Abstract

Maximizing the delivered capacity of optical transponders by mining the SNR margin to a near-zero level is of critical importance for the economic viability of future optical networks. We examine this trend from the equipment design point of view and apply artificial intelligence to the problem of capacity maximization. The bottom-up approach is focused on providing the key metrics that are built on the fundamentals of network performance, whereas the top-down approach uses machine learning and policy-driven actions that have the promise to achieve an unprecedented level of control. These methods show promise in delivering a practical near-zero margin network deployment.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Design of Low-Margin Optical Networks

Yvan Pointurier
J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(1) A9-A17 (2017)

Low-margin optical networking at cloud scale [Invited]

Mark Filer, Jamie Gaudette, Yawei Yin, Denizcan Billor, Zahra Bakhtiari, and Jeffrey L. Cox
J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 11(10) C94-C108 (2019)

Design considerations for low-margin elastic optical networks in the nonlinear regime [Invited]

Seb J. Savory, Robert J. Vincent, and David J. Ives
J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 11(10) C76-C85 (2019)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. “Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Trends, 2017–2022,” White Paper, 2018, http://www.cisco.com .
  2. M. O’sullivan, “Progress of digital coherent optical communication systems,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2017), paper STu3M.5.
  3. K. Roberts, M. O’Sullivan, M. Reimer, and M. Hubbard, “Nonlinear mitigation enabling next generation high speed optical transport beyond 100G,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M3J.1.
  4. D. Pilori, A. Nespola, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, and G. Bosco, “Low-complexity non-linear phase noise mitigation using a modified soft-decoding strategy,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M1I.2.
  5. D. Krause, A. Awadalla, A. S. Karar, H. Sun, and K. Wu, “Design considerations for a digital subcarrier coherent optical modem,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2017), paper Th1D.1.
  6. O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s12–s20 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. A. Díaz-Montiel, J. Yu, W. Mo, Y. Li, D. C. Kilper, and M. Ruffini, “Performance analysis of QoT estimator in SDN-controlled ROADM networks,” in International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Dublin, Ireland, 2018, pp. 142–147.
  8. J. Pedro and N. Costa, “Optimized hybrid Raman/EDFA amplifier placement for DWDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1552–1561 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  9. “Spectral grids for WDM applications: DWDM frequency grid,” , https://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.694.1 .
  10. A. Pilipetskii, O. Sinkin, A. Turukhin, M. Bolshtyansky, and D. Foursa, “The role of SDM in future transoceanic transmission systems (Invited),” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017.
  11. H. Fevrier, S. Grubb, N. Harrington, A. Palmer-Felgate, E. Rivera-Hartling, and T. Stuch, “Facebook perspective on submarine wet plant evolution,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M2E.4.
  12. S. Grubb, P. Mertz, A. Kumpera, L. Dardis, J. Rahn, J. O’Connor, and M. Mitchell, “Real-time 16QAM transatlantic record spectral efficiency of 6.21 b/s/Hz enabling 26.2 Tbps capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M2E.6.
  13. P. Poggiolini, “The GN model of non-linear propagation in uncompensated coherent optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3857–3879 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, R. Cigliutti, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, R. Pastorelli, and S. Piciaccia, “The LOGON strategy for low-complexity control plane implementation in new-generation flexible networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, California, 2013, paper OW1H.3.
  15. M. Cantono, D. Pilori, A. Ferrari, C. Catanese, J. Thouras, J.-L. Augé, and V. Curri, “On the interplay of nonlinear interference generation with stimulated Raman scattering for QoT estimation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 3131–3141 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. Semrau, R. I. Killey, and P. Bayvel, “A closed-form approximation of the Gaussian noise model in the presence of inter-channel stimulated Raman scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 1924–1936 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  17. P. Poggiolini, M. R. Zefreh, G. Bosco, F. Forghieri, and S. Piciaccia, “Accurate non-linearity fully-closed-form formula based on the GN/EGN model and large-data-set fitting,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M1I.4.
  18. I. Roberts, J. M. Kahn, and D. Boertjes, “Convex channel power optimization in nonlinear WDM systems using Gaussian noise model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 3212–3222 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. I. Roberts and J. M. Kahn, “Efficient discrete rate assignment and power optimization in optical communication systems following the Gaussian noise model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 4425–4437 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  20. I. Roberts, J. M. Kahn, J. Harley, and D. W. Boertjes, “Channel power optimization of WDM systems following Gaussian noise nonlinearity model in presence of stimulated Raman scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 5237–5249 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. N. Pilipetskii and E. A. Golovchenko, “Performance fluctuations in submarine WDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4208–4214 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Bolshtyansky and G. Cowle, “Polarization hole burning in EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2012), paper OW4D.2.
  23. K. Roberts, Q. Zhuge, I. Monga, S. Gareau, and C. Laperle, “Beyond 100 Gb/s: capacity, flexibility, and network optimization [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9, C12–C24 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  24. K. Roberts, S. H. Foo, M. Moyer, M. Hubbard, A. Sinclair, J. Gaudette, and C. Laperle, “High capacity transport—100G and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 563–578 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. Q. Zhuge, M. Morsy-Osman, X. Xu, M. Chagnon, M. Qiu, and D. Plant, “Spectral efficiency-adaptive optical transmission using time domain hybrid QAM for agile optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2621–2628 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. X. Zhou and L. Nelson, “Advanced DSP for 400 Gb/s and beyond optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 2716–2725 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. Yankov, D. Zibar, K. Larsen, L. Christensen, and S. Forchhammer, “Constellation shaping for fiber-optic channels with QAM and high spectral efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2407–2410 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  28. A. L. N. Souza, E. J. Mayoral Ruiz, J. D. Reis, L. H. H. Carvalho, J. R. F. Oliveira, D. S. Arantes, M. H. M. Costa, and D. A. A. Mello, “Parameter selection in optical networks with variable-code-rate superchannels,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8, A152–A161 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  29. T. Koike-Akino, K. Kojima, D. S. Millar, K. Parsons, T. Yoshida, and T. Sugihara, “Pareto optimization of adaptive modulation and coding set in nonlinear fiber-optic systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 1041–1049 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. O’Sullivan, M. Reimer, and M. Bélanger, “Nascent line-side modem solutions for high capacity optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2016), paper M2J.1.
  31. P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, Y. Jiang, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “On the ultimate potential of symbol-rate optimization for increasing system maximum reach,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015.
  32. L. Berg, “Demystifying transceiver and line characterization metrics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper W4H.3.
  33. J. Lai, R. Tang, B. Wu, S. Li, X. Zhao, X. Tang, W. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Research on optical performance monitoring (OPM) in coherent transmission system,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2016), paper AS2B.2.
  34. A. Sadasivarao, S. Jain, S. Syed, K. Pithewan, P. Kantak, B. Lu, and L. Paraschis, “High performance streaming telemetry in optical transport networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2018), paper Tu3D.3.
  35. Q. Zhuge, X. Xu, Z. A. El-Sahn, M. E. Mousa-Pasandi, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, M. Qiu, and D. V. Plant, “Experimental investigation of the equalization-enhanced phase noise in long haul 56 Gbaud DP-QPSK systems,” Opt. Express 20, 13841–13846 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  36. F. J. V. Caballero, D. Ives, Q. Zhuge, M. O’Sullivan, and S. J. Savory, “Joint estimation of linear and non-linear signal-to-noise ratio based on neural networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC) (2018), paper M2F.4.
  37. P. Castoldi, A. Giorgetti, A. Sgambelluri, G. Cecchetti, A. L. Ruscelli, N. Sambo, F. Paolucci, A. Morea, I. Cerutti, and F. Cugini, “Optical white box: modeling and implementation,” in 20th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Bucharest, Romania, 2018, pp. 1–4.
  38. D. Côté, “Using machine learning in communication networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10, D100–D109 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  39. “Liquid spectrum: transforming static optical networks into dynamic, responsive assets,” Application Note, Ciena Corporation, https://www.ciena.com/insights/app-notes/Liquid-Spectrum-Transforming-Optical-Networks.html .
  40. D. W. Boertjes, A. Leong, and D. Attard, “Field trial of short term capacity optimization on a live system,” in Photonics and Fiber Technology (ACOFT, BGPP, NP) (2016), paper AW5C.3.
  41. Z. Wang, M. Zhang, D. Wang, C. Song, M. Liu, J. Li, L. Lou, and Z. Liu, “Failure prediction using machine learning and time series in optical network,” Opt. Express 25, 18553–18565 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  42. S. J. Savory, “Congestion aware routing in nonlinear elastic optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1057–1060 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  43. F. J. V. Caballero, D. J. Ives, C. Laperle, D. Charlton, Q. Zhuge, M. O’Sullivan, and S. J. Savory, “Machine learning based linear and nonlinear noise estimation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10, D42–D51 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  44. D. Cote, “Using machine learning in communication networks,” in IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topicals Meeting Series, Waikoloa, Hawaii, 9–11 July2018, paper TuB2.1.
  45. F. Musumeci, C. Rottondi, A. Nag, I. Macaluso, D. Zibar, M. Ruffini, and M. Tornatore, “An overview on application of machine learning techniques in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 21, 1383–1408 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  46. D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  47. G. A. Rummery and M. Niranjan, “On-line Q-learning using connectionist systems,” (1994).

2019 (2)

F. Musumeci, C. Rottondi, A. Nag, I. Macaluso, D. Zibar, M. Ruffini, and M. Tornatore, “An overview on application of machine learning techniques in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 21, 1383–1408 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Semrau, R. I. Killey, and P. Bayvel, “A closed-form approximation of the Gaussian noise model in the presence of inter-channel stimulated Raman scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 1924–1936 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

2017 (5)

2016 (3)

A. L. N. Souza, E. J. Mayoral Ruiz, J. D. Reis, L. H. H. Carvalho, J. R. F. Oliveira, D. S. Arantes, M. H. M. Costa, and D. A. A. Mello, “Parameter selection in optical networks with variable-code-rate superchannels,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8, A152–A161 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Roberts, J. M. Kahn, and D. Boertjes, “Convex channel power optimization in nonlinear WDM systems using Gaussian noise model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 3212–3222 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

X. Zhou and L. Nelson, “Advanced DSP for 400 Gb/s and beyond optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 2716–2725 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Yankov, D. Zibar, K. Larsen, L. Christensen, and S. Forchhammer, “Constellation shaping for fiber-optic channels with QAM and high spectral efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2407–2410 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. J. Savory, “Congestion aware routing in nonlinear elastic optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1057–1060 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

2006 (1)

Antonoglou, I.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arantes, D. S.

Attard, D.

D. W. Boertjes, A. Leong, and D. Attard, “Field trial of short term capacity optimization on a live system,” in Photonics and Fiber Technology (ACOFT, BGPP, NP) (2016), paper AW5C.3.

Augé, J.-L.

Awadalla, A.

D. Krause, A. Awadalla, A. S. Karar, H. Sun, and K. Wu, “Design considerations for a digital subcarrier coherent optical modem,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2017), paper Th1D.1.

Bayvel, P.

Bélanger, M.

M. O’Sullivan, M. Reimer, and M. Bélanger, “Nascent line-side modem solutions for high capacity optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2016), paper M2J.1.

Berg, L.

L. Berg, “Demystifying transceiver and line characterization metrics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper W4H.3.

Boertjes, D.

Boertjes, D. W.

I. Roberts, J. M. Kahn, J. Harley, and D. W. Boertjes, “Channel power optimization of WDM systems following Gaussian noise nonlinearity model in presence of stimulated Raman scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 5237–5249 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. W. Boertjes, A. Leong, and D. Attard, “Field trial of short term capacity optimization on a live system,” in Photonics and Fiber Technology (ACOFT, BGPP, NP) (2016), paper AW5C.3.

Bolshtyansky, M.

A. Pilipetskii, O. Sinkin, A. Turukhin, M. Bolshtyansky, and D. Foursa, “The role of SDM in future transoceanic transmission systems (Invited),” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017.

M. Bolshtyansky and G. Cowle, “Polarization hole burning in EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2012), paper OW4D.2.

Bosco, G.

P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, Y. Jiang, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “On the ultimate potential of symbol-rate optimization for increasing system maximum reach,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015.

P. Poggiolini, M. R. Zefreh, G. Bosco, F. Forghieri, and S. Piciaccia, “Accurate non-linearity fully-closed-form formula based on the GN/EGN model and large-data-set fitting,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M1I.4.

D. Pilori, A. Nespola, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, and G. Bosco, “Low-complexity non-linear phase noise mitigation using a modified soft-decoding strategy,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M1I.2.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, R. Cigliutti, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, R. Pastorelli, and S. Piciaccia, “The LOGON strategy for low-complexity control plane implementation in new-generation flexible networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, California, 2013, paper OW1H.3.

Caballero, F. J. V.

F. J. V. Caballero, D. J. Ives, C. Laperle, D. Charlton, Q. Zhuge, M. O’Sullivan, and S. J. Savory, “Machine learning based linear and nonlinear noise estimation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10, D42–D51 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. J. V. Caballero, D. Ives, Q. Zhuge, M. O’Sullivan, and S. J. Savory, “Joint estimation of linear and non-linear signal-to-noise ratio based on neural networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC) (2018), paper M2F.4.

Cantono, M.

Carena, A.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, R. Cigliutti, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, R. Pastorelli, and S. Piciaccia, “The LOGON strategy for low-complexity control plane implementation in new-generation flexible networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, California, 2013, paper OW1H.3.

P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, Y. Jiang, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “On the ultimate potential of symbol-rate optimization for increasing system maximum reach,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015.

Carvalho, L. H. H.

Castoldi, P.

P. Castoldi, A. Giorgetti, A. Sgambelluri, G. Cecchetti, A. L. Ruscelli, N. Sambo, F. Paolucci, A. Morea, I. Cerutti, and F. Cugini, “Optical white box: modeling and implementation,” in 20th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Bucharest, Romania, 2018, pp. 1–4.

Catanese, C.

Cecchetti, G.

P. Castoldi, A. Giorgetti, A. Sgambelluri, G. Cecchetti, A. L. Ruscelli, N. Sambo, F. Paolucci, A. Morea, I. Cerutti, and F. Cugini, “Optical white box: modeling and implementation,” in 20th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Bucharest, Romania, 2018, pp. 1–4.

Cerutti, I.

P. Castoldi, A. Giorgetti, A. Sgambelluri, G. Cecchetti, A. L. Ruscelli, N. Sambo, F. Paolucci, A. Morea, I. Cerutti, and F. Cugini, “Optical white box: modeling and implementation,” in 20th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Bucharest, Romania, 2018, pp. 1–4.

Chagnon, M.

Charlton, D.

Christensen, L.

M. Yankov, D. Zibar, K. Larsen, L. Christensen, and S. Forchhammer, “Constellation shaping for fiber-optic channels with QAM and high spectral efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2407–2410 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cigliutti, R.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, R. Cigliutti, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, R. Pastorelli, and S. Piciaccia, “The LOGON strategy for low-complexity control plane implementation in new-generation flexible networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, California, 2013, paper OW1H.3.

Costa, M. H. M.

Costa, N.

Cote, D.

D. Cote, “Using machine learning in communication networks,” in IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topicals Meeting Series, Waikoloa, Hawaii, 9–11 July2018, paper TuB2.1.

Côté, D.

Cowle, G.

M. Bolshtyansky and G. Cowle, “Polarization hole burning in EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2012), paper OW4D.2.

Cugini, F.

P. Castoldi, A. Giorgetti, A. Sgambelluri, G. Cecchetti, A. L. Ruscelli, N. Sambo, F. Paolucci, A. Morea, I. Cerutti, and F. Cugini, “Optical white box: modeling and implementation,” in 20th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Bucharest, Romania, 2018, pp. 1–4.

Curri, V.

M. Cantono, D. Pilori, A. Ferrari, C. Catanese, J. Thouras, J.-L. Augé, and V. Curri, “On the interplay of nonlinear interference generation with stimulated Raman scattering for QoT estimation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 3131–3141 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, R. Cigliutti, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, R. Pastorelli, and S. Piciaccia, “The LOGON strategy for low-complexity control plane implementation in new-generation flexible networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, California, 2013, paper OW1H.3.

Dardis, L.

S. Grubb, P. Mertz, A. Kumpera, L. Dardis, J. Rahn, J. O’Connor, and M. Mitchell, “Real-time 16QAM transatlantic record spectral efficiency of 6.21 b/s/Hz enabling 26.2 Tbps capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M2E.6.

Díaz-Montiel, A. A.

A. A. Díaz-Montiel, J. Yu, W. Mo, Y. Li, D. C. Kilper, and M. Ruffini, “Performance analysis of QoT estimator in SDN-controlled ROADM networks,” in International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Dublin, Ireland, 2018, pp. 142–147.

Dieleman, S.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

El-Sahn, Z. A.

Ferrari, A.

Fevrier, H.

H. Fevrier, S. Grubb, N. Harrington, A. Palmer-Felgate, E. Rivera-Hartling, and T. Stuch, “Facebook perspective on submarine wet plant evolution,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M2E.4.

Foo, S. H.

Forchhammer, S.

M. Yankov, D. Zibar, K. Larsen, L. Christensen, and S. Forchhammer, “Constellation shaping for fiber-optic channels with QAM and high spectral efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2407–2410 (2014).
[Crossref]

Forghieri, F.

P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, Y. Jiang, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “On the ultimate potential of symbol-rate optimization for increasing system maximum reach,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, R. Cigliutti, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, R. Pastorelli, and S. Piciaccia, “The LOGON strategy for low-complexity control plane implementation in new-generation flexible networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, California, 2013, paper OW1H.3.

P. Poggiolini, M. R. Zefreh, G. Bosco, F. Forghieri, and S. Piciaccia, “Accurate non-linearity fully-closed-form formula based on the GN/EGN model and large-data-set fitting,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M1I.4.

D. Pilori, A. Nespola, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, and G. Bosco, “Low-complexity non-linear phase noise mitigation using a modified soft-decoding strategy,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M1I.2.

Foursa, D.

A. Pilipetskii, O. Sinkin, A. Turukhin, M. Bolshtyansky, and D. Foursa, “The role of SDM in future transoceanic transmission systems (Invited),” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017.

Gareau, S.

Gaudette, J.

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s12–s20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Giorgetti, A.

P. Castoldi, A. Giorgetti, A. Sgambelluri, G. Cecchetti, A. L. Ruscelli, N. Sambo, F. Paolucci, A. Morea, I. Cerutti, and F. Cugini, “Optical white box: modeling and implementation,” in 20th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Bucharest, Romania, 2018, pp. 1–4.

Golovchenko, E. A.

Graepel, T.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grewe, D.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grubb, S.

H. Fevrier, S. Grubb, N. Harrington, A. Palmer-Felgate, E. Rivera-Hartling, and T. Stuch, “Facebook perspective on submarine wet plant evolution,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M2E.4.

S. Grubb, P. Mertz, A. Kumpera, L. Dardis, J. Rahn, J. O’Connor, and M. Mitchell, “Real-time 16QAM transatlantic record spectral efficiency of 6.21 b/s/Hz enabling 26.2 Tbps capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M2E.6.

Guez, A.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Harley, J.

Harrington, N.

H. Fevrier, S. Grubb, N. Harrington, A. Palmer-Felgate, E. Rivera-Hartling, and T. Stuch, “Facebook perspective on submarine wet plant evolution,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M2E.4.

Hassabis, D.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, A.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hubbard, M.

K. Roberts, S. H. Foo, M. Moyer, M. Hubbard, A. Sinclair, J. Gaudette, and C. Laperle, “High capacity transport—100G and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 563–578 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Roberts, M. O’Sullivan, M. Reimer, and M. Hubbard, “Nonlinear mitigation enabling next generation high speed optical transport beyond 100G,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M3J.1.

Ives, D.

F. J. V. Caballero, D. Ives, Q. Zhuge, M. O’Sullivan, and S. J. Savory, “Joint estimation of linear and non-linear signal-to-noise ratio based on neural networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC) (2018), paper M2F.4.

Ives, D. J.

Jain, S.

A. Sadasivarao, S. Jain, S. Syed, K. Pithewan, P. Kantak, B. Lu, and L. Paraschis, “High performance streaming telemetry in optical transport networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2018), paper Tu3D.3.

Jiang, Y.

P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, Y. Jiang, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “On the ultimate potential of symbol-rate optimization for increasing system maximum reach,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015.

Jinno, M.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s12–s20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kahn, J. M.

Kalchbrenner, N.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kantak, P.

A. Sadasivarao, S. Jain, S. Syed, K. Pithewan, P. Kantak, B. Lu, and L. Paraschis, “High performance streaming telemetry in optical transport networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2018), paper Tu3D.3.

Karar, A. S.

D. Krause, A. Awadalla, A. S. Karar, H. Sun, and K. Wu, “Design considerations for a digital subcarrier coherent optical modem,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2017), paper Th1D.1.

Kavukcuoglu, K.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Killey, R. I.

Kilper, D. C.

A. A. Díaz-Montiel, J. Yu, W. Mo, Y. Li, D. C. Kilper, and M. Ruffini, “Performance analysis of QoT estimator in SDN-controlled ROADM networks,” in International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Dublin, Ireland, 2018, pp. 142–147.

Koike-Akino, T.

Kojima, K.

Krause, D.

D. Krause, A. Awadalla, A. S. Karar, H. Sun, and K. Wu, “Design considerations for a digital subcarrier coherent optical modem,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2017), paper Th1D.1.

Kumpera, A.

S. Grubb, P. Mertz, A. Kumpera, L. Dardis, J. Rahn, J. O’Connor, and M. Mitchell, “Real-time 16QAM transatlantic record spectral efficiency of 6.21 b/s/Hz enabling 26.2 Tbps capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M2E.6.

Lai, J.

J. Lai, R. Tang, B. Wu, S. Li, X. Zhao, X. Tang, W. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Research on optical performance monitoring (OPM) in coherent transmission system,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2016), paper AS2B.2.

Lanctot, M.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Laperle, C.

Larsen, K.

M. Yankov, D. Zibar, K. Larsen, L. Christensen, and S. Forchhammer, “Constellation shaping for fiber-optic channels with QAM and high spectral efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2407–2410 (2014).
[Crossref]

Leach, M.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Leong, A.

D. W. Boertjes, A. Leong, and D. Attard, “Field trial of short term capacity optimization on a live system,” in Photonics and Fiber Technology (ACOFT, BGPP, NP) (2016), paper AW5C.3.

Li, J.

Li, S.

J. Lai, R. Tang, B. Wu, S. Li, X. Zhao, X. Tang, W. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Research on optical performance monitoring (OPM) in coherent transmission system,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2016), paper AS2B.2.

Li, Y.

A. A. Díaz-Montiel, J. Yu, W. Mo, Y. Li, D. C. Kilper, and M. Ruffini, “Performance analysis of QoT estimator in SDN-controlled ROADM networks,” in International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Dublin, Ireland, 2018, pp. 142–147.

Lillicrap, T.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

Liu, Z.

Lord, A.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s12–s20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lou, L.

Lu, B.

A. Sadasivarao, S. Jain, S. Syed, K. Pithewan, P. Kantak, B. Lu, and L. Paraschis, “High performance streaming telemetry in optical transport networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2018), paper Tu3D.3.

Macaluso, I.

F. Musumeci, C. Rottondi, A. Nag, I. Macaluso, D. Zibar, M. Ruffini, and M. Tornatore, “An overview on application of machine learning techniques in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 21, 1383–1408 (2019).
[Crossref]

Maddison, C. J.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mayoral Ruiz, E. J.

Mello, D. A. A.

Mertz, P.

S. Grubb, P. Mertz, A. Kumpera, L. Dardis, J. Rahn, J. O’Connor, and M. Mitchell, “Real-time 16QAM transatlantic record spectral efficiency of 6.21 b/s/Hz enabling 26.2 Tbps capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M2E.6.

Millar, D. S.

Mitchell, M.

S. Grubb, P. Mertz, A. Kumpera, L. Dardis, J. Rahn, J. O’Connor, and M. Mitchell, “Real-time 16QAM transatlantic record spectral efficiency of 6.21 b/s/Hz enabling 26.2 Tbps capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M2E.6.

Mo, W.

A. A. Díaz-Montiel, J. Yu, W. Mo, Y. Li, D. C. Kilper, and M. Ruffini, “Performance analysis of QoT estimator in SDN-controlled ROADM networks,” in International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Dublin, Ireland, 2018, pp. 142–147.

Monga, I.

Morea, A.

P. Castoldi, A. Giorgetti, A. Sgambelluri, G. Cecchetti, A. L. Ruscelli, N. Sambo, F. Paolucci, A. Morea, I. Cerutti, and F. Cugini, “Optical white box: modeling and implementation,” in 20th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Bucharest, Romania, 2018, pp. 1–4.

Morsy-Osman, M.

Mousa-Pasandi, M. E.

Moyer, M.

Musumeci, F.

F. Musumeci, C. Rottondi, A. Nag, I. Macaluso, D. Zibar, M. Ruffini, and M. Tornatore, “An overview on application of machine learning techniques in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 21, 1383–1408 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nag, A.

F. Musumeci, C. Rottondi, A. Nag, I. Macaluso, D. Zibar, M. Ruffini, and M. Tornatore, “An overview on application of machine learning techniques in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 21, 1383–1408 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nelson, L.

Nespola, A.

D. Pilori, A. Nespola, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, and G. Bosco, “Low-complexity non-linear phase noise mitigation using a modified soft-decoding strategy,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M1I.2.

Nham, J.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Niranjan, M.

G. A. Rummery and M. Niranjan, “On-line Q-learning using connectionist systems,” (1994).

O’Connor, J.

S. Grubb, P. Mertz, A. Kumpera, L. Dardis, J. Rahn, J. O’Connor, and M. Mitchell, “Real-time 16QAM transatlantic record spectral efficiency of 6.21 b/s/Hz enabling 26.2 Tbps capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M2E.6.

O’Sullivan, M.

F. J. V. Caballero, D. J. Ives, C. Laperle, D. Charlton, Q. Zhuge, M. O’Sullivan, and S. J. Savory, “Machine learning based linear and nonlinear noise estimation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10, D42–D51 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. J. V. Caballero, D. Ives, Q. Zhuge, M. O’Sullivan, and S. J. Savory, “Joint estimation of linear and non-linear signal-to-noise ratio based on neural networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC) (2018), paper M2F.4.

M. O’Sullivan, M. Reimer, and M. Bélanger, “Nascent line-side modem solutions for high capacity optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2016), paper M2J.1.

M. O’sullivan, “Progress of digital coherent optical communication systems,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2017), paper STu3M.5.

K. Roberts, M. O’Sullivan, M. Reimer, and M. Hubbard, “Nonlinear mitigation enabling next generation high speed optical transport beyond 100G,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M3J.1.

Oliveira, J. R. F.

Palmer-Felgate, A.

H. Fevrier, S. Grubb, N. Harrington, A. Palmer-Felgate, E. Rivera-Hartling, and T. Stuch, “Facebook perspective on submarine wet plant evolution,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M2E.4.

Panneershelvam, V.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Paolucci, F.

P. Castoldi, A. Giorgetti, A. Sgambelluri, G. Cecchetti, A. L. Ruscelli, N. Sambo, F. Paolucci, A. Morea, I. Cerutti, and F. Cugini, “Optical white box: modeling and implementation,” in 20th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Bucharest, Romania, 2018, pp. 1–4.

Paraschis, L.

A. Sadasivarao, S. Jain, S. Syed, K. Pithewan, P. Kantak, B. Lu, and L. Paraschis, “High performance streaming telemetry in optical transport networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2018), paper Tu3D.3.

Parsons, K.

Pastorelli, R.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, R. Cigliutti, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, R. Pastorelli, and S. Piciaccia, “The LOGON strategy for low-complexity control plane implementation in new-generation flexible networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, California, 2013, paper OW1H.3.

Pedro, J.

Piciaccia, S.

P. Poggiolini, M. R. Zefreh, G. Bosco, F. Forghieri, and S. Piciaccia, “Accurate non-linearity fully-closed-form formula based on the GN/EGN model and large-data-set fitting,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M1I.4.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, R. Cigliutti, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, R. Pastorelli, and S. Piciaccia, “The LOGON strategy for low-complexity control plane implementation in new-generation flexible networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, California, 2013, paper OW1H.3.

Pilipetskii, A.

A. Pilipetskii, O. Sinkin, A. Turukhin, M. Bolshtyansky, and D. Foursa, “The role of SDM in future transoceanic transmission systems (Invited),” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017.

Pilipetskii, A. N.

Pilori, D.

M. Cantono, D. Pilori, A. Ferrari, C. Catanese, J. Thouras, J.-L. Augé, and V. Curri, “On the interplay of nonlinear interference generation with stimulated Raman scattering for QoT estimation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 3131–3141 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Pilori, A. Nespola, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, and G. Bosco, “Low-complexity non-linear phase noise mitigation using a modified soft-decoding strategy,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M1I.2.

Pithewan, K.

A. Sadasivarao, S. Jain, S. Syed, K. Pithewan, P. Kantak, B. Lu, and L. Paraschis, “High performance streaming telemetry in optical transport networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2018), paper Tu3D.3.

Plant, D.

Plant, D. V.

Poggiolini, P.

P. Poggiolini, “The GN model of non-linear propagation in uncompensated coherent optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3857–3879 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, Y. Jiang, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “On the ultimate potential of symbol-rate optimization for increasing system maximum reach,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, R. Cigliutti, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, R. Pastorelli, and S. Piciaccia, “The LOGON strategy for low-complexity control plane implementation in new-generation flexible networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, California, 2013, paper OW1H.3.

D. Pilori, A. Nespola, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, and G. Bosco, “Low-complexity non-linear phase noise mitigation using a modified soft-decoding strategy,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M1I.2.

P. Poggiolini, M. R. Zefreh, G. Bosco, F. Forghieri, and S. Piciaccia, “Accurate non-linearity fully-closed-form formula based on the GN/EGN model and large-data-set fitting,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M1I.4.

Qiu, M.

Rahn, J.

S. Grubb, P. Mertz, A. Kumpera, L. Dardis, J. Rahn, J. O’Connor, and M. Mitchell, “Real-time 16QAM transatlantic record spectral efficiency of 6.21 b/s/Hz enabling 26.2 Tbps capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M2E.6.

Reimer, M.

M. O’Sullivan, M. Reimer, and M. Bélanger, “Nascent line-side modem solutions for high capacity optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2016), paper M2J.1.

K. Roberts, M. O’Sullivan, M. Reimer, and M. Hubbard, “Nonlinear mitigation enabling next generation high speed optical transport beyond 100G,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M3J.1.

Reis, J. D.

Rivera-Hartling, E.

H. Fevrier, S. Grubb, N. Harrington, A. Palmer-Felgate, E. Rivera-Hartling, and T. Stuch, “Facebook perspective on submarine wet plant evolution,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M2E.4.

Roberts, I.

Roberts, K.

Rottondi, C.

F. Musumeci, C. Rottondi, A. Nag, I. Macaluso, D. Zibar, M. Ruffini, and M. Tornatore, “An overview on application of machine learning techniques in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 21, 1383–1408 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ruffini, M.

F. Musumeci, C. Rottondi, A. Nag, I. Macaluso, D. Zibar, M. Ruffini, and M. Tornatore, “An overview on application of machine learning techniques in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 21, 1383–1408 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. A. Díaz-Montiel, J. Yu, W. Mo, Y. Li, D. C. Kilper, and M. Ruffini, “Performance analysis of QoT estimator in SDN-controlled ROADM networks,” in International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Dublin, Ireland, 2018, pp. 142–147.

Rummery, G. A.

G. A. Rummery and M. Niranjan, “On-line Q-learning using connectionist systems,” (1994).

Ruscelli, A. L.

P. Castoldi, A. Giorgetti, A. Sgambelluri, G. Cecchetti, A. L. Ruscelli, N. Sambo, F. Paolucci, A. Morea, I. Cerutti, and F. Cugini, “Optical white box: modeling and implementation,” in 20th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Bucharest, Romania, 2018, pp. 1–4.

Sadasivarao, A.

A. Sadasivarao, S. Jain, S. Syed, K. Pithewan, P. Kantak, B. Lu, and L. Paraschis, “High performance streaming telemetry in optical transport networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2018), paper Tu3D.3.

Sambo, N.

P. Castoldi, A. Giorgetti, A. Sgambelluri, G. Cecchetti, A. L. Ruscelli, N. Sambo, F. Paolucci, A. Morea, I. Cerutti, and F. Cugini, “Optical white box: modeling and implementation,” in 20th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Bucharest, Romania, 2018, pp. 1–4.

Savory, S. J.

F. J. V. Caballero, D. J. Ives, C. Laperle, D. Charlton, Q. Zhuge, M. O’Sullivan, and S. J. Savory, “Machine learning based linear and nonlinear noise estimation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10, D42–D51 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. J. Savory, “Congestion aware routing in nonlinear elastic optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1057–1060 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. J. V. Caballero, D. Ives, Q. Zhuge, M. O’Sullivan, and S. J. Savory, “Joint estimation of linear and non-linear signal-to-noise ratio based on neural networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC) (2018), paper M2F.4.

Schrittwieser, J.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Semrau, D.

Sgambelluri, A.

P. Castoldi, A. Giorgetti, A. Sgambelluri, G. Cecchetti, A. L. Ruscelli, N. Sambo, F. Paolucci, A. Morea, I. Cerutti, and F. Cugini, “Optical white box: modeling and implementation,” in 20th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Bucharest, Romania, 2018, pp. 1–4.

Sifre, L.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Silver, D.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sinclair, A.

Sinkin, O.

A. Pilipetskii, O. Sinkin, A. Turukhin, M. Bolshtyansky, and D. Foursa, “The role of SDM in future transoceanic transmission systems (Invited),” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017.

Song, C.

Souza, A. L. N.

Stuch, T.

H. Fevrier, S. Grubb, N. Harrington, A. Palmer-Felgate, E. Rivera-Hartling, and T. Stuch, “Facebook perspective on submarine wet plant evolution,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M2E.4.

Sugihara, T.

Sun, H.

D. Krause, A. Awadalla, A. S. Karar, H. Sun, and K. Wu, “Design considerations for a digital subcarrier coherent optical modem,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2017), paper Th1D.1.

Sutskever, I.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Syed, S.

A. Sadasivarao, S. Jain, S. Syed, K. Pithewan, P. Kantak, B. Lu, and L. Paraschis, “High performance streaming telemetry in optical transport networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2018), paper Tu3D.3.

Tang, R.

J. Lai, R. Tang, B. Wu, S. Li, X. Zhao, X. Tang, W. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Research on optical performance monitoring (OPM) in coherent transmission system,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2016), paper AS2B.2.

Tang, X.

J. Lai, R. Tang, B. Wu, S. Li, X. Zhao, X. Tang, W. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Research on optical performance monitoring (OPM) in coherent transmission system,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2016), paper AS2B.2.

Thouras, J.

Tornatore, M.

F. Musumeci, C. Rottondi, A. Nag, I. Macaluso, D. Zibar, M. Ruffini, and M. Tornatore, “An overview on application of machine learning techniques in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 21, 1383–1408 (2019).
[Crossref]

Turukhin, A.

A. Pilipetskii, O. Sinkin, A. Turukhin, M. Bolshtyansky, and D. Foursa, “The role of SDM in future transoceanic transmission systems (Invited),” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017.

van den Driessche, G.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.

Wang, Z.

Wu, B.

J. Lai, R. Tang, B. Wu, S. Li, X. Zhao, X. Tang, W. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Research on optical performance monitoring (OPM) in coherent transmission system,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2016), paper AS2B.2.

Wu, K.

D. Krause, A. Awadalla, A. S. Karar, H. Sun, and K. Wu, “Design considerations for a digital subcarrier coherent optical modem,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2017), paper Th1D.1.

Xu, X.

Yankov, M.

M. Yankov, D. Zibar, K. Larsen, L. Christensen, and S. Forchhammer, “Constellation shaping for fiber-optic channels with QAM and high spectral efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2407–2410 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S. J. B.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s12–s20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, T.

Yu, J.

A. A. Díaz-Montiel, J. Yu, W. Mo, Y. Li, D. C. Kilper, and M. Ruffini, “Performance analysis of QoT estimator in SDN-controlled ROADM networks,” in International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Dublin, Ireland, 2018, pp. 142–147.

Zefreh, M. R.

P. Poggiolini, M. R. Zefreh, G. Bosco, F. Forghieri, and S. Piciaccia, “Accurate non-linearity fully-closed-form formula based on the GN/EGN model and large-data-set fitting,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M1I.4.

Zhang, H.

J. Lai, R. Tang, B. Wu, S. Li, X. Zhao, X. Tang, W. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Research on optical performance monitoring (OPM) in coherent transmission system,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2016), paper AS2B.2.

Zhang, M.

Zhao, W.

J. Lai, R. Tang, B. Wu, S. Li, X. Zhao, X. Tang, W. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Research on optical performance monitoring (OPM) in coherent transmission system,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2016), paper AS2B.2.

Zhao, X.

J. Lai, R. Tang, B. Wu, S. Li, X. Zhao, X. Tang, W. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Research on optical performance monitoring (OPM) in coherent transmission system,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2016), paper AS2B.2.

Zhou, X.

Zhuge, Q.

Zibar, D.

F. Musumeci, C. Rottondi, A. Nag, I. Macaluso, D. Zibar, M. Ruffini, and M. Tornatore, “An overview on application of machine learning techniques in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 21, 1383–1408 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Yankov, D. Zibar, K. Larsen, L. Christensen, and S. Forchhammer, “Constellation shaping for fiber-optic channels with QAM and high spectral efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2407–2410 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s12–s20 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

F. Musumeci, C. Rottondi, A. Nag, I. Macaluso, D. Zibar, M. Ruffini, and M. Tornatore, “An overview on application of machine learning techniques in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 21, 1383–1408 (2019).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. J. Savory, “Congestion aware routing in nonlinear elastic optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1057–1060 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Yankov, D. Zibar, K. Larsen, L. Christensen, and S. Forchhammer, “Constellation shaping for fiber-optic channels with QAM and high spectral efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 2407–2410 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (12)

P. Poggiolini, “The GN model of non-linear propagation in uncompensated coherent optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3857–3879 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhuge, M. Morsy-Osman, X. Xu, M. Chagnon, M. Qiu, and D. Plant, “Spectral efficiency-adaptive optical transmission using time domain hybrid QAM for agile optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2621–2628 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zhou and L. Nelson, “Advanced DSP for 400 Gb/s and beyond optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 2716–2725 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Roberts, S. H. Foo, M. Moyer, M. Hubbard, A. Sinclair, J. Gaudette, and C. Laperle, “High capacity transport—100G and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 563–578 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. N. Pilipetskii and E. A. Golovchenko, “Performance fluctuations in submarine WDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4208–4214 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. Roberts, J. M. Kahn, and D. Boertjes, “Convex channel power optimization in nonlinear WDM systems using Gaussian noise model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 3212–3222 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Roberts and J. M. Kahn, “Efficient discrete rate assignment and power optimization in optical communication systems following the Gaussian noise model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 4425–4437 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Roberts, J. M. Kahn, J. Harley, and D. W. Boertjes, “Channel power optimization of WDM systems following Gaussian noise nonlinearity model in presence of stimulated Raman scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 5237–5249 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Pedro and N. Costa, “Optimized hybrid Raman/EDFA amplifier placement for DWDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1552–1561 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Koike-Akino, K. Kojima, D. S. Millar, K. Parsons, T. Yoshida, and T. Sugihara, “Pareto optimization of adaptive modulation and coding set in nonlinear fiber-optic systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 1041–1049 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Cantono, D. Pilori, A. Ferrari, C. Catanese, J. Thouras, J.-L. Augé, and V. Curri, “On the interplay of nonlinear interference generation with stimulated Raman scattering for QoT estimation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 3131–3141 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Semrau, R. I. Killey, and P. Bayvel, “A closed-form approximation of the Gaussian noise model in the presence of inter-channel stimulated Raman scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 1924–1936 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (4)

Nature (1)

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529, 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Other (24)

G. A. Rummery and M. Niranjan, “On-line Q-learning using connectionist systems,” (1994).

D. Cote, “Using machine learning in communication networks,” in IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topicals Meeting Series, Waikoloa, Hawaii, 9–11 July2018, paper TuB2.1.

F. J. V. Caballero, D. Ives, Q. Zhuge, M. O’Sullivan, and S. J. Savory, “Joint estimation of linear and non-linear signal-to-noise ratio based on neural networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC) (2018), paper M2F.4.

P. Castoldi, A. Giorgetti, A. Sgambelluri, G. Cecchetti, A. L. Ruscelli, N. Sambo, F. Paolucci, A. Morea, I. Cerutti, and F. Cugini, “Optical white box: modeling and implementation,” in 20th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Bucharest, Romania, 2018, pp. 1–4.

“Liquid spectrum: transforming static optical networks into dynamic, responsive assets,” Application Note, Ciena Corporation, https://www.ciena.com/insights/app-notes/Liquid-Spectrum-Transforming-Optical-Networks.html .

D. W. Boertjes, A. Leong, and D. Attard, “Field trial of short term capacity optimization on a live system,” in Photonics and Fiber Technology (ACOFT, BGPP, NP) (2016), paper AW5C.3.

“Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Trends, 2017–2022,” White Paper, 2018, http://www.cisco.com .

M. O’sullivan, “Progress of digital coherent optical communication systems,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2017), paper STu3M.5.

K. Roberts, M. O’Sullivan, M. Reimer, and M. Hubbard, “Nonlinear mitigation enabling next generation high speed optical transport beyond 100G,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M3J.1.

D. Pilori, A. Nespola, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, and G. Bosco, “Low-complexity non-linear phase noise mitigation using a modified soft-decoding strategy,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M1I.2.

D. Krause, A. Awadalla, A. S. Karar, H. Sun, and K. Wu, “Design considerations for a digital subcarrier coherent optical modem,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2017), paper Th1D.1.

A. A. Díaz-Montiel, J. Yu, W. Mo, Y. Li, D. C. Kilper, and M. Ruffini, “Performance analysis of QoT estimator in SDN-controlled ROADM networks,” in International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Dublin, Ireland, 2018, pp. 142–147.

“Spectral grids for WDM applications: DWDM frequency grid,” , https://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.694.1 .

A. Pilipetskii, O. Sinkin, A. Turukhin, M. Bolshtyansky, and D. Foursa, “The role of SDM in future transoceanic transmission systems (Invited),” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017.

H. Fevrier, S. Grubb, N. Harrington, A. Palmer-Felgate, E. Rivera-Hartling, and T. Stuch, “Facebook perspective on submarine wet plant evolution,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M2E.4.

S. Grubb, P. Mertz, A. Kumpera, L. Dardis, J. Rahn, J. O’Connor, and M. Mitchell, “Real-time 16QAM transatlantic record spectral efficiency of 6.21 b/s/Hz enabling 26.2 Tbps capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M2E.6.

P. Poggiolini, M. R. Zefreh, G. Bosco, F. Forghieri, and S. Piciaccia, “Accurate non-linearity fully-closed-form formula based on the GN/EGN model and large-data-set fitting,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper M1I.4.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, R. Cigliutti, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, R. Pastorelli, and S. Piciaccia, “The LOGON strategy for low-complexity control plane implementation in new-generation flexible networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, California, 2013, paper OW1H.3.

M. Bolshtyansky and G. Cowle, “Polarization hole burning in EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2012), paper OW4D.2.

M. O’Sullivan, M. Reimer, and M. Bélanger, “Nascent line-side modem solutions for high capacity optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2016), paper M2J.1.

P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, Y. Jiang, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “On the ultimate potential of symbol-rate optimization for increasing system maximum reach,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Valencia, Spain, 2015.

L. Berg, “Demystifying transceiver and line characterization metrics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2019), paper W4H.3.

J. Lai, R. Tang, B. Wu, S. Li, X. Zhao, X. Tang, W. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Research on optical performance monitoring (OPM) in coherent transmission system,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2016), paper AS2B.2.

A. Sadasivarao, S. Jain, S. Syed, K. Pithewan, P. Kantak, B. Lu, and L. Paraschis, “High performance streaming telemetry in optical transport networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2018), paper Tu3D.3.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Representative cost of optical transport capacity over time and transponder generations based on the historical average sales price (ASP) of DWDM line card data from Ovum showing (a) the decreasing cost per transported bit/s, (b) the growth in network capacity, (c) the net cost of transporting total capacity, and (d) the number of modems needed to satisfy capacity demand (all on an arbitrary linear scale).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Comparison of an individual signal transmission power standard deviation of a single-pol and a dual-pol source.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Coherent modem block diagram.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Time domain hybrid QAM interleaving 8-QAM and 16-QAM symbols to achieve an average of 3.33… bits per symbol.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Probabilistic constellation shaping showing (a) unshaped 64-QAM at 6 bits per symbol and (b) shaped constellation at 5.75 bits per symbol.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. RSNR comparison for TDHQ versus PCS coding schemes.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Line system showing various sources of additive noise and the reference location of the ESNR metric.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Roadmap of applying network intelligence.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Long-term performance data for a single channel showing ESNR data collected in 15-min intervals and a margin gauge metric for minimum margin estimation.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. The fiber identification app extracts correlation coefficients from the DSP of the receiver and coordinates the pre-/post-CD compensation to gather data about each of the fiber spans.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Accuracy of fiber type predictions showing a baseline using a 5-layer ANN and deep learning, which uses a combination of ANNs with a total of 30 layers.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Application of reinforcement learning on a multi-layer packet optical network.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 S N R t o t a l = k = 1 N s o u r c e s 1 S N R k .
N S R t o t a l = k = 1 N s o u r c e s N S R k .
n s r l i n e = n s r A S E + n s r N L + n s r CD/linewidth + n s r f i l t e r +
n s r l i n e = s o u r c e = 1 N s o u r c e s n s r s o u r c e .
n s r s o u r c e n s r ¯ s o u r c e + Δ n s r s o u r c e ,
f s o u r c e ( Δ n s r ) .
n s r l i n e = n s r ¯ g r o u p 1 + n s r ¯ g r o u p 2 + n s r ¯ g r o u p N + Δ n s r g r o u p 1 + Δ n s r g r o u p 2 + Δ n s r g r o u p N
Q ( s , a ) ( 1 α ) Q ( s , a ) + α [ r + γ max a Q ( s , a ) ] ,
e Q ( s , a ) / T a [ e Q ( s , a ) / T ] .