Abstract

This paper proposes WiMAX-VPON, a novel framework for establishing layer-2 virtual private networks (VPNs) over the integration of WiMAX and Ethernet passive optical networks, which has lately been considered as a promising candidate for next-generation fiber-wireless backhaul-access networks. With WiMAX-VPON, layer-2 VPNs support a bundle of service requirements to the respective registered wireless/wired users. These requirements are stipulated in the service level agreement and should be fulfilled by a suite of effective bandwidth management solutions. To achieve this, we propose a novel VPN-based admission control and bandwidth allocation scheme that provides per-stream quality-of-service protection and bandwidth guarantee for real-time flows. The bandwidth allocation is performed via a common medium access control protocol working in both the optical and wireless domains. An event-driven simulation model is implemented to study the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  18. C. So-In, R. Jain, A.-K. Tamimi, “Scheduling in IEEE 802.16e mobile WiMAX networks: key issues and a survey,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 156–171, Feb. 2009.
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  23. Q. Liu, S. Zhou, G. B. Giannakis, “Queuing with adaptive modulation and coding over wireless links: cross-layer analysis and design,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1142–1153, May 2005.
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2009

K. Yang, S. Ou, G. Ken, H.-H. Chen, “Convergence of Ethernet PON and IEEE 802.16 broadband access networks and its QoS-aware dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 101–116, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, C. M. Assi, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: a survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

C. So-In, R. Jain, A.-K. Tamimi, “Scheduling in IEEE 802.16e mobile WiMAX networks: key issues and a survey,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 156–171, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

W. Wei, J. Hu, D. Qian, P. N. Ji, T. Wang, X. Liu, C. Qiao, “PONIARD: a programmable optical networking infrastructure for advanced research and development of future Internet,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 233–242, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

A. S. Reaz, V. Ramamurthi, S. Sarkar, D. Ghosal, S. Dixit, B. Mukherjee, “CaDAR: an efficient routing algorithm for a wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN),” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 392–403, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008

X. Bai, A. Shami, Y. Ye, “Robust QoS control for single carrier PMP mode IEEE 802.16 system,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 416–429, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

N. Nadarajah, E. Wong, A. Nirmalathas, “Implementation of multiple secure virtual private networks over passive optical networks using electronic CDMA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 484–486, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005

Q. Liu, S. Zhou, G. B. Giannakis, “Queuing with adaptive modulation and coding over wireless links: cross-layer analysis and design,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1142–1153, May 2005.
[CrossRef]

2004

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, M. Reisslein, “Ethernet PONs: a survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 8, pp. S8–S15, Aug. 2004.
[CrossRef]

2002

S. Catreux, P. F. Driessen, L. J. Greenstein, “Data throughputs using multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques in a noise-limited cellular environment,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 226–234, Apr. 2002.
[CrossRef]

A. Doufexi, S. Armour, M. Butler, A. Nix, D. Bull, J. McGeehan, “A comparison of the HIPERLAN/2 and IEEE 802.11a wireless LAN standards,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 172–180, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT a dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Venkateswaran, “Virtual private networks,” IEEE Potentials, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 11–15, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Andrews, J. G.

J. G. Andrews, A. Ghosh, R. Muhamad, Fundamentals of WIMAX: Understanding Broadband Wireless Networking. Prentice Hall, 2007.

Ansari, N.

Y. Luo, S. Yin, T. Wang, Y. Suemura, S. Nakamura, N. Ansari, M. Cvijetic, “QoS-aware scheduling over hybrid optical wireless networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper NThB1.

Armour, S.

A. Doufexi, S. Armour, M. Butler, A. Nix, D. Bull, J. McGeehan, “A comparison of the HIPERLAN/2 and IEEE 802.11a wireless LAN standards,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 172–180, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

Assi, C. M.

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, C. M. Assi, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: a survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M. Maier, A. Shami, “Per-stream QoS and admission control in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1659–1669, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

Bai, X.

X. Bai, A. Shami, Y. Ye, “Robust QoS control for single carrier PMP mode IEEE 802.16 system,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 416–429, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Bokotey, D.

W. Luo, C. Pignataro, A. Y. H. Chan, D. Bokotey, Layer-2 VPN Architectures. CISCO Press, 2005.

Bull, D.

A. Doufexi, S. Armour, M. Butler, A. Nix, D. Bull, J. McGeehan, “A comparison of the HIPERLAN/2 and IEEE 802.11a wireless LAN standards,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 172–180, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

Butler, M.

A. Doufexi, S. Armour, M. Butler, A. Nix, D. Bull, J. McGeehan, “A comparison of the HIPERLAN/2 and IEEE 802.11a wireless LAN standards,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 172–180, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

Catreux, S.

S. Catreux, P. F. Driessen, L. J. Greenstein, “Data throughputs using multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques in a noise-limited cellular environment,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 226–234, Apr. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Chae, C.-J.

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, C.-J. Chae, “Fixed mobile convergence architectures for broadband access: integration of EPON and WiMAX,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 44–50, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Chan, A. Y. H.

W. Luo, C. Pignataro, A. Y. H. Chan, D. Bokotey, Layer-2 VPN Architectures. CISCO Press, 2005.

Chen, H.-H.

K. Yang, S. Ou, G. Ken, H.-H. Chen, “Convergence of Ethernet PON and IEEE 802.16 broadband access networks and its QoS-aware dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 101–116, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Chou, C.-T.

C.-T. Chou, S. S. N. Shankar, K. G. Shin, “Achieving per-stream QoS with distributed airtime allocation and admission control in IEEE 802.11e wireless LANs,” in Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM’05, Apr. 2005, pp. 1584–1595.

Cvijetic, M.

Y. Luo, S. Yin, T. Wang, Y. Suemura, S. Nakamura, N. Ansari, M. Cvijetic, “QoS-aware scheduling over hybrid optical wireless networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper NThB1.

Dhaini, A. R.

A. R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M. Maier, A. Shami, “Per-stream QoS and admission control in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1659–1669, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dhaini, P.-H. Ho, X. Jiang, “QoS-aware layer-2 VPNs over EPON-WIMAX,” in Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC’10), Cape Town, South Africa, 2010.

Dittmann, L.

Y. Yan, H. Yu, H. Wang, L. Dittmann, “Integration of EPON and WiMAX networks: uplink scheduler design,” in Proc. of Asia-Pacific Optical Communications (APOC 2008), Hangzhou, China, 2008.

Dixit, S.

Doufexi, A.

A. Doufexi, S. Armour, M. Butler, A. Nix, D. Bull, J. McGeehan, “A comparison of the HIPERLAN/2 and IEEE 802.11a wireless LAN standards,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 172–180, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

Driessen, P. F.

S. Catreux, P. F. Driessen, L. J. Greenstein, “Data throughputs using multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques in a noise-limited cellular environment,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 226–234, Apr. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Ghazisaidi, N.

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, C. M. Assi, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: a survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ghosal, D.

Ghosh, A.

J. G. Andrews, A. Ghosh, R. Muhamad, Fundamentals of WIMAX: Understanding Broadband Wireless Networking. Prentice Hall, 2007.

Giannakis, G. B.

Q. Liu, S. Zhou, G. B. Giannakis, “Queuing with adaptive modulation and coding over wireless links: cross-layer analysis and design,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1142–1153, May 2005.
[CrossRef]

Greenstein, L. J.

S. Catreux, P. F. Driessen, L. J. Greenstein, “Data throughputs using multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques in a noise-limited cellular environment,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 226–234, Apr. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Ho, P.-H.

A. R. Dhaini, P.-H. Ho, X. Jiang, “QoS-aware layer-2 VPNs over EPON-WIMAX,” in Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC’10), Cape Town, South Africa, 2010.

Hu, J.

Jain, R.

C. So-In, R. Jain, A.-K. Tamimi, “Scheduling in IEEE 802.16e mobile WiMAX networks: key issues and a survey,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 156–171, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ji, P. N.

Ji, Y.

M. Luo, H. Li, Y. Lu, Y. Ji, “QoS-aware scheduling in emerging novel optical wireless integrated networks,” in Challenges for Next Generation Network Operations and Service Management. Springer, 2008, pp. 445–448.
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

A. R. Dhaini, P.-H. Ho, X. Jiang, “QoS-aware layer-2 VPNs over EPON-WIMAX,” in Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC’10), Cape Town, South Africa, 2010.

Ken, G.

K. Yang, S. Ou, G. Ken, H.-H. Chen, “Convergence of Ethernet PON and IEEE 802.16 broadband access networks and its QoS-aware dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 101–116, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Kramer, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT a dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

M. Luo, H. Li, Y. Lu, Y. Ji, “QoS-aware scheduling in emerging novel optical wireless integrated networks,” in Challenges for Next Generation Network Operations and Service Management. Springer, 2008, pp. 445–448.
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

Q. Liu, S. Zhou, G. B. Giannakis, “Queuing with adaptive modulation and coding over wireless links: cross-layer analysis and design,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1142–1153, May 2005.
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Lu, Y.

M. Luo, H. Li, Y. Lu, Y. Ji, “QoS-aware scheduling in emerging novel optical wireless integrated networks,” in Challenges for Next Generation Network Operations and Service Management. Springer, 2008, pp. 445–448.
[CrossRef]

Luo, M.

M. Luo, H. Li, Y. Lu, Y. Ji, “QoS-aware scheduling in emerging novel optical wireless integrated networks,” in Challenges for Next Generation Network Operations and Service Management. Springer, 2008, pp. 445–448.
[CrossRef]

Luo, W.

W. Luo, C. Pignataro, A. Y. H. Chan, D. Bokotey, Layer-2 VPN Architectures. CISCO Press, 2005.

Luo, Y.

Y. Luo, S. Yin, T. Wang, Y. Suemura, S. Nakamura, N. Ansari, M. Cvijetic, “QoS-aware scheduling over hybrid optical wireless networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper NThB1.

Maier, M.

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, C. M. Assi, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: a survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M. Maier, A. Shami, “Per-stream QoS and admission control in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1659–1669, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, M. Reisslein, “Ethernet PONs: a survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 8, pp. S8–S15, Aug. 2004.
[CrossRef]

McGarry, M. P.

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, M. Reisslein, “Ethernet PONs: a survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 8, pp. S8–S15, Aug. 2004.
[CrossRef]

McGeehan, J.

A. Doufexi, S. Armour, M. Butler, A. Nix, D. Bull, J. McGeehan, “A comparison of the HIPERLAN/2 and IEEE 802.11a wireless LAN standards,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 172–180, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

Muhamad, R.

J. G. Andrews, A. Ghosh, R. Muhamad, Fundamentals of WIMAX: Understanding Broadband Wireless Networking. Prentice Hall, 2007.

Mukherjee, B.

Nadarajah, N.

N. Nadarajah, E. Wong, A. Nirmalathas, “Implementation of multiple secure virtual private networks over passive optical networks using electronic CDMA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 484–486, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

Y. Luo, S. Yin, T. Wang, Y. Suemura, S. Nakamura, N. Ansari, M. Cvijetic, “QoS-aware scheduling over hybrid optical wireless networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper NThB1.

Nirmalathas, A.

N. Nadarajah, E. Wong, A. Nirmalathas, “Implementation of multiple secure virtual private networks over passive optical networks using electronic CDMA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 484–486, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Nix, A.

A. Doufexi, S. Armour, M. Butler, A. Nix, D. Bull, J. McGeehan, “A comparison of the HIPERLAN/2 and IEEE 802.11a wireless LAN standards,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 172–180, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

Ou, S.

K. Yang, S. Ou, G. Ken, H.-H. Chen, “Convergence of Ethernet PON and IEEE 802.16 broadband access networks and its QoS-aware dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 101–116, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Pesavento, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT a dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Pignataro, C.

W. Luo, C. Pignataro, A. Y. H. Chan, D. Bokotey, Layer-2 VPN Architectures. CISCO Press, 2005.

Qian, D.

Qiao, C.

Ramamurthi, V.

Reaz, A. S.

Reisslein, M.

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, M. Reisslein, “Ethernet PONs: a survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 8, pp. S8–S15, Aug. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Sarkar, S.

Shami, A.

X. Bai, A. Shami, Y. Ye, “Robust QoS control for single carrier PMP mode IEEE 802.16 system,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 416–429, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M. Maier, A. Shami, “Per-stream QoS and admission control in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1659–1669, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

Shankar, S. S. N.

C.-T. Chou, S. S. N. Shankar, K. G. Shin, “Achieving per-stream QoS with distributed airtime allocation and admission control in IEEE 802.11e wireless LANs,” in Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM’05, Apr. 2005, pp. 1584–1595.

Shen, G.

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, C.-J. Chae, “Fixed mobile convergence architectures for broadband access: integration of EPON and WiMAX,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 44–50, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Shin, K. G.

C.-T. Chou, S. S. N. Shankar, K. G. Shin, “Achieving per-stream QoS with distributed airtime allocation and admission control in IEEE 802.11e wireless LANs,” in Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM’05, Apr. 2005, pp. 1584–1595.

So-In, C.

C. So-In, R. Jain, A.-K. Tamimi, “Scheduling in IEEE 802.16e mobile WiMAX networks: key issues and a survey,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 156–171, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Suemura, Y.

Y. Luo, S. Yin, T. Wang, Y. Suemura, S. Nakamura, N. Ansari, M. Cvijetic, “QoS-aware scheduling over hybrid optical wireless networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper NThB1.

Tamimi, A.-K.

C. So-In, R. Jain, A.-K. Tamimi, “Scheduling in IEEE 802.16e mobile WiMAX networks: key issues and a survey,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 156–171, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, C.-J. Chae, “Fixed mobile convergence architectures for broadband access: integration of EPON and WiMAX,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 44–50, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Venkateswaran, R.

R. Venkateswaran, “Virtual private networks,” IEEE Potentials, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 11–15, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Y. Yan, H. Yu, H. Wang, L. Dittmann, “Integration of EPON and WiMAX networks: uplink scheduler design,” in Proc. of Asia-Pacific Optical Communications (APOC 2008), Hangzhou, China, 2008.

Wang, T.

W. Wei, J. Hu, D. Qian, P. N. Ji, T. Wang, X. Liu, C. Qiao, “PONIARD: a programmable optical networking infrastructure for advanced research and development of future Internet,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 233–242, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Y. Luo, S. Yin, T. Wang, Y. Suemura, S. Nakamura, N. Ansari, M. Cvijetic, “QoS-aware scheduling over hybrid optical wireless networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper NThB1.

Wei, W.

Wong, E.

N. Nadarajah, E. Wong, A. Nirmalathas, “Implementation of multiple secure virtual private networks over passive optical networks using electronic CDMA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 484–486, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y.

Y. Yan, H. Yu, H. Wang, L. Dittmann, “Integration of EPON and WiMAX networks: uplink scheduler design,” in Proc. of Asia-Pacific Optical Communications (APOC 2008), Hangzhou, China, 2008.

Yang, K.

K. Yang, S. Ou, G. Ken, H.-H. Chen, “Convergence of Ethernet PON and IEEE 802.16 broadband access networks and its QoS-aware dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 101–116, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ye, Y.

X. Bai, A. Shami, Y. Ye, “Robust QoS control for single carrier PMP mode IEEE 802.16 system,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 416–429, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Yin, S.

Y. Luo, S. Yin, T. Wang, Y. Suemura, S. Nakamura, N. Ansari, M. Cvijetic, “QoS-aware scheduling over hybrid optical wireless networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper NThB1.

Yu, H.

Y. Yan, H. Yu, H. Wang, L. Dittmann, “Integration of EPON and WiMAX networks: uplink scheduler design,” in Proc. of Asia-Pacific Optical Communications (APOC 2008), Hangzhou, China, 2008.

Zhou, S.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layer-2 VPNs over EPON-WiMAX.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Proposed VPON QoS provisionning framework.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Guarantee bandwidth derivation graph.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

UGS flow average end-to-end packet delay.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

rtPS flow average end-to-end packet delay.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

nrtPS flow average end-to-end packet delay.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

UGS flow average end-to-end throughput.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

rtPS flow average end-to-end throughput.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

nrtPS flow average end-to-end throughput.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Per-VPN BE end-to-end throughput.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Average end-to-end packet delay versus α.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Adaptive Modulation and Coding Modes

Tables Icon

Table 2 Simulation Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 3 VPN 4 Traffic Statistics

Equations (32)

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r s n = h n ( t ) × t s ( t ) + b n n ( t ) ,
h n = m n c D n γ × S n ,
R n x = N d × W sc x × C R x T sym .
B min k = ( β T cycle VPON K × T g ) × R N × w k 8 ,
S = ρ × ( 1 μ σ ) .
A ( t , t + τ ) = min ( σ τ , S + μ τ ) ,
g i k = ρ i θ i k + ρ i σ i .
g i k = ρ i ( θ i k + ρ i σ i ) ( 1 P error , i ) .
g i k = μ i 1 P error , i .
g i + 1 k + i = 1 h k g i k B k G ,
R j , BE k = α k B min k × 8 | M k | × β T cycle VPON .
R j , BE n , k = α k B min k × 8 | N k | × | M k | × β T cycle VPON .
g n , i + 1 k + k i ( g n , i k + R j , BE n , k ) R n x ,
g n , i + 1 k R n x + k n i g n , i k R n x NBR k n R n , BE k R n x .
1 s
g i + 1 k + i g i k ( 1 α k ) B min k × 8 β T cycle VPON .
R j , BE = k R j , BE k × Γ k ,
Γ k = { 1 if i , SS i , and | SS i | has V k requests 0 otherwise } . .
T RT 802.16 = G j × T cycle 802.16 G j + R j , BE ,
T k 802.16 = R j , BE k × T cycle 802.16 G j + R j , BE ,
T n , RT 802.16 = ( 1 R n x ) × T RT 802.16 [ 1 ( n R n , RT x ) ] ,
T n , k 802.16 = ( 1 R n x ) × T k 802.16 [ 1 ( n R n , k x ) ] ,
B i , n g = g i k × R n x × T n , RT 802.16 G j × 8 .
n p i , n = B i , n g L ¯ i ,
B i , n alloc = min ( n p i , n × L ¯ i , r i , n ) ,
F i , n = B i , n alloc × 8 ϕ x .
B n , BE alloc = min ( R n x × T n , k 802.16 8 , r n , BE ) ,
R BE = k j R j , BE k .
T RT VPON = G × β T cycle VPON G + R BE ,
T k VPON = j R j , BE k × β T cycle VPON G + R BE ,
T j , RT VPON = T RT VPON × R N | M | × 8 .
NBR = Total Throughput Transmission Rate = 59.0976 Mbps 64.8 Mbps = 0.912 .