Abstract

Extending the reach of traditional passive optical networks (PONs) to 100 km and increasing the split ratio beyond 1:64 are promising solutions in future optical access networks. These systems can accommodate increased users at longer distances potentially at low cost. With the increasing demand for higher bandwidths, current networks may soon require that bit rates upgrade to 100 Gb/s and beyond. However, the traditional on–off-keyed PON cannot be scaled up to such bit rates, as very high-speed opto-electronic devices are required that are still maturing. Therefore, to provide a comprehensive solution to these scalability issues of existing PONs, we propose a spectrally efficient (4 bit/s/Hz) 100 Gb/s long-reach PON based on 64 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and frequency interleaved directly detected optical orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing. We show that the proposed system may operate effectively over 100 km of single mode fiber with a 1024-way split and a receiver bandwidth of 25 GHz. It is also shown that the system can be provisioned to support even higher numbers of users (e.g., 2048, 4096, etc.) simply by varying the order of QAM with little compromise in bit rates. Moreover, the effects of various link parameters such as laser linewidths, fiber dispersion, filter profiles, etc. are also investigated for proper link dimensioning.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2002

D. B. Payne and R. P. Davey, "The future of fiber access systems," BT Technol. J. 20, 104‒114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, and X. Z. Qiu, "The superPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, (2), 74‒82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Antony, C.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H.-G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, "Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond," Proc. Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching (PS ’09), Sept. 15–19, 2009, pp. 1‒4.

Appathurai, S.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H.-G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, "Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond," Proc. Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching (PS ’09), Sept. 15–19, 2009, pp. 1‒4.

Arbab, V. R.

Armstrong, J.

Attygalle, M.

Baekelandt, B.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H.-G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, "Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond," Proc. Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching (PS ’09), Sept. 15–19, 2009, pp. 1‒4.

Bakaul, M.

L. Mehedy, M. Bakaul, and A. Nirmalathas, "Frequency interleaving towards spectrally efficient directly detected optical OFDM for next-generation optical access networks," Opt. Express 18, 23161‒23172 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, and C. Lim, "Multifunctional WDM optical interface for millimeter-wave fiber-radio antenna base station," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, (3), 1210‒1218 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Mehedy, M. Bakaul, and A. Nirmalathas, "Spectrally efficient 100 Gb/s transmission in next-generation optical access networks employing directly detected optical-OFDM," Proc. Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conf. 2010 (ATNAC 2010), Oct. 31–Nov. 3, 2010, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 55‒59.

L. Mehedy, M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, and S. Skafidas, "100 Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach PON using frequency interleaved directly detected optical OFDM," Proc. IQEC/CLEO Pacific Rim Conf. 2011, Aug. 28–Sept. 1, 2011, Sydney, Australia, (to be published).

Bao, H.

Cao, Z.

Z. Cao, J. Yu, W. Wang, L. Chen, and Z. Dong, "Direct-detection optical OFDM transmission system without frequency guard band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (11), 736‒738 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chae, C.-J.

A. V. Tran, C.-J. Chae, and R. S. Tucker, "Low-cost optical access system using repeater, VCSEL transmitters and multi-mode fibres," Proc. European Conf. Optical Communications 2006, Sept. 24–28, 2006, pp. 1‒2.

Chan, C. A.

Chanclou, P.

J. Prat, J. Lazaro, P. Chanclou, R. Soila, A. M. Gallardo, A. Teixeira, G. M. TosiBeleffi, and I. Tomkos, "Results from EU project SARDANA on 10G extended reach WDM PONs," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 21–25, 2010, OThG5.

Chen, L.

Z. Cao, J. Yu, W. Wang, L. Chen, and Z. Dong, "Direct-detection optical OFDM transmission system without frequency guard band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (11), 736‒738 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chi, S.

Chow, C.-W.

Christen, L. C.

Cvijetic, N.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, "108 Gb/s OFDMA-PON with polarization multiplexing and direct-detection," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2009, PDPD5.

Davey, R.

Davey, R. P.

D. B. Payne and R. P. Davey, "The future of fiber access systems," BT Technol. J. 20, 104‒114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De Ridder, T.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H.-G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, "Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond," Proc. Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching (PS ’09), Sept. 15–19, 2009, pp. 1‒4.

Dong, Z.

Z. Cao, J. Yu, W. Wang, L. Chen, and Z. Dong, "Direct-detection optical OFDM transmission system without frequency guard band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (11), 736‒738 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, K.-M.

Fukada, Y.

Gallardo, A. M.

J. Prat, J. Lazaro, P. Chanclou, R. Soila, A. M. Gallardo, A. Teixeira, G. M. TosiBeleffi, and I. Tomkos, "Results from EU project SARDANA on 10G extended reach WDM PONs," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 21–25, 2010, OThG5.

Hagihara, S.

T. Sasaki, K. Makihara, M. Hirano, T. Haruna, T. Kashiwada, S. Hagihara, and M. Onishi, "Novel dispersion compensating fiber with fluorine-doped cladding for simultaneous realization of high dispersion compensation efficiency and low attenuation," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2006, OThA2.

Haruna, T.

T. Sasaki, K. Makihara, M. Hirano, T. Haruna, T. Kashiwada, S. Hagihara, and M. Onishi, "Novel dispersion compensating fiber with fluorine-doped cladding for simultaneous realization of high dispersion compensation efficiency and low attenuation," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2006, OThA2.

Hewitt, D. F.

D. F. Hewitt, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing using baseband optical single sideband for simpler adaptive dispersion compensation," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, pp. 1‒3.

Hirakata, N.

D. Umeda, T. Ikagawa, K. Yamazaki, N. Hirakata, and K. Yamagishi, "Bidirectional 3R repeater for GE-PON systems," Proc. European Conf. Optical Communication 2006, Sept. 24–28, 2006, Cannes, France, pp. 1‒2.

Hirano, M.

T. Sasaki, K. Makihara, M. Hirano, T. Haruna, T. Kashiwada, S. Hagihara, and M. Onishi, "Novel dispersion compensating fiber with fluorine-doped cladding for simultaneous realization of high dispersion compensation efficiency and low attenuation," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2006, OThA2.

Hu, J.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, "108 Gb/s OFDMA-PON with polarization multiplexing and direct-detection," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2009, PDPD5.

Ikagawa, T.

D. Umeda, T. Ikagawa, K. Yamazaki, N. Hirakata, and K. Yamagishi, "Bidirectional 3R repeater for GE-PON systems," Proc. European Conf. Optical Communication 2006, Sept. 24–28, 2006, Cannes, France, pp. 1‒2.

Islam, A. H. M. R.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. H. M. R. Islam, "On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics," Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dec. 2006, pp. 408‒411.

Jansen, S. L.

Kashiwada, T.

T. Sasaki, K. Makihara, M. Hirano, T. Haruna, T. Kashiwada, S. Hagihara, and M. Onishi, "Novel dispersion compensating fiber with fluorine-doped cladding for simultaneous realization of high dispersion compensation efficiency and low attenuation," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2006, OThA2.

Kim, B.-W.

H. Song, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, "Multi-thread polling: a dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, (2), 134‒142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krimmel, H.-G.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H.-G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, "Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond," Proc. Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching (PS ’09), Sept. 15–19, 2009, pp. 1‒4.

Lazaro, J.

J. Prat, J. Lazaro, P. Chanclou, R. Soila, A. M. Gallardo, A. Teixeira, G. M. TosiBeleffi, and I. Tomkos, "Results from EU project SARDANA on 10G extended reach WDM PONs," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 21–25, 2010, OThG5.

Lim, C.

Lowery, A. J.

Makihara, K.

T. Sasaki, K. Makihara, M. Hirano, T. Haruna, T. Kashiwada, S. Hagihara, and M. Onishi, "Novel dispersion compensating fiber with fluorine-doped cladding for simultaneous realization of high dispersion compensation efficiency and low attenuation," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2006, OThA2.

Martin, C. M.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, and X. Z. Qiu, "The superPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, (2), 74‒82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mehedy, L.

L. Mehedy, M. Bakaul, and A. Nirmalathas, "Frequency interleaving towards spectrally efficient directly detected optical OFDM for next-generation optical access networks," Opt. Express 18, 23161‒23172 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mehedy, M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, and S. Skafidas, "100 Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach PON using frequency interleaved directly detected optical OFDM," Proc. IQEC/CLEO Pacific Rim Conf. 2011, Aug. 28–Sept. 1, 2011, Sydney, Australia, (to be published).

L. Mehedy, M. Bakaul, and A. Nirmalathas, "Spectrally efficient 100 Gb/s transmission in next-generation optical access networks employing directly detected optical-OFDM," Proc. Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conf. 2010 (ATNAC 2010), Oct. 31–Nov. 3, 2010, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 55‒59.

Mitchell, J. E.

Morita, I.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, and H. Tanaka, "121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1000 km of SSMF," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, (3), 177‒188 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W.-R. Peng, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, "Enabling high capacity direct-detection optical OFDM transmissions using beat interference cancellation receiver," Proc. 36th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010, pp. 1‒3.

Mukherjee, B.

H. Song, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, "Multi-thread polling: a dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, (2), 134‒142 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nesset, D.

Nirmalathas, A.

L. Mehedy, M. Bakaul, and A. Nirmalathas, "Frequency interleaving towards spectrally efficient directly detected optical OFDM for next-generation optical access networks," Opt. Express 18, 23161‒23172 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Chan, M. Attygalle, and A. Nirmalathas, "Remote repeater-based EPON with MAC forwarding for long-reach and high-split-ratio passive optical networks," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, (1), 28‒37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, and C. Lim, "Multifunctional WDM optical interface for millimeter-wave fiber-radio antenna base station," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, (3), 1210‒1218 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Mehedy, M. Bakaul, and A. Nirmalathas, "Spectrally efficient 100 Gb/s transmission in next-generation optical access networks employing directly detected optical-OFDM," Proc. Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conf. 2010 (ATNAC 2010), Oct. 31–Nov. 3, 2010, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 55‒59.

L. Mehedy, M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, and S. Skafidas, "100 Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach PON using frequency interleaved directly detected optical OFDM," Proc. IQEC/CLEO Pacific Rim Conf. 2011, Aug. 28–Sept. 1, 2011, Sydney, Australia, (to be published).

Onishi, M.

T. Sasaki, K. Makihara, M. Hirano, T. Haruna, T. Kashiwada, S. Hagihara, and M. Onishi, "Novel dispersion compensating fiber with fluorine-doped cladding for simultaneous realization of high dispersion compensation efficiency and low attenuation," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2006, OThA2.

Ossieur, P.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H.-G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, "Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond," Proc. Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching (PS ’09), Sept. 15–19, 2009, pp. 1‒4.

Pan, C.-L.

Payne, D. B.

D. B. Payne and R. P. Davey, "The future of fiber access systems," BT Technol. J. 20, 104‒114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W.-R.

Poustie, A.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H.-G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, "Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond," Proc. Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching (PS ’09), Sept. 15–19, 2009, pp. 1‒4.

Prat, J.

J. Prat, J. Lazaro, P. Chanclou, R. Soila, A. M. Gallardo, A. Teixeira, G. M. TosiBeleffi, and I. Tomkos, "Results from EU project SARDANA on 10G extended reach WDM PONs," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 21–25, 2010, OThG5.

Qian, D.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, "108 Gb/s OFDMA-PON with polarization multiplexing and direct-detection," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2009, PDPD5.

Qiu, X. Z.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, and X. Z. Qiu, "The superPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, (2), 74‒82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H.-G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, "Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond," Proc. Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching (PS ’09), Sept. 15–19, 2009, pp. 1‒4.

Rahman, M. S.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. H. M. R. Islam, "On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics," Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dec. 2006, pp. 408‒411.

Reboul, B.

B. Reboul, "A global overview of FTTH," Proc. 5th FTTH Council APAC Annu. Conf., May 25–26, 2010, Seoul, South Korea, [Online]. Available: http://ci02.keyvision.net/programs/download.pdf?xinput=12284698.

Rohde, H.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H.-G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, "Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond," Proc. Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching (PS ’09), Sept. 15–19, 2009, pp. 1‒4.

Sasaki, T.

T. Sasaki, K. Makihara, M. Hirano, T. Haruna, T. Kashiwada, S. Hagihara, and M. Onishi, "Novel dispersion compensating fiber with fluorine-doped cladding for simultaneous realization of high dispersion compensation efficiency and low attenuation," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2006, OThA2.

Schenk, T. C. W.

Shafik, R. A.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. H. M. R. Islam, "On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics," Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dec. 2006, pp. 408‒411.

Shamee, B.

Shea, D. P.

Shieh, W.

Shih, F.-Y.

Skafidas, S.

L. Mehedy, M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, and S. Skafidas, "100 Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach PON using frequency interleaved directly detected optical OFDM," Proc. IQEC/CLEO Pacific Rim Conf. 2011, Aug. 28–Sept. 1, 2011, Sydney, Australia, (to be published).

Smith, D.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H.-G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, "Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond," Proc. Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching (PS ’09), Sept. 15–19, 2009, pp. 1‒4.

Smolorz, S.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) (a) Traditional passive optical network (PON), (b) long-reach optical access network with intermediate optical amplification.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Spectrally efficient frequency interleaved (FI) directly detected O-OFDM system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Simulation setup for a 100 Gb/s long-reach optical access network using FI-DDO-OFDM. The simulation objective is to estimate the power margin of the system without Splitter-2. This power margin eventually determines the split ratio of Splitter-2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) EVM measurements of the FI-DDO-OFDM system over a 10 km SMF point-to-point link with different numbers of symbols.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) (a) Optical spectra of the FI-DDO-OFDM signal at the receiver, (b) de-interleaved DDO-OFDM channel-1, (c) de-interleaved DDO-OFDM channel-2, (d) RF spectrum after direct detection of channel-1; (e), (f), (g), (h) and (i) are recovered constellations of 4-QAM, 8-QAM, 16-QAM, 32-QAM and 64-QAM, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) BER performance of the proposed system with various modulation formats.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Receiver sensitivity (at a BER of 10 3 ) and power margin of the system with various QAM orders and respective bit rates.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Distributed splitter arrangements.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Performance with different splitter arrangements schemes.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Performance with different laser linewidths.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Performance with 1 MHz laser linewidths.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Receiver sensitivity with different LLW and DCF.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Schematic of the residual signal components of the FI-DDO-OFDM contributing to interference (after de-interleaving): (a) before photodetection, (b) after photodetection.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Performance with (a) elliptic filters, (b) Chebyshev filters, (c) Butterworth filters and (d) Gaussian filters; (e) receiver sensitivities at a BER of 10 3 after 100 km of SMF with different filter types and orders.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(Color online) Effect of the pass-band ripple factor: (a) elliptic filter, (b) Chebyshev filter.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(Color online) Effect of crosstalk noise across different subcarriers with (a) a rectangular filter having different stop-band suppression ratios and (b) Gaussian filters having different filter orders. It shows that the residual signal components detrimentally affect the lower-frequency subcarriers.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Performance With Different Modulation Formats

Tables Icon

Table II Distributed Splitter Arrangement

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

BER = 2 1 1 L 1 log 2 L 1 × Q 3 log 2 L 1 L 1 2 1 2 EV M RMS 2 × log 2 M 1 .
EV M RMS = i = 1 L p k = 1 NST x i k x i k ¯ 2 NST × L p × P avg ,
P avg = n = 1 M C n 2 / M 1 ,