Abstract

The efficient transmission of transport control protocol (TCP) traffic over optical burst-switched (OBS) networks is a challenging problem, due to the high sensitivity of the TCP congestion control mechanism to losses. In this paper, a TCP-specific traffic profiling and traffic prediction scheme is proposed, for optimizing TCP transmission over one-way OBS networks. In the proposed scheme, the burst assembly unit inspects TCP packet headers in parallel to the assembly process, keeping flow-level traffic statistics. These are then exploited to derive accurate traffic predictions, in at least one round trip time prediction window. This allows traffic schedulers to be notified of upcoming traffic changes in advance, in order to optimally reschedule their resource reservations. In this paper, we detail the traffic profiling and prediction mechanism and also provide analytical and simulation results to assess its performance. The performance gains when using the prediction scheme are shown with a modified one-way OBS reservation protocol, which efficiently and in advance reserves resources at the burst level.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OBS)—A new paradigm for an optical Internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, (1), 69‒84 (1999).
  2. O. González, A. M. Guidotti, C. Raffaelli, K. Ramantas, and K. Vlachos, "On transmission control protocol synchronization in optical burst switching," Photonic Network Commun. 18, (3), 323‒333 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Maier, A. Feldmann, V. Paxson, and M. Allman, "On dominant characteristics of residential broadband Internet traffic," Proc. ACM IMC, 2009.
  4. X. Yu, C. Qiao, Y. Liu, and D. Towsley, "Performance evaluation of TCP implementations in OBS networks," Tech. Rep. 2003-13, Buffalo, NY, CSE Department, SUNY, 2003.
  5. X. Yu, C. Qiao, and Y. Liu, "TCP implementations and false time out detection in OBS networks," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. 2, 2004, pp. 774‒784.
  6. B. Shihada, P.-H. Ho, and Q. Zhang, "A novel congestion detection scheme in TCP over OBS networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, (4), 386‒395 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Q. Zhang, V. M. Vokkarane, Y. Wang, and J. P. Jue, "Analysis of TCP over optical burst-switched networks with burst retransmission," IEEE Globecom 4, 1‒6 (2005) 1983.
  8. J. Liu, N. Ansari, and T. Ott, "FRR for latency reduction and QoS provisioning in OBS networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1210‒1219 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Karagiannis, M. Molle, and M. Faloutsos, "Long-range dependence ten years of Internet traffic modeling," IEEE Internet Comput. 8, (5), 57‒64 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Vlachos and D. Monoyios, "A virtual one-way signaling protocol with aggressive resource reservation for improving burst transmission delay," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, (4), 2869‒2875 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. Pedrola, S. Rumley, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, P. Pedroso, J. Sole-Pareta, and C. Gaumier, "A performance survey on deflection routing techniques for OBS networks," Proc. of 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON ’09), 2009, pp. 1‒6.
  12. R. R. C Bikram, N. Charbonneau, and V. M. Vokkarane, "Coordinated multi-layer loss recovery in TCP over optical burst-switched (OBS) networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Communications, 2010, pp. 1‒5.
  13. C. Cameron, H. Le Vu, J. Choi, S. Bilgrami, M. Zukerman, and M. Kang, "TCP over OBS—fixed-point load and loss," Opt. Express 13, (23), 9167‒9174 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Cisco Systems, "NetFlow Services and Applications," White Paper, 2000.
  15. K. Ramantas and K. Vlachos, "Profiling TCP traffic in optical burst switching networks," Proc. of ICST BROADNETS, 2010.
  16. N. Duffield, C. Lund, and M. Thorup, "Properties and prediction of flow statistics from sampled packet streams," Proc. of 2nd ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Internet Measurement, 2002.
  17. N.G. Duffield, "Sampling for passive Internet measurement: a review," Stat. Sci. 19, (3), 472‒498 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Jiang and C. Dovrolis, "Passive estimation of TCP round-trip times," Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, 2002.
  19. Y. Lu, A. Montanari, B. Prabhakar, S. Dharmapurikar, and A. Kabbani, "Counter braids: a novel counter architecture for per-flow measurement," Proc. of ACM SIGMETRICS ’08, 2008.
  20. M. Yajnik, S. B. Moon, J. Kurose, and D. Towsley, "Measurement and modeling of the temporal dependence in packet loss," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM 1, 345‒352 (1999).
  21. C. Barakat, P. Thiran, G. Iannacone, C. Diot, and P. Owezarsky, "Modeling Internet backbone traffic at the flow level," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51, (8), 2111‒2123 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Clauset, C. R. Shalizi, and M. E. J. Newman, "Power-law distributions in empirical data," SIAM Rev. 51, (4), 661‒707 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Tune and D. Veitch, "Towards optimal sampling for flow size estimation," Proc. 8th ACM SIGCOMM, 2008.
  24. K. Ramantas and K. Vlachos, "A TCP prediction scheme for enhancing performance in OBS networks," Proc. of IEEE ICC, 2011, pp. 1‒6.
  25. N. Cardwell, S. Savage, and T. Anderson, "Modeling TCP latency," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. 3, 2000, pp. 1742‒1751.
  26. J. Teng and G. Rouskas, "A detailed analysis and performance comparison of wavelength reservation schemes for optical burst switched networks," Photonic Network Commun. 9, (3), 311‒335 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Xiong, M. Vandenhoute, and H. Cankaya, "Control architecture in optical burst-switched WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1838‒1851 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Li, C. Qiao, J. Xu, and D. Xu, "Maximizing throughput for optical burst switching networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 15, (5), 1163‒1176 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. E. Arkin and E. Silverberg, "Scheduling jobs with fixed start and end times," Discrete Appl. Math. 18, (1), 1‒8 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  30. U. Faigle, W. Kern, and W. M. Nawijn, "A greedy on-line algorithm for the k-track assignment problem," J. Algorithms 31, (1), 196‒210 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. Cao, W. S. Cleveland, Y. Gao, K. Jeffay, F. D. Smith, and M. C. Weigle, "Stochastic models for generating synthetic HTTP source traffic," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. 3, 2004, pp. 1546‒1557.

2009 (4)

A. Clauset, C. R. Shalizi, and M. E. J. Newman, "Power-law distributions in empirical data," SIAM Rev. 51, (4), 661‒707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. González, A. M. Guidotti, C. Raffaelli, K. Ramantas, and K. Vlachos, "On transmission control protocol synchronization in optical burst switching," Photonic Network Commun. 18, (3), 323‒333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Shihada, P.-H. Ho, and Q. Zhang, "A novel congestion detection scheme in TCP over OBS networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, (4), 386‒395 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Vlachos and D. Monoyios, "A virtual one-way signaling protocol with aggressive resource reservation for improving burst transmission delay," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, (4), 2869‒2875 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Li, C. Qiao, J. Xu, and D. Xu, "Maximizing throughput for optical burst switching networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 15, (5), 1163‒1176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

J. Teng and G. Rouskas, "A detailed analysis and performance comparison of wavelength reservation schemes for optical burst switched networks," Photonic Network Commun. 9, (3), 311‒335 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Cameron, H. Le Vu, J. Choi, S. Bilgrami, M. Zukerman, and M. Kang, "TCP over OBS—fixed-point load and loss," Opt. Express 13, (23), 9167‒9174 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, V. M. Vokkarane, Y. Wang, and J. P. Jue, "Analysis of TCP over optical burst-switched networks with burst retransmission," IEEE Globecom 4, 1‒6 (2005) 1983.

2004 (2)

T. Karagiannis, M. Molle, and M. Faloutsos, "Long-range dependence ten years of Internet traffic modeling," IEEE Internet Comput. 8, (5), 57‒64 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N.G. Duffield, "Sampling for passive Internet measurement: a review," Stat. Sci. 19, (3), 472‒498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

C. Barakat, P. Thiran, G. Iannacone, C. Diot, and P. Owezarsky, "Modeling Internet backbone traffic at the flow level," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51, (8), 2111‒2123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, N. Ansari, and T. Ott, "FRR for latency reduction and QoS provisioning in OBS networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1210‒1219 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Xiong, M. Vandenhoute, and H. Cankaya, "Control architecture in optical burst-switched WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1838‒1851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. Yajnik, S. B. Moon, J. Kurose, and D. Towsley, "Measurement and modeling of the temporal dependence in packet loss," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM 1, 345‒352 (1999).

U. Faigle, W. Kern, and W. M. Nawijn, "A greedy on-line algorithm for the k-track assignment problem," J. Algorithms 31, (1), 196‒210 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OBS)—A new paradigm for an optical Internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, (1), 69‒84 (1999).

1987 (1)

E. Arkin and E. Silverberg, "Scheduling jobs with fixed start and end times," Discrete Appl. Math. 18, (1), 1‒8 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Allman, M.

G. Maier, A. Feldmann, V. Paxson, and M. Allman, "On dominant characteristics of residential broadband Internet traffic," Proc. ACM IMC, 2009.

Anderson, T.

N. Cardwell, S. Savage, and T. Anderson, "Modeling TCP latency," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. 3, 2000, pp. 1742‒1751.

Ansari, N.

J. Liu, N. Ansari, and T. Ott, "FRR for latency reduction and QoS provisioning in OBS networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1210‒1219 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arkin, E.

E. Arkin and E. Silverberg, "Scheduling jobs with fixed start and end times," Discrete Appl. Math. 18, (1), 1‒8 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Barakat, C.

C. Barakat, P. Thiran, G. Iannacone, C. Diot, and P. Owezarsky, "Modeling Internet backbone traffic at the flow level," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51, (8), 2111‒2123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bikram, R. R. C

R. R. C Bikram, N. Charbonneau, and V. M. Vokkarane, "Coordinated multi-layer loss recovery in TCP over optical burst-switched (OBS) networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Communications, 2010, pp. 1‒5.

Bilgrami, S.

Cameron, C.

Cankaya, H.

Y. Xiong, M. Vandenhoute, and H. Cankaya, "Control architecture in optical burst-switched WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1838‒1851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

J. Cao, W. S. Cleveland, Y. Gao, K. Jeffay, F. D. Smith, and M. C. Weigle, "Stochastic models for generating synthetic HTTP source traffic," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. 3, 2004, pp. 1546‒1557.

Cardwell, N.

N. Cardwell, S. Savage, and T. Anderson, "Modeling TCP latency," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. 3, 2000, pp. 1742‒1751.

Careglio, D.

O. Pedrola, S. Rumley, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, P. Pedroso, J. Sole-Pareta, and C. Gaumier, "A performance survey on deflection routing techniques for OBS networks," Proc. of 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON ’09), 2009, pp. 1‒6.

Charbonneau, N.

R. R. C Bikram, N. Charbonneau, and V. M. Vokkarane, "Coordinated multi-layer loss recovery in TCP over optical burst-switched (OBS) networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Communications, 2010, pp. 1‒5.

Choi, J.

Clauset, A.

A. Clauset, C. R. Shalizi, and M. E. J. Newman, "Power-law distributions in empirical data," SIAM Rev. 51, (4), 661‒707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cleveland, W. S.

J. Cao, W. S. Cleveland, Y. Gao, K. Jeffay, F. D. Smith, and M. C. Weigle, "Stochastic models for generating synthetic HTTP source traffic," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. 3, 2004, pp. 1546‒1557.

Dharmapurikar, S.

Y. Lu, A. Montanari, B. Prabhakar, S. Dharmapurikar, and A. Kabbani, "Counter braids: a novel counter architecture for per-flow measurement," Proc. of ACM SIGMETRICS ’08, 2008.

Diot, C.

C. Barakat, P. Thiran, G. Iannacone, C. Diot, and P. Owezarsky, "Modeling Internet backbone traffic at the flow level," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51, (8), 2111‒2123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dovrolis, C.

H. Jiang and C. Dovrolis, "Passive estimation of TCP round-trip times," Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, 2002.

Duffield, N.

N. Duffield, C. Lund, and M. Thorup, "Properties and prediction of flow statistics from sampled packet streams," Proc. of 2nd ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Internet Measurement, 2002.

Duffield, N.G.

N.G. Duffield, "Sampling for passive Internet measurement: a review," Stat. Sci. 19, (3), 472‒498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Faigle, U.

U. Faigle, W. Kern, and W. M. Nawijn, "A greedy on-line algorithm for the k-track assignment problem," J. Algorithms 31, (1), 196‒210 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Faloutsos, M.

T. Karagiannis, M. Molle, and M. Faloutsos, "Long-range dependence ten years of Internet traffic modeling," IEEE Internet Comput. 8, (5), 57‒64 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, A.

G. Maier, A. Feldmann, V. Paxson, and M. Allman, "On dominant characteristics of residential broadband Internet traffic," Proc. ACM IMC, 2009.

Gao, Y.

J. Cao, W. S. Cleveland, Y. Gao, K. Jeffay, F. D. Smith, and M. C. Weigle, "Stochastic models for generating synthetic HTTP source traffic," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. 3, 2004, pp. 1546‒1557.

Gaumier, C.

O. Pedrola, S. Rumley, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, P. Pedroso, J. Sole-Pareta, and C. Gaumier, "A performance survey on deflection routing techniques for OBS networks," Proc. of 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON ’09), 2009, pp. 1‒6.

González, O.

O. González, A. M. Guidotti, C. Raffaelli, K. Ramantas, and K. Vlachos, "On transmission control protocol synchronization in optical burst switching," Photonic Network Commun. 18, (3), 323‒333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guidotti, A. M.

O. González, A. M. Guidotti, C. Raffaelli, K. Ramantas, and K. Vlachos, "On transmission control protocol synchronization in optical burst switching," Photonic Network Commun. 18, (3), 323‒333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P.-H.

Iannacone, G.

C. Barakat, P. Thiran, G. Iannacone, C. Diot, and P. Owezarsky, "Modeling Internet backbone traffic at the flow level," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51, (8), 2111‒2123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeffay, K.

J. Cao, W. S. Cleveland, Y. Gao, K. Jeffay, F. D. Smith, and M. C. Weigle, "Stochastic models for generating synthetic HTTP source traffic," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. 3, 2004, pp. 1546‒1557.

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang and C. Dovrolis, "Passive estimation of TCP round-trip times," Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, 2002.

Jue, J. P.

Q. Zhang, V. M. Vokkarane, Y. Wang, and J. P. Jue, "Analysis of TCP over optical burst-switched networks with burst retransmission," IEEE Globecom 4, 1‒6 (2005) 1983.

Kabbani, A.

Y. Lu, A. Montanari, B. Prabhakar, S. Dharmapurikar, and A. Kabbani, "Counter braids: a novel counter architecture for per-flow measurement," Proc. of ACM SIGMETRICS ’08, 2008.

Kang, M.

Karagiannis, T.

T. Karagiannis, M. Molle, and M. Faloutsos, "Long-range dependence ten years of Internet traffic modeling," IEEE Internet Comput. 8, (5), 57‒64 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kern, W.

U. Faigle, W. Kern, and W. M. Nawijn, "A greedy on-line algorithm for the k-track assignment problem," J. Algorithms 31, (1), 196‒210 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klinkowski, M.

O. Pedrola, S. Rumley, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, P. Pedroso, J. Sole-Pareta, and C. Gaumier, "A performance survey on deflection routing techniques for OBS networks," Proc. of 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON ’09), 2009, pp. 1‒6.

Kurose, J.

M. Yajnik, S. B. Moon, J. Kurose, and D. Towsley, "Measurement and modeling of the temporal dependence in packet loss," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM 1, 345‒352 (1999).

Le Vu, H.

Li, J.

J. Li, C. Qiao, J. Xu, and D. Xu, "Maximizing throughput for optical burst switching networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 15, (5), 1163‒1176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, N. Ansari, and T. Ott, "FRR for latency reduction and QoS provisioning in OBS networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1210‒1219 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

X. Yu, C. Qiao, Y. Liu, and D. Towsley, "Performance evaluation of TCP implementations in OBS networks," Tech. Rep. 2003-13, Buffalo, NY, CSE Department, SUNY, 2003.

X. Yu, C. Qiao, and Y. Liu, "TCP implementations and false time out detection in OBS networks," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. 2, 2004, pp. 774‒784.

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, A. Montanari, B. Prabhakar, S. Dharmapurikar, and A. Kabbani, "Counter braids: a novel counter architecture for per-flow measurement," Proc. of ACM SIGMETRICS ’08, 2008.

Lund, C.

N. Duffield, C. Lund, and M. Thorup, "Properties and prediction of flow statistics from sampled packet streams," Proc. of 2nd ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Internet Measurement, 2002.

Maier, G.

G. Maier, A. Feldmann, V. Paxson, and M. Allman, "On dominant characteristics of residential broadband Internet traffic," Proc. ACM IMC, 2009.

Molle, M.

T. Karagiannis, M. Molle, and M. Faloutsos, "Long-range dependence ten years of Internet traffic modeling," IEEE Internet Comput. 8, (5), 57‒64 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monoyios, D.

Montanari, A.

Y. Lu, A. Montanari, B. Prabhakar, S. Dharmapurikar, and A. Kabbani, "Counter braids: a novel counter architecture for per-flow measurement," Proc. of ACM SIGMETRICS ’08, 2008.

Moon, S. B.

M. Yajnik, S. B. Moon, J. Kurose, and D. Towsley, "Measurement and modeling of the temporal dependence in packet loss," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM 1, 345‒352 (1999).

Nawijn, W. M.

U. Faigle, W. Kern, and W. M. Nawijn, "A greedy on-line algorithm for the k-track assignment problem," J. Algorithms 31, (1), 196‒210 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Newman, M. E. J.

A. Clauset, C. R. Shalizi, and M. E. J. Newman, "Power-law distributions in empirical data," SIAM Rev. 51, (4), 661‒707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ott, T.

J. Liu, N. Ansari, and T. Ott, "FRR for latency reduction and QoS provisioning in OBS networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1210‒1219 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Owezarsky, P.

C. Barakat, P. Thiran, G. Iannacone, C. Diot, and P. Owezarsky, "Modeling Internet backbone traffic at the flow level," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51, (8), 2111‒2123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paxson, V.

G. Maier, A. Feldmann, V. Paxson, and M. Allman, "On dominant characteristics of residential broadband Internet traffic," Proc. ACM IMC, 2009.

Pedrola, O.

O. Pedrola, S. Rumley, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, P. Pedroso, J. Sole-Pareta, and C. Gaumier, "A performance survey on deflection routing techniques for OBS networks," Proc. of 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON ’09), 2009, pp. 1‒6.

Pedroso, P.

O. Pedrola, S. Rumley, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, P. Pedroso, J. Sole-Pareta, and C. Gaumier, "A performance survey on deflection routing techniques for OBS networks," Proc. of 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON ’09), 2009, pp. 1‒6.

Prabhakar, B.

Y. Lu, A. Montanari, B. Prabhakar, S. Dharmapurikar, and A. Kabbani, "Counter braids: a novel counter architecture for per-flow measurement," Proc. of ACM SIGMETRICS ’08, 2008.

Qiao, C.

J. Li, C. Qiao, J. Xu, and D. Xu, "Maximizing throughput for optical burst switching networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 15, (5), 1163‒1176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OBS)—A new paradigm for an optical Internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, (1), 69‒84 (1999).

X. Yu, C. Qiao, and Y. Liu, "TCP implementations and false time out detection in OBS networks," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. 2, 2004, pp. 774‒784.

X. Yu, C. Qiao, Y. Liu, and D. Towsley, "Performance evaluation of TCP implementations in OBS networks," Tech. Rep. 2003-13, Buffalo, NY, CSE Department, SUNY, 2003.

Raffaelli, C.

O. González, A. M. Guidotti, C. Raffaelli, K. Ramantas, and K. Vlachos, "On transmission control protocol synchronization in optical burst switching," Photonic Network Commun. 18, (3), 323‒333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ramantas, K.

O. González, A. M. Guidotti, C. Raffaelli, K. Ramantas, and K. Vlachos, "On transmission control protocol synchronization in optical burst switching," Photonic Network Commun. 18, (3), 323‒333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Ramantas and K. Vlachos, "A TCP prediction scheme for enhancing performance in OBS networks," Proc. of IEEE ICC, 2011, pp. 1‒6.

K. Ramantas and K. Vlachos, "Profiling TCP traffic in optical burst switching networks," Proc. of ICST BROADNETS, 2010.

Rouskas, G.

J. Teng and G. Rouskas, "A detailed analysis and performance comparison of wavelength reservation schemes for optical burst switched networks," Photonic Network Commun. 9, (3), 311‒335 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rumley, S.

O. Pedrola, S. Rumley, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, P. Pedroso, J. Sole-Pareta, and C. Gaumier, "A performance survey on deflection routing techniques for OBS networks," Proc. of 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON ’09), 2009, pp. 1‒6.

Savage, S.

N. Cardwell, S. Savage, and T. Anderson, "Modeling TCP latency," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. 3, 2000, pp. 1742‒1751.

Shalizi, C. R.

A. Clauset, C. R. Shalizi, and M. E. J. Newman, "Power-law distributions in empirical data," SIAM Rev. 51, (4), 661‒707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shihada, B.

Silverberg, E.

E. Arkin and E. Silverberg, "Scheduling jobs with fixed start and end times," Discrete Appl. Math. 18, (1), 1‒8 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Smith, F. D.

J. Cao, W. S. Cleveland, Y. Gao, K. Jeffay, F. D. Smith, and M. C. Weigle, "Stochastic models for generating synthetic HTTP source traffic," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. 3, 2004, pp. 1546‒1557.

Sole-Pareta, J.

O. Pedrola, S. Rumley, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, P. Pedroso, J. Sole-Pareta, and C. Gaumier, "A performance survey on deflection routing techniques for OBS networks," Proc. of 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON ’09), 2009, pp. 1‒6.

Teng, J.

J. Teng and G. Rouskas, "A detailed analysis and performance comparison of wavelength reservation schemes for optical burst switched networks," Photonic Network Commun. 9, (3), 311‒335 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thiran, P.

C. Barakat, P. Thiran, G. Iannacone, C. Diot, and P. Owezarsky, "Modeling Internet backbone traffic at the flow level," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51, (8), 2111‒2123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thorup, M.

N. Duffield, C. Lund, and M. Thorup, "Properties and prediction of flow statistics from sampled packet streams," Proc. of 2nd ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Internet Measurement, 2002.

Towsley, D.

M. Yajnik, S. B. Moon, J. Kurose, and D. Towsley, "Measurement and modeling of the temporal dependence in packet loss," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM 1, 345‒352 (1999).

X. Yu, C. Qiao, Y. Liu, and D. Towsley, "Performance evaluation of TCP implementations in OBS networks," Tech. Rep. 2003-13, Buffalo, NY, CSE Department, SUNY, 2003.

Tune, P.

P. Tune and D. Veitch, "Towards optimal sampling for flow size estimation," Proc. 8th ACM SIGCOMM, 2008.

Vandenhoute, M.

Y. Xiong, M. Vandenhoute, and H. Cankaya, "Control architecture in optical burst-switched WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1838‒1851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Veitch, D.

P. Tune and D. Veitch, "Towards optimal sampling for flow size estimation," Proc. 8th ACM SIGCOMM, 2008.

Vlachos, K.

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X. Yu, C. Qiao, and Y. Liu, "TCP implementations and false time out detection in OBS networks," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. 2, 2004, pp. 774‒784.

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R. R. C Bikram, N. Charbonneau, and V. M. Vokkarane, "Coordinated multi-layer loss recovery in TCP over optical burst-switched (OBS) networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Communications, 2010, pp. 1‒5.

J. Cao, W. S. Cleveland, Y. Gao, K. Jeffay, F. D. Smith, and M. C. Weigle, "Stochastic models for generating synthetic HTTP source traffic," Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. 3, 2004, pp. 1546‒1557.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Link scheduler utilization profile, repeated periodically on a T BAT basis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Timing considerations of the proposed predictive reservation protocol. Dots denote burst reservations based on predictions, which are communicated to all nodes across the path with a single SETUP message. Actual bursts arrive at a later (predicted) time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Evolution of number of active flows per bin.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Evolution of aggregated throughput for prediction intervals of 1, 2, and 4 times the RTT.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) CDF of the burst size relative prediction error for prediction intervals of 1, 2, and 4 times the RTT.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Burst loss ratio for different α coefficient of the correction parameter δ, for a constant 0.7 load and 0.7 Hurst parameter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Burst loss ratio versus load comparison of proposed reservation protocol and JET, with different sampling periods N and scheduling algorithms. The Hurst parameter was kept constant at H = 0 . 7 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Burst loss ratio versus Hurst parameter for predictive reservation and JET. We kept the load constant, at 0.7.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Coefficient of Variation (CoV) for Different Prediction Intervals and Sampling Rates

Equations (25)

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f ̂ ( x ) = 1 n i = 1 n K x x i h .
p = 1 W X k W .
X ̂ i + 1 = 1 W k = i W + 1 i X k .
W = 1 p 1 196 a 2 .
S k ( m ) = κ × τ ( κ + 1 ) × τ X ( m ) ( t ) d t .
P ( x ) = x x min α .
α ̂ = n i = 1 n ln x i x min 1 ,
e ( x ) = x P ( u ) P ( x ) d u .
R i = P r X > x i + y i | X > x i = P x i + y i P x i = x i x i + y i α ,
V ar ( NF ̂ k ) NF k = N NF k .
stdev ( R i ) R i = α × stdev ( B k ) x i × y i x i + y i .
E [ R ( t ) ] = N F × E S n .
S i = S SPB i , R i , L i .
cwnd ¯ = min 1 . 5 × SPB i p , W m ,
cwnd i = L i 2 .
S i = cwnd i × ( 2 r 1 ) .
S i = cwnd i × 2 r 1 , when  cwnd i cwnd ¯ r × cwnd ¯ , when  cwnd i > cwnd ¯ .
B ( SPB i , RTT i , L i ) = y i y i + S SPB i , RTT i , L i × MSS P ( u ) P ( y i ) d u ,
E [ H k ] = NF k × i = 1 SPB ( i ) × j = 1 RTT ( j ) × B SPB i , RTT j , L k .
B ˜ = k = 1 M E [ H k ] .
L ˜ = T bat τ × B ˜ .
s i = start_time ( i ) mod T bat
e i = s i + length ( i ) mod T bat ,
P s = P e ( k ) < d = δ f e ( k ) d e ( k ) .
P s = 1 2 π σ δ e e 2 ( k ) 2 σ 2 d e ( k ) = 1 Q δ σ .