Abstract

We design virtual topologies in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks to minimize the network diameter and average hop count, where network diameter refers to the number of hops of the longest shortest path and average hop count is the average number of hops among the shortest paths of all node pairs. Such objectives are important to WDM networks, especially to those with statistical multiplexing mechanisms such as optical burst switching (OBS) and optical packet switching (OPS). By minimizing the network diameter and average hop count, optical packets or bursts will experience less contention loss and smaller delay due to a reduced number of intermediate nodes en route. In this paper, we first formulate an integer linear program (ILP) for optimal design of virtual topologies with minimized network diameter and average hop count. Then, a novel heuristic least weight minimum diameter (LWMD) is proposed to find good solutions efficiently. Based on the virtual topology obtained, we further design two traffic accommodation schemes to provision wavelengths under a given traffic matrix, with guaranteed network diameter and minimized network resource consumption.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (6)

J. P. Jue, W.-H. Yang, Y.-C. Kim, Q. Zhang, “Optical packet and burst switched networks: a review,” IET Commun., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 334–352, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

B. Wu, K. L. Yeung, M. Hamdi, X. Li, “Minimizing internal speedup for performance guaranteed switches with optical fabrics,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 632–645, Apr. 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. Pavon-Marino, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, N. Skorin-Kapov, “Virtual topology design and flow routing in optical networks under multihour traffic demand,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 42–54, Aug. 2009.
[CrossRef]

C. S. Xin, “Resource planning for dynamic traffic grooming in WDM optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 5–8, pp. 817–824, Apr. 2009.
[CrossRef]

B. Wu, K. L. Yeung, P.-H. Ho, X. H. Jiang, “Minimum delay scheduling for performance guaranteed switches with optical fabrics,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 3453–3465, Aug. 2009.
[CrossRef]

G. X. Shen, R. S. Tucker, “Sparse traffic grooming in translucent optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 20, pp. 4471–4479, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

X. Huang, Q. She, T. Zhang, K. Lu, J. P. Jue, “Modeling and performance analysis of small group multicast with deflection routing in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 74–86, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

L. Guo, X. Wang, J. Cao, L. Li, “Traffic recovery time constrained shared sub-path protection algorithm in survivable WDM networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1492–1505, May 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. Li, C. Qiao, J. Xu, D. Xu, “Maximizing throughput for optical burst switching networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1163–1176, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Q. D. Ho, M. S. Lee, “A zone-based approach for scalable dynamic traffic grooming in large WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 261–270, Jan. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

F. Xue, S. J. B. Yoo, “High-capacity multiservice optical label switching for the next-generation Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. S16–S22, May 2004.
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, X. Yu, C. Qiao, “Optical burst switching (OBS): a new area of research in optical networking,” IEEE Network, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

B. Chen, J. P. Wang, “Hybrid switching and p-routing for optical burst switching networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1071–1080, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Ross, N. Bambos, K. Kumaran, I. Saniee, I. Widjaja, “Scheduling bursts in time-domain wavelength interleaved networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1441–1451, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

H. V. Madhyastha, N. Balakrishnan, “An efficient algorithm for virtual-wavelength-path routing minimizing average number of hops,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1433–1440, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. S. Arora, S. Subramaniam, H.-A. Choi, “Logical topology design for linear and ring optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, pp. 62–74, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

T. S. El-Bawab, J. Shin, “Optical packet switching in core networks: between vision and reality,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 60–65, Sept. 2002.
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical internet,” J. High Speed Networks, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 69–84, Jan. 1999.

1996 (2)

N. Wauters, P. Demeester, “Design of the optical path layer in multi-wavelength cross-connected networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 881–892, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 840–851, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Z. Zhang, A. S. Acampora, “A heuristic wavelength assignment algorithm for multihop WDM networks with wavelength routing and wavelength re-use,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 3, pp. 281–288, June 1995.
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Acampora, A. S.

Z. Zhang, A. S. Acampora, “A heuristic wavelength assignment algorithm for multihop WDM networks with wavelength routing and wavelength re-use,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 3, pp. 281–288, June 1995.
[CrossRef]

Ahuja, R. K.

R. K. Ahuja, T. L. Magnanti, J. B. Orlin, Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993.

Aparicio-Pardo, R.

P. Pavon-Marino, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, N. Skorin-Kapov, “Virtual topology design and flow routing in optical networks under multihour traffic demand,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 42–54, Aug. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Arora, A. S.

A. S. Arora, S. Subramaniam, H.-A. Choi, “Logical topology design for linear and ring optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, pp. 62–74, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, N.

H. V. Madhyastha, N. Balakrishnan, “An efficient algorithm for virtual-wavelength-path routing minimizing average number of hops,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1433–1440, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Bambos, N.

K. Ross, N. Bambos, K. Kumaran, I. Saniee, I. Widjaja, “Scheduling bursts in time-domain wavelength interleaved networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1441–1451, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

L. Guo, X. Wang, J. Cao, L. Li, “Traffic recovery time constrained shared sub-path protection algorithm in survivable WDM networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1492–1505, May 2008.
[CrossRef]

L. Guo, J. Cao, H. Yu, L. Li, “Path-based routing provisioning with mixed shared protection in WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1129–1141, Mar. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

B. Chen, J. P. Wang, “Hybrid switching and p-routing for optical burst switching networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1071–1080, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. Z.

D. Z. Chen, G. Wellbrock, S. J. Penticost, D. Patel, C. Rasmussen, M. C. Childers, X. Yang, M. Y. Frankel, “World’s first 40 Gbps overlay on a field-deployed, 10 Gbps, mixed-fiber, 1200 km, ultra long-haul system,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, vol. 2, paper OTuH4.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, X. Yu, C. Qiao, “Optical burst switching (OBS): a new area of research in optical networking,” IEEE Network, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Childers, M. C.

D. Z. Chen, G. Wellbrock, S. J. Penticost, D. Patel, C. Rasmussen, M. C. Childers, X. Yang, M. Y. Frankel, “World’s first 40 Gbps overlay on a field-deployed, 10 Gbps, mixed-fiber, 1200 km, ultra long-haul system,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, vol. 2, paper OTuH4.

Chlamtac, I.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.-A.

A. S. Arora, S. Subramaniam, H.-A. Choi, “Logical topology design for linear and ring optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, pp. 62–74, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P.

N. Wauters, P. Demeester, “Design of the optical path layer in multi-wavelength cross-connected networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 881–892, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

El-Bawab, T. S.

T. S. El-Bawab, J. Shin, “Optical packet switching in core networks: between vision and reality,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 60–65, Sept. 2002.
[CrossRef]

El-Khamy, F. E.

F. E. El-Khamy, M. Nasr, H. M. H. Shalaby, H. T. Mouftah, “The performance for heuristic algorithms for virtual topology design in all-optical WDM networks,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON 2009), 2009, pp. 64–67.

Frankel, M. Y.

D. Z. Chen, G. Wellbrock, S. J. Penticost, D. Patel, C. Rasmussen, M. C. Childers, X. Yang, M. Y. Frankel, “World’s first 40 Gbps overlay on a field-deployed, 10 Gbps, mixed-fiber, 1200 km, ultra long-haul system,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, vol. 2, paper OTuH4.

Ganz, A.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Manrubia, B.

P. Pavon-Marino, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, N. Skorin-Kapov, “Virtual topology design and flow routing in optical networks under multihour traffic demand,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 42–54, Aug. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

L. Guo, X. Wang, J. Cao, L. Li, “Traffic recovery time constrained shared sub-path protection algorithm in survivable WDM networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1492–1505, May 2008.
[CrossRef]

L. Guo, J. Cao, H. Yu, L. Li, “Path-based routing provisioning with mixed shared protection in WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1129–1141, Mar. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Hamdi, M.

B. Wu, K. L. Yeung, M. Hamdi, X. Li, “Minimizing internal speedup for performance guaranteed switches with optical fabrics,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 632–645, Apr. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ho, P.-H.

Ho, Q. D.

Huang, X.

X. Huang, Q. She, T. Zhang, K. Lu, J. P. Jue, “Modeling and performance analysis of small group multicast with deflection routing in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 74–86, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X. H.

Jue, J. P.

J. P. Jue, W.-H. Yang, Y.-C. Kim, Q. Zhang, “Optical packet and burst switched networks: a review,” IET Commun., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 334–352, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

X. Huang, Q. She, T. Zhang, K. Lu, J. P. Jue, “Modeling and performance analysis of small group multicast with deflection routing in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 74–86, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

J. P. Jue, V. M. Vokkarane, Optical Burst Switched Networks. Springer, 2005.

Karmi, G.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-C.

J. P. Jue, W.-H. Yang, Y.-C. Kim, Q. Zhang, “Optical packet and burst switched networks: a review,” IET Commun., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 334–352, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Kumaran, K.

K. Ross, N. Bambos, K. Kumaran, I. Saniee, I. Widjaja, “Scheduling bursts in time-domain wavelength interleaved networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1441–1451, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. S.

Li, J.

J. Li, C. Qiao, J. Xu, D. Xu, “Maximizing throughput for optical burst switching networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1163–1176, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Guo, X. Wang, J. Cao, L. Li, “Traffic recovery time constrained shared sub-path protection algorithm in survivable WDM networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1492–1505, May 2008.
[CrossRef]

L. Guo, J. Cao, H. Yu, L. Li, “Path-based routing provisioning with mixed shared protection in WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1129–1141, Mar. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

B. Wu, K. L. Yeung, M. Hamdi, X. Li, “Minimizing internal speedup for performance guaranteed switches with optical fabrics,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 632–645, Apr. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Lu, K.

X. Huang, Q. She, T. Zhang, K. Lu, J. P. Jue, “Modeling and performance analysis of small group multicast with deflection routing in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 74–86, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Madhyastha, H. V.

H. V. Madhyastha, N. Balakrishnan, “An efficient algorithm for virtual-wavelength-path routing minimizing average number of hops,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1433–1440, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Magnanti, T. L.

R. K. Ahuja, T. L. Magnanti, J. B. Orlin, Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993.

Mouftah, H. T.

F. E. El-Khamy, M. Nasr, H. M. H. Shalaby, H. T. Mouftah, “The performance for heuristic algorithms for virtual topology design in all-optical WDM networks,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON 2009), 2009, pp. 64–67.

Nasr, M.

F. E. El-Khamy, M. Nasr, H. M. H. Shalaby, H. T. Mouftah, “The performance for heuristic algorithms for virtual topology design in all-optical WDM networks,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON 2009), 2009, pp. 64–67.

Orlin, J. B.

R. K. Ahuja, T. L. Magnanti, J. B. Orlin, Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993.

Patel, D.

D. Z. Chen, G. Wellbrock, S. J. Penticost, D. Patel, C. Rasmussen, M. C. Childers, X. Yang, M. Y. Frankel, “World’s first 40 Gbps overlay on a field-deployed, 10 Gbps, mixed-fiber, 1200 km, ultra long-haul system,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, vol. 2, paper OTuH4.

Pavon-Marino, P.

P. Pavon-Marino, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, N. Skorin-Kapov, “Virtual topology design and flow routing in optical networks under multihour traffic demand,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 42–54, Aug. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Penticost, S. J.

D. Z. Chen, G. Wellbrock, S. J. Penticost, D. Patel, C. Rasmussen, M. C. Childers, X. Yang, M. Y. Frankel, “World’s first 40 Gbps overlay on a field-deployed, 10 Gbps, mixed-fiber, 1200 km, ultra long-haul system,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, vol. 2, paper OTuH4.

Qiao, C.

J. Li, C. Qiao, J. Xu, D. Xu, “Maximizing throughput for optical burst switching networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1163–1176, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, X. Yu, C. Qiao, “Optical burst switching (OBS): a new area of research in optical networking,” IEEE Network, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical internet,” J. High Speed Networks, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 69–84, Jan. 1999.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 840–851, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, C.

D. Z. Chen, G. Wellbrock, S. J. Penticost, D. Patel, C. Rasmussen, M. C. Childers, X. Yang, M. Y. Frankel, “World’s first 40 Gbps overlay on a field-deployed, 10 Gbps, mixed-fiber, 1200 km, ultra long-haul system,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, vol. 2, paper OTuH4.

Ross, K.

K. Ross, N. Bambos, K. Kumaran, I. Saniee, I. Widjaja, “Scheduling bursts in time-domain wavelength interleaved networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1441–1451, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Saniee, I.

K. Ross, N. Bambos, K. Kumaran, I. Saniee, I. Widjaja, “Scheduling bursts in time-domain wavelength interleaved networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1441–1451, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Shalaby, H. M. H.

F. E. El-Khamy, M. Nasr, H. M. H. Shalaby, H. T. Mouftah, “The performance for heuristic algorithms for virtual topology design in all-optical WDM networks,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON 2009), 2009, pp. 64–67.

She, Q.

X. Huang, Q. She, T. Zhang, K. Lu, J. P. Jue, “Modeling and performance analysis of small group multicast with deflection routing in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 74–86, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Shen, G. X.

Shin, J.

T. S. El-Bawab, J. Shin, “Optical packet switching in core networks: between vision and reality,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 60–65, Sept. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 840–851, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Skorin-Kapov, N.

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P. Van Hentenryck, Y. Vergados, “Traveling tournament scheduling: a systematic evaluation of simulated annealing,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Integration of AI and OR Techniques in Constraint Programming for Combinatorial Optimization Problems, 2006, vol. 3990, pp. 228–243.
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B. Wu, K. L. Yeung, M. Hamdi, X. Li, “Minimizing internal speedup for performance guaranteed switches with optical fabrics,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 632–645, Apr. 2009.
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L. Guo, X. Wang, J. Cao, L. Li, “Traffic recovery time constrained shared sub-path protection algorithm in survivable WDM networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1492–1505, May 2008.
[CrossRef]

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A. S. Arora, S. Subramaniam, H.-A. Choi, “Logical topology design for linear and ring optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, pp. 62–74, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

N. Wauters, P. Demeester, “Design of the optical path layer in multi-wavelength cross-connected networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 881–892, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 840–851, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

X. Huang, Q. She, T. Zhang, K. Lu, J. P. Jue, “Modeling and performance analysis of small group multicast with deflection routing in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 74–86, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, J. P. Wang, “Hybrid switching and p-routing for optical burst switching networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1071–1080, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Ross, N. Bambos, K. Kumaran, I. Saniee, I. Widjaja, “Scheduling bursts in time-domain wavelength interleaved networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1441–1451, Nov. 2003.
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IEEE Network (1)

Y. Chen, X. Yu, C. Qiao, “Optical burst switching (OBS): a new area of research in optical networking,” IEEE Network, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, Jan. 2004.
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Z. Zhang, A. S. Acampora, “A heuristic wavelength assignment algorithm for multihop WDM networks with wavelength routing and wavelength re-use,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 3, pp. 281–288, June 1995.
[CrossRef]

B. Wu, K. L. Yeung, M. Hamdi, X. Li, “Minimizing internal speedup for performance guaranteed switches with optical fabrics,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 632–645, Apr. 2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Li, C. Qiao, J. Xu, D. Xu, “Maximizing throughput for optical burst switching networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1163–1176, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

IET Commun. (1)

J. P. Jue, W.-H. Yang, Y.-C. Kim, Q. Zhang, “Optical packet and burst switched networks: a review,” IET Commun., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 334–352, Mar. 2009.
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J. High Speed Networks (1)

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical internet,” J. High Speed Networks, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 69–84, Jan. 1999.

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Photonic Network Commun. (1)

P. Pavon-Marino, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, N. Skorin-Kapov, “Virtual topology design and flow routing in optical networks under multihour traffic demand,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 42–54, Aug. 2009.
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P. Van Hentenryck, Y. Vergados, “Traveling tournament scheduling: a systematic evaluation of simulated annealing,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Integration of AI and OR Techniques in Constraint Programming for Combinatorial Optimization Problems, 2006, vol. 3990, pp. 228–243.
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www.eee.hku.hk/~kyeung/vtd.c.

J. P. Jue, V. M. Vokkarane, Optical Burst Switched Networks. Springer, 2005.

D. Z. Chen, G. Wellbrock, S. J. Penticost, D. Patel, C. Rasmussen, M. C. Childers, X. Yang, M. Y. Frankel, “World’s first 40 Gbps overlay on a field-deployed, 10 Gbps, mixed-fiber, 1200 km, ultra long-haul system,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, vol. 2, paper OTuH4.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pseudocode of Floyd–Warshall algorithm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optimal ILP solution for a ring topology with N = 4 , W = 3 , and β = 0 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LWMD design for a ring topology with N = 4 and W = 3 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LWMD flow chart.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

N = 50 , W = 10 , and trying 100 topologies for each D.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

D = 4 , W = 10 , and trying 100 topologies for each N.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

LWMD design for the NSF network with W = 3 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Shortest-path-based scheme.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Diameter-confined scheme.

Equations (22)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

minimize { D + β x N y N : y x d x y N }
( x , j ) E p x y x j = v x y , x , y N : x y ;
( i , y ) E p x y i y = v x y , x , y N : x y ;
( i , j ) E p x y i j = ( j , i ) E p x y j i , x , y N : x y ,
j N : j x , y ;
x N y N : y x p x y i j = W , ( i , j ) E ;
d x y 0 = I ( 1 v x y ) + v x y , x , y N : x y ;
d x x 0 = 0 , x N ;
d x y k + 1 d x y k , x , y , k N ;
d x y k + 1 d x k k + d k y k , x , y , k N ;
g x y k 1 C ( d x y k d x k k d k y k ) , x , y , k N ;
g x y k 1 1 C ( d x k k + d k y k d x y k ) , x , y , k N ;
d x y k + 1 d x k k + d k y k C ( 1 g x y k ) , x , y , k N ;
d x y k + 1 d x y k C g x y k , x , y , k N ;
D d x y N , x , y N .
W ( V ) = i , j V h i j ,
l i j = { 1 if p i j = 1 0 otherwise } .
{ l i j = m 1 : i j is a virtual link over λ s with m hops in physical links l i j = 0 : i j is not a virtual link over λ s } .
{ l a c = l a b + l b c 0 l a b 0 l b c } .
{ l a b = ( i j ) P a b l i j l a c = l a b + l b c 0 | l i j | ( i j ) P a b 0 l a b 0 l b c } .
{ l a b = ( i j ) P a b l i j , l b c = ( i j ) P b c l i j l a c = l a b + l b c 0 | l i j | ( i j ) P a b , 0 | l i j | ( i j ) P b c 0 l a b 0 l b c } .
T = { t i j } = [ 0 1 1 6 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 ] .