Abstract

In optical grooming networks, the capacity fairness issue can be resolved by utilizing a call admission control (CAC) mechanism. Existing CAC schemes are generally based on one of four different techniques, namely, static bandwidth reservation, static threshold setting, mathematical statistics, and Markov decision processing without buffer implementation (NB). However, irrespective of the technique used, a trade-off exists between the network fairness and the network throughput. In our previous work, a conditional-preemption CAC (CP-CAC) mechanism was proposed to increase the network throughput while simultaneously maintaining the fairness. However, a CP-CAC mechanism considers only the blocking probability at particular instants of preemption. This paper proposes the use of a dynamic-preemption call admission control scheme (DP-CAC) to decide whether or not to preempt existing requests based on the optimal policy derived from a Markov decision process. Similar to CP-CAC, the DP-CAC method is also based on a dynamic threshold setting concept and is implemented using a single connection buffer and an associated set of virtual indicators. The simulation results show that compared to the CP-CAC mechanism, the proposed DP-CAC further improves the network throughput without sacrificing the fairness. Additionally, the average waiting time induced by the buffer implementation for DP-CAC is just 0.23 time units shorter compared to 0.25 for CP-CAC. Finally, it is shown that the proposed method also ensures fairness in a variety of common network topologies including 6 × 6mesh-torus, NSF, and Cost239.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. B. Mukherjee, C. Ou, H. Zhu, K. Zhu, N. Singhal, and S. Yao, "Traffic grooming in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, pp. 23‒27.
  2. M. Sivakumar, K. M. Sivalingam, and S. Subramaniam, "On factors affecting the performance of dynamically groomed optical WDM mesh networks," Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, 2005, pp. 411‒415.
  3. K. Zhu, H. Zang, and B. Mukherjee, "A comprehensive study on next-generation optical grooming switches," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1173‒1186 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, "A review of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks: architectures and challenges," Opt. Networks Mag. 4, (2), 55‒64 (2003).
  5. A. K. Somani, Survivability and Traffic Grooming in WDM Optical Networks, Cambridge U. Press, 2006.
  6. K. Zhu, H. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, "Traffic engineering in multigranularity heterogeneous optical WDM mesh networks through dynamic traffic grooming," IEEE Network 17, (2), 8‒15 (2003).
  7. S. Thiagarajan and A. K. Somani, "Performance analysis of WDM optical networks with grooming capabilities," Proc. SPIE 4213, 253‒262 (2000).
  8. K. W. Ross and D. H. K. Tsang, "The stochastic knapsack problem," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, (7), 740‒747 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Tran-Gia and F. Hubner, "An analysis of trunk reservation and grade of service balancing mechanisms in multiservice broadband network," IFIP Workshop TC6, Modeling and Perfomance Evaluation of ATM Technology, Vol. c-15, 1993, pp. 83‒97.
  10. S. Thiagarajan and A. K. Somani, "Capacity fairness of WDM networks with grooming capabilities," Opt. Networks Mag. 2, (3), 24‒32 (2001).
  11. J. Choi, T. Kwon, Y. Choi, and M. Naghshineh, "Call admission control for multimedia services in mobile cellular networks: a Markov decision approach," IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications, 2000, pp. 594‒599.
  12. K. Mosharaf, J. Talim, and I. Lambadaris, "A call admission control for service differentiation and fairness management in WDM grooming networks," Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, BroadNets, 2004, pp. 162‒169.
  13. K. Mosharaf, J. Talim, and I. Lambadaris, "A call admission control for service differentiation and fairness management in WDM grooming networks," Opt. Switching Networking 2, (2), 113‒126 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. C. Sue, Y. B. Hsu, and P. J. Ho, "Fair admission control scheme based on conditional preemption in traffic groomed optical networks," Photonic Network Commun. 20, (3), 257‒267 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Mosharaf, J. Talim, and I. Lambadaris, "Optimal resource allocation and fairness control in all-optical WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, (8), 1496‒1507 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. L. Puterman, Markov Decision Processes, Wiley Inter-Science, 1994.
  17. R. A. Howard, Dynamic Programming and Markov Process, MIT Press, 1960.

2010 (1)

C. C. Sue, Y. B. Hsu, and P. J. Ho, "Fair admission control scheme based on conditional preemption in traffic groomed optical networks," Photonic Network Commun. 20, (3), 257‒267 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

K. Mosharaf, J. Talim, and I. Lambadaris, "Optimal resource allocation and fairness control in all-optical WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, (8), 1496‒1507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Mosharaf, J. Talim, and I. Lambadaris, "A call admission control for service differentiation and fairness management in WDM grooming networks," Opt. Switching Networking 2, (2), 113‒126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

K. Zhu, H. Zang, and B. Mukherjee, "A comprehensive study on next-generation optical grooming switches," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1173‒1186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, "A review of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks: architectures and challenges," Opt. Networks Mag. 4, (2), 55‒64 (2003).

K. Zhu, H. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, "Traffic engineering in multigranularity heterogeneous optical WDM mesh networks through dynamic traffic grooming," IEEE Network 17, (2), 8‒15 (2003).

2001 (1)

S. Thiagarajan and A. K. Somani, "Capacity fairness of WDM networks with grooming capabilities," Opt. Networks Mag. 2, (3), 24‒32 (2001).

2000 (1)

S. Thiagarajan and A. K. Somani, "Performance analysis of WDM optical networks with grooming capabilities," Proc. SPIE 4213, 253‒262 (2000).

1989 (1)

K. W. Ross and D. H. K. Tsang, "The stochastic knapsack problem," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, (7), 740‒747 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

J. Choi, T. Kwon, Y. Choi, and M. Naghshineh, "Call admission control for multimedia services in mobile cellular networks: a Markov decision approach," IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications, 2000, pp. 594‒599.

Choi, Y.

J. Choi, T. Kwon, Y. Choi, and M. Naghshineh, "Call admission control for multimedia services in mobile cellular networks: a Markov decision approach," IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications, 2000, pp. 594‒599.

Ho, P. J.

C. C. Sue, Y. B. Hsu, and P. J. Ho, "Fair admission control scheme based on conditional preemption in traffic groomed optical networks," Photonic Network Commun. 20, (3), 257‒267 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Howard, R. A.

R. A. Howard, Dynamic Programming and Markov Process, MIT Press, 1960.

Hsu, Y. B.

C. C. Sue, Y. B. Hsu, and P. J. Ho, "Fair admission control scheme based on conditional preemption in traffic groomed optical networks," Photonic Network Commun. 20, (3), 257‒267 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hubner, F.

P. Tran-Gia and F. Hubner, "An analysis of trunk reservation and grade of service balancing mechanisms in multiservice broadband network," IFIP Workshop TC6, Modeling and Perfomance Evaluation of ATM Technology, Vol. c-15, 1993, pp. 83‒97.

Kwon, T.

J. Choi, T. Kwon, Y. Choi, and M. Naghshineh, "Call admission control for multimedia services in mobile cellular networks: a Markov decision approach," IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications, 2000, pp. 594‒599.

Lambadaris, I.

K. Mosharaf, J. Talim, and I. Lambadaris, "A call admission control for service differentiation and fairness management in WDM grooming networks," Opt. Switching Networking 2, (2), 113‒126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Mosharaf, J. Talim, and I. Lambadaris, "Optimal resource allocation and fairness control in all-optical WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, (8), 1496‒1507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Mosharaf, J. Talim, and I. Lambadaris, "A call admission control for service differentiation and fairness management in WDM grooming networks," Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, BroadNets, 2004, pp. 162‒169.

Mosharaf, K.

K. Mosharaf, J. Talim, and I. Lambadaris, "Optimal resource allocation and fairness control in all-optical WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, (8), 1496‒1507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Mosharaf, J. Talim, and I. Lambadaris, "A call admission control for service differentiation and fairness management in WDM grooming networks," Opt. Switching Networking 2, (2), 113‒126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Mosharaf, J. Talim, and I. Lambadaris, "A call admission control for service differentiation and fairness management in WDM grooming networks," Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, BroadNets, 2004, pp. 162‒169.

Mukherjee, B.

K. Zhu, H. Zang, and B. Mukherjee, "A comprehensive study on next-generation optical grooming switches," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1173‒1186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu, H. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, "Traffic engineering in multigranularity heterogeneous optical WDM mesh networks through dynamic traffic grooming," IEEE Network 17, (2), 8‒15 (2003).

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, "A review of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks: architectures and challenges," Opt. Networks Mag. 4, (2), 55‒64 (2003).

B. Mukherjee, C. Ou, H. Zhu, K. Zhu, N. Singhal, and S. Yao, "Traffic grooming in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, pp. 23‒27.

Naghshineh, M.

J. Choi, T. Kwon, Y. Choi, and M. Naghshineh, "Call admission control for multimedia services in mobile cellular networks: a Markov decision approach," IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications, 2000, pp. 594‒599.

Ou, C.

B. Mukherjee, C. Ou, H. Zhu, K. Zhu, N. Singhal, and S. Yao, "Traffic grooming in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, pp. 23‒27.

Puterman, M. L.

M. L. Puterman, Markov Decision Processes, Wiley Inter-Science, 1994.

Ross, K. W.

K. W. Ross and D. H. K. Tsang, "The stochastic knapsack problem," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, (7), 740‒747 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Singhal, N.

B. Mukherjee, C. Ou, H. Zhu, K. Zhu, N. Singhal, and S. Yao, "Traffic grooming in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, pp. 23‒27.

Sivakumar, M.

M. Sivakumar, K. M. Sivalingam, and S. Subramaniam, "On factors affecting the performance of dynamically groomed optical WDM mesh networks," Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, 2005, pp. 411‒415.

Sivalingam, K. M.

M. Sivakumar, K. M. Sivalingam, and S. Subramaniam, "On factors affecting the performance of dynamically groomed optical WDM mesh networks," Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, 2005, pp. 411‒415.

Somani, A. K.

S. Thiagarajan and A. K. Somani, "Capacity fairness of WDM networks with grooming capabilities," Opt. Networks Mag. 2, (3), 24‒32 (2001).

S. Thiagarajan and A. K. Somani, "Performance analysis of WDM optical networks with grooming capabilities," Proc. SPIE 4213, 253‒262 (2000).

A. K. Somani, Survivability and Traffic Grooming in WDM Optical Networks, Cambridge U. Press, 2006.

Subramaniam, S.

M. Sivakumar, K. M. Sivalingam, and S. Subramaniam, "On factors affecting the performance of dynamically groomed optical WDM mesh networks," Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, 2005, pp. 411‒415.

Sue, C. C.

C. C. Sue, Y. B. Hsu, and P. J. Ho, "Fair admission control scheme based on conditional preemption in traffic groomed optical networks," Photonic Network Commun. 20, (3), 257‒267 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Talim, J.

K. Mosharaf, J. Talim, and I. Lambadaris, "A call admission control for service differentiation and fairness management in WDM grooming networks," Opt. Switching Networking 2, (2), 113‒126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Mosharaf, J. Talim, and I. Lambadaris, "Optimal resource allocation and fairness control in all-optical WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, (8), 1496‒1507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Mosharaf, J. Talim, and I. Lambadaris, "A call admission control for service differentiation and fairness management in WDM grooming networks," Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, BroadNets, 2004, pp. 162‒169.

Thiagarajan, S.

S. Thiagarajan and A. K. Somani, "Capacity fairness of WDM networks with grooming capabilities," Opt. Networks Mag. 2, (3), 24‒32 (2001).

S. Thiagarajan and A. K. Somani, "Performance analysis of WDM optical networks with grooming capabilities," Proc. SPIE 4213, 253‒262 (2000).

Tran-Gia, P.

P. Tran-Gia and F. Hubner, "An analysis of trunk reservation and grade of service balancing mechanisms in multiservice broadband network," IFIP Workshop TC6, Modeling and Perfomance Evaluation of ATM Technology, Vol. c-15, 1993, pp. 83‒97.

Tsang, D. H. K.

K. W. Ross and D. H. K. Tsang, "The stochastic knapsack problem," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, (7), 740‒747 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yao, S.

B. Mukherjee, C. Ou, H. Zhu, K. Zhu, N. Singhal, and S. Yao, "Traffic grooming in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, pp. 23‒27.

Zang, H.

K. Zhu, H. Zang, and B. Mukherjee, "A comprehensive study on next-generation optical grooming switches," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1173‒1186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

K. Zhu, H. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, "Traffic engineering in multigranularity heterogeneous optical WDM mesh networks through dynamic traffic grooming," IEEE Network 17, (2), 8‒15 (2003).

B. Mukherjee, C. Ou, H. Zhu, K. Zhu, N. Singhal, and S. Yao, "Traffic grooming in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, pp. 23‒27.

Zhu, K.

K. Zhu, H. Zang, and B. Mukherjee, "A comprehensive study on next-generation optical grooming switches," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1173‒1186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu, H. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, "Traffic engineering in multigranularity heterogeneous optical WDM mesh networks through dynamic traffic grooming," IEEE Network 17, (2), 8‒15 (2003).

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, "A review of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks: architectures and challenges," Opt. Networks Mag. 4, (2), 55‒64 (2003).

B. Mukherjee, C. Ou, H. Zhu, K. Zhu, N. Singhal, and S. Yao, "Traffic grooming in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, pp. 23‒27.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

K. Zhu, H. Zang, and B. Mukherjee, "A comprehensive study on next-generation optical grooming switches," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1173‒1186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Mosharaf, J. Talim, and I. Lambadaris, "Optimal resource allocation and fairness control in all-optical WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, (8), 1496‒1507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network (1)

K. Zhu, H. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, "Traffic engineering in multigranularity heterogeneous optical WDM mesh networks through dynamic traffic grooming," IEEE Network 17, (2), 8‒15 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

K. W. Ross and D. H. K. Tsang, "The stochastic knapsack problem," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, (7), 740‒747 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Networks Mag. (2)

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, "A review of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks: architectures and challenges," Opt. Networks Mag. 4, (2), 55‒64 (2003).

S. Thiagarajan and A. K. Somani, "Capacity fairness of WDM networks with grooming capabilities," Opt. Networks Mag. 2, (3), 24‒32 (2001).

Opt. Switching Networking (1)

K. Mosharaf, J. Talim, and I. Lambadaris, "A call admission control for service differentiation and fairness management in WDM grooming networks," Opt. Switching Networking 2, (2), 113‒126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Photonic Network Commun. (1)

C. C. Sue, Y. B. Hsu, and P. J. Ho, "Fair admission control scheme based on conditional preemption in traffic groomed optical networks," Photonic Network Commun. 20, (3), 257‒267 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Thiagarajan and A. K. Somani, "Performance analysis of WDM optical networks with grooming capabilities," Proc. SPIE 4213, 253‒262 (2000).

Other (8)

P. Tran-Gia and F. Hubner, "An analysis of trunk reservation and grade of service balancing mechanisms in multiservice broadband network," IFIP Workshop TC6, Modeling and Perfomance Evaluation of ATM Technology, Vol. c-15, 1993, pp. 83‒97.

A. K. Somani, Survivability and Traffic Grooming in WDM Optical Networks, Cambridge U. Press, 2006.

B. Mukherjee, C. Ou, H. Zhu, K. Zhu, N. Singhal, and S. Yao, "Traffic grooming in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, pp. 23‒27.

M. Sivakumar, K. M. Sivalingam, and S. Subramaniam, "On factors affecting the performance of dynamically groomed optical WDM mesh networks," Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, 2005, pp. 411‒415.

J. Choi, T. Kwon, Y. Choi, and M. Naghshineh, "Call admission control for multimedia services in mobile cellular networks: a Markov decision approach," IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications, 2000, pp. 594‒599.

K. Mosharaf, J. Talim, and I. Lambadaris, "A call admission control for service differentiation and fairness management in WDM grooming networks," Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, BroadNets, 2004, pp. 162‒169.

M. L. Puterman, Markov Decision Processes, Wiley Inter-Science, 1994.

R. A. Howard, Dynamic Programming and Markov Process, MIT Press, 1960.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Network model.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Single-link model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Policy iteration method.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The state diagram with transition links.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Policy set for (a) DP, (b) WP, and (c) NP.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) The blocking probability for Class 1 and Class 2 connections with (a) the arrival rate λ 1 = 4 , λ 2 = 1 and (b) λ 1 = 8 , λ 2 = 2 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Flow chart for adjusting the weight when finding the optimal policy considering the fairness.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Two-hop network.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dynamic-preemption call admission control algorithm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

6 × 6mesh-torus network topology.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Fairness comparison.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Blocking probability of (a) Class 1 and (b) Class 2 connection requests.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Average blocking probability of the overall system.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Network throughput.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(Color online) Waiting time for mechanisms with buffer implementation.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Network topology: (a) NSF (b), Cost239.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Fairness Ratio Obtained by DP-CAC in Three Network Topologies

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S = s = ( ( n 1 , , n k , , n K ) , ( b 1 , , b k , , b K ) ) k = 1 K n k × t k T , k = 1 K b k 1 .
P S = { ( l 1 , l 2 , , l S ) l i L , i = 1 , , S } ,
L = ( a 1 , , a k , , a K ) a k
= 1 ,  accept class  k  request 0 ,  reject class  k  request , k = 1 K .
r i , j p l = λ k if  j = N e x t ( i , 1 , k , p l ) , p l . l i . a k = 1 λ k if  j = N e x t ( i , 1 , k , p l ) , p l . l i . a k = 0 n k μ k if  j = N e x t ( i , 0 , k , n u l l ) ,
r max = k = 1 K T t k μ k + λ k ,
P i , j p l = λ k r max , if  j = N e x t ( i , 1 , k , p l ) , p l . l i . a k = 1 λ k r max , if  j = N e x t ( i , 1 , k , p l ) , p l . l i . a k = 0 n k μ k r max , if  j = N e x t ( i , 0 , k , n u l l ) 1 k = 1 K n k μ k + λ k r max , if  j = i .
R ( i ) = k = 1 K α k × n k × t k , i = ( ( n 1 , , n k , , n g ) , ( b 1 , , b k , , b g ) ) S ,
V i n = j S P i , j p l × R ( i ) + V j ( n 1 ) , i S .