Abstract

This paper proposes a resilient access network architecture with a cable-route protection function based on hybrid wavelength division multiplexing and time division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM/TDM-PON) systems. The reuse of existing optical cable networks allows our ladder and grid networks to introduce duplicate routes for the shared portions of PONs by using a few optical fibers with simple structures. It automatically builds alternative optical paths in response to the wavelengths of optical line terminal and optical network units (ONUs) at both ends of the network. Our simulation achieved network capacities of 1.25 Gb/s × 500 ONUs and 10 Gb/s × 64 ONUs by applying 48 and 16 WDMs, respectively, to the networks. We think that these results show sufficient scalability; in particular, the ladder network composed of simple WDM components is a promising architecture for resilient access networks.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. P. W. Shumate, "Fiber-to-the-home: 1977-2007," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1093‒1103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Tsubokawa and K. Kumozaki, "Evolution of next generation access," presented at the World Telecommunications Congress, 2008, New Orleans, Session 202.
  3. "Broadband optical access systems based on passive optical networks (PON)," ITU-T Rec. G.983.1, 1998.
  4. J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. M. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, "Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architecture," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 56‒65 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Chen and L. Wosinska, "Analysis of protection schemes in PON compatible with smooth migration from TDM-PON to hybrid WDM/TDM-PON," IEEE J. Opt. Netw. 6, 514‒526 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. J. Xu, W. Yen, and E. Ho, "Proposal of a new protection mechanism for ATM PON interface," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2001, pp. 2160‒2165.
  7. H. Nakamura, H. Suzuki, J. Kani, and K. Iwatsuki, "Reliable wide-area wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network accommodating gigabit ethernet and 10-Gb ethernet services," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2045‒2051 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Sun, C. Chan, and L. Chen, "A survivable WDM-PON architecture with centralized alternate-path protection switching for traffic restoration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 631‒633 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Lee, S. Mun, C. Lee, and S. Lee, "Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 679‒681 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Lee, K. Choi, and C. Lee, "A remotely reconfigurable remote node for next-generation access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 915‒917 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. For example, http://www.furukawa.co.jp/english/what/2006/060301_agw.htm#
  12. http://www.rsoftdesign.com

2010 (1)

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. M. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, "Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architecture," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 56‒65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

K. Lee, S. Mun, C. Lee, and S. Lee, "Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 679‒681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, K. Choi, and C. Lee, "A remotely reconfigurable remote node for next-generation access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 915‒917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Shumate, "Fiber-to-the-home: 1977-2007," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1093‒1103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Chen and L. Wosinska, "Analysis of protection schemes in PON compatible with smooth migration from TDM-PON to hybrid WDM/TDM-PON," IEEE J. Opt. Netw. 6, 514‒526 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. Nakamura, H. Suzuki, J. Kani, and K. Iwatsuki, "Reliable wide-area wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network accommodating gigabit ethernet and 10-Gb ethernet services," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2045‒2051 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, C. Chan, and L. Chen, "A survivable WDM-PON architecture with centralized alternate-path protection switching for traffic restoration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 631‒633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C.

X. Sun, C. Chan, and L. Chen, "A survivable WDM-PON architecture with centralized alternate-path protection switching for traffic restoration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 631‒633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. M. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, "Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architecture," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 56‒65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen and L. Wosinska, "Analysis of protection schemes in PON compatible with smooth migration from TDM-PON to hybrid WDM/TDM-PON," IEEE J. Opt. Netw. 6, 514‒526 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

X. Sun, C. Chan, and L. Chen, "A survivable WDM-PON architecture with centralized alternate-path protection switching for traffic restoration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 631‒633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K.

J. Lee, K. Choi, and C. Lee, "A remotely reconfigurable remote node for next-generation access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 915‒917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, E.

D. J. Xu, W. Yen, and E. Ho, "Proposal of a new protection mechanism for ATM PON interface," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2001, pp. 2160‒2165.

Iwatsuki, K.

Jaeger, M.

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. M. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, "Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architecture," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 56‒65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kani, J.

Kumozaki, K.

M. Tsubokawa and K. Kumozaki, "Evolution of next generation access," presented at the World Telecommunications Congress, 2008, New Orleans, Session 202.

Lee, C.

J. Lee, K. Choi, and C. Lee, "A remotely reconfigurable remote node for next-generation access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 915‒917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Lee, S. Mun, C. Lee, and S. Lee, "Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 679‒681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, K. Choi, and C. Lee, "A remotely reconfigurable remote node for next-generation access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 915‒917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

K. Lee, S. Mun, C. Lee, and S. Lee, "Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 679‒681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

K. Lee, S. Mun, C. Lee, and S. Lee, "Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 679‒681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Machuca, C. M.

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. M. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, "Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architecture," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 56‒65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mun, S.

K. Lee, S. Mun, C. Lee, and S. Lee, "Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 679‒681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, H.

Shumate, P. W.

Sun, X.

X. Sun, C. Chan, and L. Chen, "A survivable WDM-PON architecture with centralized alternate-path protection switching for traffic restoration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 631‒633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

Tsubokawa, M.

M. Tsubokawa and K. Kumozaki, "Evolution of next generation access," presented at the World Telecommunications Congress, 2008, New Orleans, Session 202.

Wosinska, L.

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. M. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, "Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architecture," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 56‒65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen and L. Wosinska, "Analysis of protection schemes in PON compatible with smooth migration from TDM-PON to hybrid WDM/TDM-PON," IEEE J. Opt. Netw. 6, 514‒526 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D. J.

D. J. Xu, W. Yen, and E. Ho, "Proposal of a new protection mechanism for ATM PON interface," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2001, pp. 2160‒2165.

Yen, W.

D. J. Xu, W. Yen, and E. Ho, "Proposal of a new protection mechanism for ATM PON interface," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2001, pp. 2160‒2165.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. M. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, "Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architecture," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 56‒65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Opt. Netw. (1)

J. Chen and L. Wosinska, "Analysis of protection schemes in PON compatible with smooth migration from TDM-PON to hybrid WDM/TDM-PON," IEEE J. Opt. Netw. 6, 514‒526 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

X. Sun, C. Chan, and L. Chen, "A survivable WDM-PON architecture with centralized alternate-path protection switching for traffic restoration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 631‒633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Lee, S. Mun, C. Lee, and S. Lee, "Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 679‒681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, K. Choi, and C. Lee, "A remotely reconfigurable remote node for next-generation access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 915‒917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Other (5)

M. Tsubokawa and K. Kumozaki, "Evolution of next generation access," presented at the World Telecommunications Congress, 2008, New Orleans, Session 202.

"Broadband optical access systems based on passive optical networks (PON)," ITU-T Rec. G.983.1, 1998.

D. J. Xu, W. Yen, and E. Ho, "Proposal of a new protection mechanism for ATM PON interface," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2001, pp. 2160‒2165.

For example, http://www.furukawa.co.jp/english/what/2006/060301_agw.htm#

http://www.rsoftdesign.com

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) A conventional FTTH network in a residential area. Optical fibers are installed along several original cable routes with a tree and branch structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Three types of redundant FTTH network: (a) unshared ring, (b) ladder, and (c) grid. Here, area # p , q indicates a drop point area where p = 1 P and q = 1 Q . Bypass routes are inserted per N drop areas.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Total optical fiber length required for unshared ring, ladder, and grid networks.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Optical waveguide circuits used in the ladder network. Two types of circuit composed of WDM–DCs are arranged at the edges and inside the group area. The OLT contains the AWG circuit in which the two I/O ports are connected to TX and RX in response to the optical signal wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Optical waveguide circuits used in the grid network. Three circuits with WDM– DC # 3 , WDM– DC # 4 , and WDM– DC # 5 are arranged in area # 2 , 8 , area # 3 , 8 , and area # 1 , 8 , respectively. Directional couplers WDM– DC # 6 and WDM– DC # 7 are installed at the right edge of the network.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Power-coupling characteristics of WDM–DCs and the AWG circuit. Here, wavelength band allocations assigned to area # 1 , 5 area # 2 , 8 and area # 1 , 5 area # p , 8 , where N = 4 , are highlighted.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) The ladder and grid network models used in this simulation. Transmission characteristics between the OLT and the furthest ONUs along the working and protection routes are evaluated.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Optical loss as a function of the number of drop areas in the ladder network model. The loss is calculated from the sum of static losses of the network components in the working operation. Results obtained by the transmission simulation are indicated by “×” symbols.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Optical power spectra of OLT outputs and observed signals in area # 2 , 4 in ladder networks and area # 3 , 4 in grid networks.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Eye diagrams for downstream received signals for 1.25 Gb/s (left) and 10 Gb/s (right) NRZ signals. [ ] indicates the received power.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Bit-error rate as a function of the optical received power for downstream transmissions in ladder and grid networks.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Acceptable area sizes with BER < 1e−12 in ladder and grid networks.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Parameters Used in the Simulation