Abstract

The energy consumption of the Internet is anticipated to be one of the main contributors to global energy consumption in the coming decades. As a result, renewed attention has been given to the energy efficient design and operation of network services. The video on demand (VoD) service is expected to be one of the most prominent services through the Internet in the near future. Due to the enormous energy consumption arising from storage and transport of movies, energy efficient design and operation of VoD systems are important considerations. In this paper, we formulate energy consumption models to analyze the energy consumption arising from storage and transport of movies in VoD systems. We consider five strategic content placement locations located at different levels of the video distribution network and we comparatively analyze the energy consumption of storage and transport when the movies are stored and delivered from these locations. Moreover, we derive thresholds for movie request arrival rates which determine whether replication of a movie in a given content placement location is energy efficient and whether turning ON a set of content storages located at a particular level of the network is energy efficient. By numerically analyzing the energy consumption models, we show that the energy efficiency of VoD services can be significantly improved by delivering movies from the most energy efficient content placement locations in the network. We show that this can be achieved by designing and operating VoD systems based on our derived thresholds which optimize the energy efficiency of VoD services for all user request arrival rates.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in optical IP networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2391‒2403 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Baliga, R. W. A. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport," Proc. IEEE 99, 149‒167 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Z. Feng, R. W. A. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, "Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet," IEEE Network 25, 6‒12 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—Part II: Energy limitations in networks," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 261‒274 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—Part I: Energy limitations in transport," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 245‒260 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Asami and S. Namiki, "Energy consumption targets for network systems," 34th European Conf. Optical Communication, 2008, pp. 1‒4.
  7. Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2009–2014, [Online]. Available: www.cisco.com
  8. J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, OThQ5.
  9. M. D. Jagadeesh, K. Karthik, and S. P. Vijay, "Storage optimization for a peer-to-peer video-on-demand network," 1st Annu. ACM SIGMM Conf. on Multimedia Systems, 2010, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.
  10. K. Laevens and D. De Vleeschauwer, "Performance of caching algorithms for IPTV on-demand services," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 55, 491‒501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Segarra and V. Cholvi, "Placement of storage capacity in distributed video servers," IEEE Int. Conf. Communications, 2002, pp. 2537‒2541.
  12. S. H. G. Chan and F. Tobagi, "Distributed servers architecture for networked video services," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 9, 125‒136 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Constantinos, P. Michael, and T. Peter, "Video placement and configuration of distributed video servers on cable TV networks," Multimedia Syst. 8, 92‒104 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. Chan, "Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OWR3.
  15. "Optimizing Video Transport in Your IP Triple Play Network," Cisco White Paper, [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com.
  16. K. K. Ramakrishnan and R. D. Doverspike, "IPTV challenges," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, OMO1.
  17. K. Guan, D. C. Kilper, and G. Atkinson, "Evaluating the energy benefit of dynamic optical bypass for content delivery," IEEE Conf. Computer Communications Workshops, 2011, pp. 313‒318.
  18. L. A. Barroso and U. Holzle, "The case for energy-proportional computing," Computer 40, 33‒37 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Tolia, Z. Wang, M. Marwah, C. Bash, P. Ranganathan, and X. Zhu, "Delivering energy proportionality with non-energy-proportional systems: Optimizing the ensemble," Conf. Power Aware Computing and Systems, 2008, San Diego, CA.
  20. A. Verma, R. Koller, L. Useche, and R. Rangaswami, "SRCMap: Energy proportional storage using dynamic consolidation," 8th USENIX Conf. File and Storage Technologies, 2010, San Jose, CA.
  21. J. Koomey, Estimating total power consumption by servers in the US and the World, Analytics Press, 2007, [Online] Available: www.koomey.com.
  22. H. Yu, D. Zheng, B. Y. Zhao, and W. Zheng, "Understanding user behavior in large-scale video-on-demand systems," 1st ACM SIGOPS/EuroSys European Conf. on Computer Systems, 2006, Leuven, Belgium.
  23. J. D. C. Little, "A proof for the queuing formula: L=λW," Oper. Res. 9, 383‒387 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Cisco Data Sheets, [Online]. Available: www.cisco.com
  25. Hitachi Data Sheets, [Online]. Available: www.hitachi.com
  26. J. Baliga, R. Ayre, W. V. Sorin, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in access networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, OThT6.
  27. Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, "Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks," IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 12, 441‒458 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Western Digital Data Sheets, [Online]. Available: www.wdc.com
  29. P. V. Mieghem, Performance Analysis of Communications Networks and Systems, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006, p. 358.

2011

J. Baliga, R. W. A. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport," Proc. IEEE 99, 149‒167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Z. Feng, R. W. A. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, "Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet," IEEE Network 25, 6‒12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—Part II: Energy limitations in networks," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 261‒274 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—Part I: Energy limitations in transport," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 245‒260 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, "Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks," IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 12, 441‒458 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in optical IP networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2391‒2403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Laevens and D. De Vleeschauwer, "Performance of caching algorithms for IPTV on-demand services," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 55, 491‒501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. A. Barroso and U. Holzle, "The case for energy-proportional computing," Computer 40, 33‒37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. H. G. Chan and F. Tobagi, "Distributed servers architecture for networked video services," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 9, 125‒136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

V. Constantinos, P. Michael, and T. Peter, "Video placement and configuration of distributed video servers on cable TV networks," Multimedia Syst. 8, 92‒104 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1961

J. D. C. Little, "A proof for the queuing formula: L=λW," Oper. Res. 9, 383‒387 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Asami, T.

T. Asami and S. Namiki, "Energy consumption targets for network systems," 34th European Conf. Optical Communication, 2008, pp. 1‒4.

Atkinson, G.

K. Guan, D. C. Kilper, and G. Atkinson, "Evaluating the energy benefit of dynamic optical bypass for content delivery," IEEE Conf. Computer Communications Workshops, 2011, pp. 313‒318.

Ayre, R.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in optical IP networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2391‒2403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, W. V. Sorin, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in access networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, OThT6.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, OThQ5.

Ayre, R. W. A.

J. Baliga, R. W. A. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport," Proc. IEEE 99, 149‒167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Z. Feng, R. W. A. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, "Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet," IEEE Network 25, 6‒12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baliga, J.

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Z. Feng, R. W. A. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, "Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet," IEEE Network 25, 6‒12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. W. A. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport," Proc. IEEE 99, 149‒167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in optical IP networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2391‒2403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, W. V. Sorin, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in access networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, OThT6.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, OThQ5.

Barroso, L. A.

L. A. Barroso and U. Holzle, "The case for energy-proportional computing," Computer 40, 33‒37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bash, C.

N. Tolia, Z. Wang, M. Marwah, C. Bash, P. Ranganathan, and X. Zhu, "Delivering energy proportionality with non-energy-proportional systems: Optimizing the ensemble," Conf. Power Aware Computing and Systems, 2008, San Diego, CA.

Chan, C.

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. Chan, "Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OWR3.

Chan, S. H. G.

S. H. G. Chan and F. Tobagi, "Distributed servers architecture for networked video services," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 9, 125‒136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cholvi, V.

J. Segarra and V. Cholvi, "Placement of storage capacity in distributed video servers," IEEE Int. Conf. Communications, 2002, pp. 2537‒2541.

Chowdhury, P.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, "Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks," IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 12, 441‒458 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Constantinos, V.

V. Constantinos, P. Michael, and T. Peter, "Video placement and configuration of distributed video servers on cable TV networks," Multimedia Syst. 8, 92‒104 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Vleeschauwer, D.

K. Laevens and D. De Vleeschauwer, "Performance of caching algorithms for IPTV on-demand services," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 55, 491‒501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Doverspike, R. D.

K. K. Ramakrishnan and R. D. Doverspike, "IPTV challenges," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, OMO1.

Feng, M. Z.

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Z. Feng, R. W. A. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, "Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet," IEEE Network 25, 6‒12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guan, K.

K. Guan, D. C. Kilper, and G. Atkinson, "Evaluating the energy benefit of dynamic optical bypass for content delivery," IEEE Conf. Computer Communications Workshops, 2011, pp. 313‒318.

Hinton, K.

J. Baliga, R. W. A. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport," Proc. IEEE 99, 149‒167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Z. Feng, R. W. A. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, "Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet," IEEE Network 25, 6‒12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in optical IP networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2391‒2403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, W. V. Sorin, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in access networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, OThT6.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, OThQ5.

Holzle, U.

L. A. Barroso and U. Holzle, "The case for energy-proportional computing," Computer 40, 33‒37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jagadeesh, M. D.

M. D. Jagadeesh, K. Karthik, and S. P. Vijay, "Storage optimization for a peer-to-peer video-on-demand network," 1st Annu. ACM SIGMM Conf. on Multimedia Systems, 2010, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

Jayasundara, C.

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. Chan, "Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OWR3.

Karthik, K.

M. D. Jagadeesh, K. Karthik, and S. P. Vijay, "Storage optimization for a peer-to-peer video-on-demand network," 1st Annu. ACM SIGMM Conf. on Multimedia Systems, 2010, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

Kilper, D. C.

K. Guan, D. C. Kilper, and G. Atkinson, "Evaluating the energy benefit of dynamic optical bypass for content delivery," IEEE Conf. Computer Communications Workshops, 2011, pp. 313‒318.

Koller, R.

A. Verma, R. Koller, L. Useche, and R. Rangaswami, "SRCMap: Energy proportional storage using dynamic consolidation," 8th USENIX Conf. File and Storage Technologies, 2010, San Jose, CA.

Koomey, J.

J. Koomey, Estimating total power consumption by servers in the US and the World, Analytics Press, 2007, [Online] Available: www.koomey.com.

Laevens, K.

K. Laevens and D. De Vleeschauwer, "Performance of caching algorithms for IPTV on-demand services," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 55, 491‒501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Little, J. D. C.

J. D. C. Little, "A proof for the queuing formula: L=λW," Oper. Res. 9, 383‒387 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Marwah, M.

N. Tolia, Z. Wang, M. Marwah, C. Bash, P. Ranganathan, and X. Zhu, "Delivering energy proportionality with non-energy-proportional systems: Optimizing the ensemble," Conf. Power Aware Computing and Systems, 2008, San Diego, CA.

Michael, P.

V. Constantinos, P. Michael, and T. Peter, "Video placement and configuration of distributed video servers on cable TV networks," Multimedia Syst. 8, 92‒104 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mieghem, P. V.

P. V. Mieghem, Performance Analysis of Communications Networks and Systems, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006, p. 358.

Mukherjee, B.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, "Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks," IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 12, 441‒458 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Namiki, S.

T. Asami and S. Namiki, "Energy consumption targets for network systems," 34th European Conf. Optical Communication, 2008, pp. 1‒4.

Nirmalathas, A.

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. Chan, "Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OWR3.

Peter, T.

V. Constantinos, P. Michael, and T. Peter, "Video placement and configuration of distributed video servers on cable TV networks," Multimedia Syst. 8, 92‒104 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ramakrishnan, K. K.

K. K. Ramakrishnan and R. D. Doverspike, "IPTV challenges," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, OMO1.

Ranganathan, P.

N. Tolia, Z. Wang, M. Marwah, C. Bash, P. Ranganathan, and X. Zhu, "Delivering energy proportionality with non-energy-proportional systems: Optimizing the ensemble," Conf. Power Aware Computing and Systems, 2008, San Diego, CA.

Rangaswami, R.

A. Verma, R. Koller, L. Useche, and R. Rangaswami, "SRCMap: Energy proportional storage using dynamic consolidation," 8th USENIX Conf. File and Storage Technologies, 2010, San Jose, CA.

Segarra, J.

J. Segarra and V. Cholvi, "Placement of storage capacity in distributed video servers," IEEE Int. Conf. Communications, 2002, pp. 2537‒2541.

Sorin, W. V.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in optical IP networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2391‒2403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, W. V. Sorin, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in access networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, OThT6.

Tobagi, F.

S. H. G. Chan and F. Tobagi, "Distributed servers architecture for networked video services," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 9, 125‒136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tolia, N.

N. Tolia, Z. Wang, M. Marwah, C. Bash, P. Ranganathan, and X. Zhu, "Delivering energy proportionality with non-energy-proportional systems: Optimizing the ensemble," Conf. Power Aware Computing and Systems, 2008, San Diego, CA.

Tornatore, M.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, "Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks," IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 12, 441‒458 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

J. Baliga, R. W. A. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport," Proc. IEEE 99, 149‒167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—Part II: Energy limitations in networks," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 261‒274 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Z. Feng, R. W. A. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, "Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet," IEEE Network 25, 6‒12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—Part I: Energy limitations in transport," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 245‒260 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in optical IP networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2391‒2403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, W. V. Sorin, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in access networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, OThT6.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, OThQ5.

Useche, L.

A. Verma, R. Koller, L. Useche, and R. Rangaswami, "SRCMap: Energy proportional storage using dynamic consolidation," 8th USENIX Conf. File and Storage Technologies, 2010, San Jose, CA.

Verma, A.

A. Verma, R. Koller, L. Useche, and R. Rangaswami, "SRCMap: Energy proportional storage using dynamic consolidation," 8th USENIX Conf. File and Storage Technologies, 2010, San Jose, CA.

Vijay, S. P.

M. D. Jagadeesh, K. Karthik, and S. P. Vijay, "Storage optimization for a peer-to-peer video-on-demand network," 1st Annu. ACM SIGMM Conf. on Multimedia Systems, 2010, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

Wang, Z.

N. Tolia, Z. Wang, M. Marwah, C. Bash, P. Ranganathan, and X. Zhu, "Delivering energy proportionality with non-energy-proportional systems: Optimizing the ensemble," Conf. Power Aware Computing and Systems, 2008, San Diego, CA.

Wong, E.

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. Chan, "Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OWR3.

Yu, H.

H. Yu, D. Zheng, B. Y. Zhao, and W. Zheng, "Understanding user behavior in large-scale video-on-demand systems," 1st ACM SIGOPS/EuroSys European Conf. on Computer Systems, 2006, Leuven, Belgium.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, "Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks," IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 12, 441‒458 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B. Y.

H. Yu, D. Zheng, B. Y. Zhao, and W. Zheng, "Understanding user behavior in large-scale video-on-demand systems," 1st ACM SIGOPS/EuroSys European Conf. on Computer Systems, 2006, Leuven, Belgium.

Zheng, D.

H. Yu, D. Zheng, B. Y. Zhao, and W. Zheng, "Understanding user behavior in large-scale video-on-demand systems," 1st ACM SIGOPS/EuroSys European Conf. on Computer Systems, 2006, Leuven, Belgium.

Zheng, W.

H. Yu, D. Zheng, B. Y. Zhao, and W. Zheng, "Understanding user behavior in large-scale video-on-demand systems," 1st ACM SIGOPS/EuroSys European Conf. on Computer Systems, 2006, Leuven, Belgium.

Zhu, X.

N. Tolia, Z. Wang, M. Marwah, C. Bash, P. Ranganathan, and X. Zhu, "Delivering energy proportionality with non-energy-proportional systems: Optimizing the ensemble," Conf. Power Aware Computing and Systems, 2008, San Diego, CA.

Computer

L. A. Barroso and U. Holzle, "The case for energy-proportional computing," Computer 40, 33‒37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, "Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks," IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 12, 441‒458 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—Part II: Energy limitations in networks," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 261‒274 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—Part I: Energy limitations in transport," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 245‒260 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Z. Feng, R. W. A. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, "Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet," IEEE Network 25, 6‒12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Broadcast.

K. Laevens and D. De Vleeschauwer, "Performance of caching algorithms for IPTV on-demand services," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 55, 491‒501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

S. H. G. Chan and F. Tobagi, "Distributed servers architecture for networked video services," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 9, 125‒136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Multimedia Syst.

V. Constantinos, P. Michael, and T. Peter, "Video placement and configuration of distributed video servers on cable TV networks," Multimedia Syst. 8, 92‒104 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oper. Res.

J. D. C. Little, "A proof for the queuing formula: L=λW," Oper. Res. 9, 383‒387 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

J. Baliga, R. W. A. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport," Proc. IEEE 99, 149‒167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Segarra and V. Cholvi, "Placement of storage capacity in distributed video servers," IEEE Int. Conf. Communications, 2002, pp. 2537‒2541.

T. Asami and S. Namiki, "Energy consumption targets for network systems," 34th European Conf. Optical Communication, 2008, pp. 1‒4.

Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2009–2014, [Online]. Available: www.cisco.com

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, OThQ5.

M. D. Jagadeesh, K. Karthik, and S. P. Vijay, "Storage optimization for a peer-to-peer video-on-demand network," 1st Annu. ACM SIGMM Conf. on Multimedia Systems, 2010, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. Chan, "Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OWR3.

"Optimizing Video Transport in Your IP Triple Play Network," Cisco White Paper, [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com.

K. K. Ramakrishnan and R. D. Doverspike, "IPTV challenges," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, OMO1.

K. Guan, D. C. Kilper, and G. Atkinson, "Evaluating the energy benefit of dynamic optical bypass for content delivery," IEEE Conf. Computer Communications Workshops, 2011, pp. 313‒318.

N. Tolia, Z. Wang, M. Marwah, C. Bash, P. Ranganathan, and X. Zhu, "Delivering energy proportionality with non-energy-proportional systems: Optimizing the ensemble," Conf. Power Aware Computing and Systems, 2008, San Diego, CA.

A. Verma, R. Koller, L. Useche, and R. Rangaswami, "SRCMap: Energy proportional storage using dynamic consolidation," 8th USENIX Conf. File and Storage Technologies, 2010, San Jose, CA.

J. Koomey, Estimating total power consumption by servers in the US and the World, Analytics Press, 2007, [Online] Available: www.koomey.com.

H. Yu, D. Zheng, B. Y. Zhao, and W. Zheng, "Understanding user behavior in large-scale video-on-demand systems," 1st ACM SIGOPS/EuroSys European Conf. on Computer Systems, 2006, Leuven, Belgium.

Cisco Data Sheets, [Online]. Available: www.cisco.com

Hitachi Data Sheets, [Online]. Available: www.hitachi.com

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, W. V. Sorin, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in access networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, OThT6.

Western Digital Data Sheets, [Online]. Available: www.wdc.com

P. V. Mieghem, Performance Analysis of Communications Networks and Systems, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006, p. 358.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) VoD distribution network model.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Variation of power consumption per single movie as a function of number of simultaneous streams of that movie.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) The percentage of transport (Tx) and storage (Str) energy consumption of total energy consumption.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Variation of percentages of movies that need to be stored at each level to achieve the minimum power consumption, as a function of download rate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Variation of percentages of movies that need to be stored at each level to achieve the minimum power consumption, as a function of time of the day.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) ON/OFF operation of content storages located at different levels based on request arrival rate.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Variation of power consumption with request arrival rate.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) ON/OFF operation of the content storages and variation of power consumption of the proposed method with TOD.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Energy saving achieved by our proposed method during a single day.

Tables (1)

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Table I Evaluation Parameters [2428]