "Capacity provisioning and failure recovery for Low Earth Orbit satellite constellation," Int. J. Satellite Commun. Netw. 21, 259‒284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramamurthy, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, "Survivable WDM mesh networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, (4), 870‒883 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approach for wavelength routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, (1), 47‒60 (2000).

1999 (1)

B. Beauquier, "All-to-all communication for some wavelength-routed all-optical networks," Networks 33, 179‒187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. W. Suurballe, "Disjoint paths in a network," Networks 4, 125‒145 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

R. D. Gardner, I. Andonovic, D. K. Hunter, A. J. McLaughlin, J. S. Aitchison, and J. H. Marsh, "High performance photonic avionics networking using WDM," Military Communications Conf., 1999. MILCOM 1999, Vol. 2, 1999, pp. 958‒962.

Andonovic, I.

R. D. Gardner, I. Andonovic, D. K. Hunter, A. J. McLaughlin, J. S. Aitchison, and J. H. Marsh, "High performance photonic avionics networking using WDM," Military Communications Conf., 1999. MILCOM 1999, Vol. 2, 1999, pp. 958‒962.

Beauquier, B.

B. Beauquier, "All-to-all communication for some wavelength-routed all-optical networks," Networks 33, 179‒187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J.

J. Bowers, "Low power 3D MEMS optical switches," IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics, 2009, pp. 152‒153.

Chan, V. W. S.

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, and M. Medard, "High-reliability topological architectures for networks under stress," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, (9), 1830‒1845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wen and V. W. S. Chan, "Ultra-reliable communication over unreliable optical networks via lightpath diversity: system characterization and optimization," Global Telecommunications Conf. GLOBECOM’03, Vol. 5, 2003, pp. 2529‒2535.

Erlebach, T.

S. Stefanakos and T. Erlebach, "Routing in all-optical ring networks revisited," Proc. ISCC 2004. 9th Int. Symp. on Computers and Communications, Vol. 1, 2004, pp. 288‒293.

Gardner, R. D.

R. D. Gardner, I. Andonovic, D. K. Hunter, A. J. McLaughlin, J. S. Aitchison, and J. H. Marsh, "High performance photonic avionics networking using WDM," Military Communications Conf., 1999. MILCOM 1999, Vol. 2, 1999, pp. 958‒962.

George, A. D.

C. Reardon, J. Profumo, and A. D. George, "Comparative simulative analysis of WDM LANs for avionics platforms," Military Communications Conf., 2006. MILCOM 2006, 2006, pp. 1‒7.

Guo, Y.

Gupta, R.

X. Yuan, R. Melhem, and R. Gupta, "Performance of multihop communications using logical topologies on optical torus networks," Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Computer Communications and Networks, 1998, pp. 494‒501.

Habiby, S. F.

S. F. Habiby and R. Vaidyanathan, "WDM optical backbone networks in aircraft applications: networking challenges and standards progress," Military Communications Conf., 2009. MILCOM 2009, 2009, pp. 1‒6.

S. F. Habiby and M. J. Hackert, "RONIA results: WDM-based optical networks in aircraft applications," Avionics, Fiber-Optics and Photonics Technology Conf., 2008, pp. 71‒72.

Hackert, M. J.

S. F. Habiby and M. J. Hackert, "RONIA results: WDM-based optical networks in aircraft applications," Avionics, Fiber-Optics and Photonics Technology Conf., 2008, pp. 71‒72.

Hunter, D. K.

R. D. Gardner, I. Andonovic, D. K. Hunter, A. J. McLaughlin, J. S. Aitchison, and J. H. Marsh, "High performance photonic avionics networking using WDM," Military Communications Conf., 1999. MILCOM 1999, Vol. 2, 1999, pp. 958‒962.

Jue, J. P.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approach for wavelength routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, (1), 47‒60 (2000).

Kumar, A.

D. Wang, A. Kumar, M. Sivakumar, and J. Y. McNair, "A fault-tolerant backbone network architecture targeting time-critical communication for avionic WDM LANs," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications. ICC’09, 2009, pp. 1‒5.

Li, Y.

Marsh, J. H.

R. D. Gardner, I. Andonovic, D. K. Hunter, A. J. McLaughlin, J. S. Aitchison, and J. H. Marsh, "High performance photonic avionics networking using WDM," Military Communications Conf., 1999. MILCOM 1999, Vol. 2, 1999, pp. 958‒962.

McLaughlin, A. J.

R. D. Gardner, I. Andonovic, D. K. Hunter, A. J. McLaughlin, J. S. Aitchison, and J. H. Marsh, "High performance photonic avionics networking using WDM," Military Communications Conf., 1999. MILCOM 1999, Vol. 2, 1999, pp. 958‒962.

McNair, J. Y.

D. Wang, A. Kumar, M. Sivakumar, and J. Y. McNair, "A fault-tolerant backbone network architecture targeting time-critical communication for avionic WDM LANs," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications. ICC’09, 2009, pp. 1‒5.

Medard, M.

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, and M. Medard, "High-reliability topological architectures for networks under stress," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, (9), 1830‒1845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Melhem, R.

X. Yuan, R. Melhem, and R. Gupta, "Performance of multihop communications using logical topologies on optical torus networks," Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Computer Communications and Networks, 1998, pp. 494‒501.

Modiano, E.

J. Sun and E. Modiano, "Capacity provisioning and failure recovery for Low Earth Orbit satellite constellation," Int. J. Satellite Commun. Netw. 21, 259‒284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

S. Ramamurthy, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, "Survivable WDM mesh networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, (4), 870‒883 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approach for wavelength routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, (1), 47‒60 (2000).

Ni, W.

Profumo, J.

C. Reardon, J. Profumo, and A. D. George, "Comparative simulative analysis of WDM LANs for avionics platforms," Military Communications Conf., 2006. MILCOM 2006, 2006, pp. 1‒7.

Ramamurthy, S.

Reardon, C.

C. Reardon, J. Profumo, and A. D. George, "Comparative simulative analysis of WDM LANs for avionics platforms," Military Communications Conf., 2006. MILCOM 2006, 2006, pp. 1‒7.

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

Sivakumar, M.

D. Wang, A. Kumar, M. Sivakumar, and J. Y. McNair, "A fault-tolerant backbone network architecture targeting time-critical communication for avionic WDM LANs," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications. ICC’09, 2009, pp. 1‒5.

Stefanakos, S.

S. Stefanakos and T. Erlebach, "Routing in all-optical ring networks revisited," Proc. ISCC 2004. 9th Int. Symp. on Computers and Communications, Vol. 1, 2004, pp. 288‒293.

Sun, J.

J. Sun and E. Modiano, "Capacity provisioning and failure recovery for Low Earth Orbit satellite constellation," Int. J. Satellite Commun. Netw. 21, 259‒284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suurballe, J. W.

J. W. Suurballe, "Disjoint paths in a network," Networks 4, 125‒145 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vaidyanathan, R.

S. F. Habiby and R. Vaidyanathan, "WDM optical backbone networks in aircraft applications: networking challenges and standards progress," Military Communications Conf., 2009. MILCOM 2009, 2009, pp. 1‒6.

Wang, D.

D. Wang, A. Kumar, M. Sivakumar, and J. Y. McNair, "A fault-tolerant backbone network architecture targeting time-critical communication for avionic WDM LANs," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications. ICC’09, 2009, pp. 1‒5.

Weichenberg, G.

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, and M. Medard, "High-reliability topological architectures for networks under stress," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, (9), 1830‒1845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wen, Y.

Y. Wen and V. W. S. Chan, "Ultra-reliable communication over unreliable optical networks via lightpath diversity: system characterization and optimization," Global Telecommunications Conf. GLOBECOM’03, Vol. 5, 2003, pp. 2529‒2535.

Yuan, X.

X. Yuan, R. Melhem, and R. Gupta, "Performance of multihop communications using logical topologies on optical torus networks," Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Computer Communications and Networks, 1998, pp. 494‒501.

Zang, H.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approach for wavelength routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, (1), 47‒60 (2000).

Zhang, H.

Zheng, X.

Zhu, C.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, and M. Medard, "High-reliability topological architectures for networks under stress," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, (9), 1830‒1845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Satellite Commun. Netw. (1)

J. Sun and E. Modiano, "Capacity provisioning and failure recovery for Low Earth Orbit satellite constellation," Int. J. Satellite Commun. Netw. 21, 259‒284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Networks (2)

J. W. Suurballe, "Disjoint paths in a network," Networks 4, 125‒145 (1974).
[CrossRef]

B. Beauquier, "All-to-all communication for some wavelength-routed all-optical networks," Networks 33, 179‒187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Netw. Mag. (1)

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approach for wavelength routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, (1), 47‒60 (2000).

Other (9)

Y. Wen and V. W. S. Chan, "Ultra-reliable communication over unreliable optical networks via lightpath diversity: system characterization and optimization," Global Telecommunications Conf. GLOBECOM’03, Vol. 5, 2003, pp. 2529‒2535.

S. F. Habiby and M. J. Hackert, "RONIA results: WDM-based optical networks in aircraft applications," Avionics, Fiber-Optics and Photonics Technology Conf., 2008, pp. 71‒72.

J. Bowers, "Low power 3D MEMS optical switches," IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics, 2009, pp. 152‒153.

S. F. Habiby and R. Vaidyanathan, "WDM optical backbone networks in aircraft applications: networking challenges and standards progress," Military Communications Conf., 2009. MILCOM 2009, 2009, pp. 1‒6.

R. D. Gardner, I. Andonovic, D. K. Hunter, A. J. McLaughlin, J. S. Aitchison, and J. H. Marsh, "High performance photonic avionics networking using WDM," Military Communications Conf., 1999. MILCOM 1999, Vol. 2, 1999, pp. 958‒962.

C. Reardon, J. Profumo, and A. D. George, "Comparative simulative analysis of WDM LANs for avionics platforms," Military Communications Conf., 2006. MILCOM 2006, 2006, pp. 1‒7.

X. Yuan, R. Melhem, and R. Gupta, "Performance of multihop communications using logical topologies on optical torus networks," Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Computer Communications and Networks, 1998, pp. 494‒501.

S. Stefanakos and T. Erlebach, "Routing in all-optical ring networks revisited," Proc. ISCC 2004. 9th Int. Symp. on Computers and Communications, Vol. 1, 2004, pp. 288‒293.

D. Wang, A. Kumar, M. Sivakumar, and J. Y. McNair, "A fault-tolerant backbone network architecture targeting time-critical communication for avionic WDM LANs," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications. ICC’09, 2009, pp. 1‒5.

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Torus architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

General non-overlapping lightpath setup algorithm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Lightpath setup for XY routing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Case  I lightpath setup.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Case  II lightpath setup.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Summary of lightpath setup cases in the destination group (N odd).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Summary of lightpath setup cases in the destination group (N even).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) WAR demonstration for the 3 × 3 torus.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Grouping lightpaths.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) WAR algorithm performance.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Network unreliability analysis for a 4 × 4 torus.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) TTUR distribution for a 4 × 4 torus ( f = 0 . 1 ).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Conditional probabilities of connection failures for a 4 × 4 torus.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Effects of network failures on network capacity (in a 4 × 4 torus).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(Color online) Average capacity degradation comparison between the 4-lightpath communication proposed and single-lightpath communication ( 4 × 4 torus) .

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(Color online) Non-optimality demonstration for a greedy disjoint routing solution.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

(Color online) Path-augmentation-based 2-shortest disjoint routing.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Summary of L S , D Expressions for Different Cases

Tables Icon

Table II Summary of L S Expressions for Different N

Tables Icon

Table III Summary of W W A R Expressions for Different Torus Sizes

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P d i s c o n n e c t i o n = [ 1 ( 1 f ) l 1 ] [ 1 ( 1 f ) l 2 ] [ 1 ( 1 f ) l 3 ] [ 1 ( 1 f ) l 4 ] = ( 1 p l 1 ) ( 1 p l 2 ) ( 1 p l 3 ) ( 1 p l 4 ) ,
W N a i v e = N 2 N 2 1 2 .
W L o w e r b o u n d = L a l l - t o - a l l 2 N 2 ,
L a l l - t o - a l l = S , D L S , D = N 2 × L S ,
L S = D L S , D ,
P i = 1 j = λ i e C j i f j 1 f e j ,
P T T U R = 1 p l 1 1 p l 2 1 p l 3 1 p l 4 .
P i ̄ | n one-hop connection failures = C n i / e n ,
T f a u l t - f r e e = N 2 ( N 2 1 ) 2 C ,
T a v g | n f a i l u r e s = T f a u l t - f r e e C i = 1 e n D i / e n ,
T w o r s t | n f a i l u r e s = T f a u l t - f r e e C max i D i ,
T b e s t | n f a i l u r e s = T f a u l t - f r e e C min i D i .