Abstract

The rapid growth of traffic inside data centers caused by the increasing adoption of cloud services necessitates a scalable and cost-efficient networking infrastructure. Space-division multiplexing (SDM) is considered as a promising solution to overcome the optical network capacity crunch and support cost-effective network capacity scaling. Multi-core fiber (MCF) is regarded as the most feasible and efficient way to realize SDM networks, and its deployment inside data centers seems very likely as the issue of inter-core crosstalk (XT) is not severe over short link spans (<1  km) compared to that in long-haul transmission. However, XT can still have a considerable effect in MCF over short distances, which can limit the transmission reach and in turn the data center’s size. XT can be further reduced by bi-directional transmission of optical signals in adjacent MCF cores. This paper evaluates the benefits of MCF-based SDM solutions in terms of maximizing the capacity and spatial efficiency of data center networks. To this end, we present an analytical model for XT in bi-directional normal step-index and trench-assisted MCFs and propose corresponding XT-aware core prioritization schemes. We further develop XT-aware spectrum resource allocation strategies aimed at relieving the complexity of online XT computation. These strategies divide the available spectrum into disjoint bands and incrementally add them to the pool of accessible resources based on the network conditions. Several combinations of core mapping and spectrum resource allocation algorithms are investigated for eight types of homogeneous MCFs comprising 7–61 cores, three different multiplexing schemes, and three data center network topologies with two traffic scenarios. Extensive simulation results show that combining bi-directional transmission in dense core fibers with tailored resource allocation schemes significantly increases the network capacity. Moreover, a multiplexing scheme that combines SDM and WDM can achieve up to 33 times higher link spatial efficiency and up to 300 times greater capacity compared to a WDM solution.

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References

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2017 (2)

2016 (2)

J. Perelló, J. M. Gené, A. Pagès, J. A. Lazaro, and S. Spadaro, “Flex-grid/SDM backbone network design with inter-core XT-limited transmission reach,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  8, no. 8, pp. 540–552, Aug. 2016.
[Crossref]

F. Ye, J. Tu, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, H. Takara, and T. Morioka, “Wavelength-dependence of inter-core crosstalk in homogeneous multi-core fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol.  28, no. 1, pp. 27–30, Jan. 2016.
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (5)

2013 (2)

2012 (4)

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, K. Takenaga, and S. Matsuo, “Crosstalk and core density in uncoupled multicore fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol.  24, no. 21, pp. 1898–1901, Nov. 2012.
[Crossref]

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1021–1036, 2012.
[Crossref]

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, and S. Matsuo, “Analytical expression of average power-coupling coefficients for estimating intercore crosstalk in multicore fibres,” IEEE Photonics J., vol.  4, no. 5, pp. 1987–1995, Oct. 2012.
[Crossref]

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

T. Hayashi, T. Taru, O. Shimakawa, T. Sasaki, and E. Sasaoka, “Design and fabrication of ultra-low crosstalk and low-loss multi-core fiber,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, pp. 16576–16592, 2011.
[Crossref]

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  41, pp. 339–350, 2011.

2000 (1)

H. Zang and J. P. Jue, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 47—60, 2000.

1994 (1)

E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, and A. F. Elrefaie, “Performance implications of component crosstalk in transparent lightwave networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol.  6, no. 5, pp. 657–660, May 1994.
[Crossref]

Abe, Y.

Akella, A.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in 10th Annu. Conf. on Internet Measurement (IMC), 2010, pp. 267–280.

Alexandropoulos, D.

G. M. Saridis, D. Alexandropoulos, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Survey and evaluation of space division multiplexing: From technologies to optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  17, no. 4, pp. 2136–2156, 2015.
[Crossref]

Alizadeh, M.

M. Alizadeh and T. Edsall, “On the data path performance of Leaf-Spine datacenter fabrics,” in IEEE 21st Annu. Symp. on High-Performance Interconnects, San Jose, California, 2013, pp. 71–74.

Amaya, N.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. S. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620-km field fiber,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Armijo, G.

T. Hayashi, A. Mekis, T. Nakanishi, M. Peterson, S. Sahni, P. Sun, S. Freyling, G. Armijo, C. Sohn, D. Foltz, T. Pinguet, M. Mack, Y. Kaneuchi, O. Shimakawa, T. Morishima, T. Sasaki, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “End-to-end multi-core fibre transmission link enabled by silicon photonics transceiver with grating coupler array,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2017, paper Th.2.A.

Asif, R.

F. Ye, K. Saitoh, H. Takara, R. Asif, and T. Morioka, “High-count multi-core fibers for space-division multiplexing with propagation-direction interleaving,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2015, pp. 1–3.

Awaji, Y.

W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luis, J. Sakaguchi, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, and N. Wada, “Advanced space division multiplexing technologies for optical networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  9, no. 4, pp. C1–C11, Apr. 2017.
[Crossref]

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, and T. Kawanishi, “Large-capacity transmission over a 19-core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, California, 2013, pp. 1–3.

Bampis, E.

Banias, K.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. S. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620-km field fiber,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Bazzaz, H. H.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  41, pp. 339–350, 2011.

Benson, T.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in 10th Annu. Conf. on Internet Measurement (IMC), 2010, pp. 267–280.

Bigo, S.

M. A. Mestre, H. Mardoyan, A. Konczykowska, R. Rios-Müller, J. Renaudier, F. Jorge, B. Duval, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Ghazisaeidi, P. Jennevé, and S. Bigo, “Direct detection transceiver at 150-Gbit/s net data rate using PAM 8 for optical interconnects,” in 42nd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, pp. 1–3.

Castro, A.

Chandrasekaran, S. S.

S. S. Chandrasekaran, “Understanding traffic characteristics in a server to server data center network,” Master’s thesis, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, 2017.

Chen, J.

Chen, Q.

G. Zervas, F. Jiang, Q. Chen, V. Mishra, H. Yuan, K. Katrinis, D. Syrivelis, A. Reale, D. Pnevmatikatos, M. Enrico, and N. Parsons, “Disaggregated compute, memory and network systems: A new era for optical data centre architectures,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Comellas, J.

Dobbelaere, P. D.

T. Hayashi, A. Mekis, T. Nakanishi, M. Peterson, S. Sahni, P. Sun, S. Freyling, G. Armijo, C. Sohn, D. Foltz, T. Pinguet, M. Mack, Y. Kaneuchi, O. Shimakawa, T. Morishima, T. Sasaki, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “End-to-end multi-core fibre transmission link enabled by silicon photonics transceiver with grating coupler array,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2017, paper Th.2.A.

Dupuy, J. Y.

M. A. Mestre, H. Mardoyan, A. Konczykowska, R. Rios-Müller, J. Renaudier, F. Jorge, B. Duval, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Ghazisaeidi, P. Jennevé, and S. Bigo, “Direct detection transceiver at 150-Gbit/s net data rate using PAM 8 for optical interconnects,” in 42nd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, pp. 1–3.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J. Y. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, pp. 1–3.

Duval, B.

M. A. Mestre, H. Mardoyan, A. Konczykowska, R. Rios-Müller, J. Renaudier, F. Jorge, B. Duval, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Ghazisaeidi, P. Jennevé, and S. Bigo, “Direct detection transceiver at 150-Gbit/s net data rate using PAM 8 for optical interconnects,” in 42nd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, pp. 1–3.

Edsall, T.

M. Alizadeh and T. Edsall, “On the data path performance of Leaf-Spine datacenter fabrics,” in IEEE 21st Annu. Symp. on High-Performance Interconnects, San Jose, California, 2013, pp. 71–74.

Elrefaie, A. F.

E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, and A. F. Elrefaie, “Performance implications of component crosstalk in transparent lightwave networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol.  6, no. 5, pp. 657–660, May 1994.
[Crossref]

Enrico, M.

G. Zervas, F. Jiang, Q. Chen, V. Mishra, H. Yuan, K. Katrinis, D. Syrivelis, A. Reale, D. Pnevmatikatos, M. Enrico, and N. Parsons, “Disaggregated compute, memory and network systems: A new era for optical data centre architectures,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Eskildsen, L.

E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, and A. F. Elrefaie, “Performance implications of component crosstalk in transparent lightwave networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol.  6, no. 5, pp. 657–660, May 1994.
[Crossref]

Fainman, Y.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  41, pp. 339–350, 2011.

Farrington, N.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  41, pp. 339–350, 2011.

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics, vol.  7, pp. 354–362, 2013.
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Foltz, D.

T. Hayashi, A. Mekis, T. Nakanishi, M. Peterson, S. Sahni, P. Sun, S. Freyling, G. Armijo, C. Sohn, D. Foltz, T. Pinguet, M. Mack, Y. Kaneuchi, O. Shimakawa, T. Morishima, T. Sasaki, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “End-to-end multi-core fibre transmission link enabled by silicon photonics transceiver with grating coupler array,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2017, paper Th.2.A.

Forchheimer, R.

A. Muhammad, G. Zervas, and R. Forchheimer, “Resource allocation for space-division multiplexing: Optical white box versus optical black box networking,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  33, no. 23, pp. 4928–4941, Dec. 2015.
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A. Muhammad, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, and R. Forchheimer, “Routing, spectrum and core allocation in flexgrid SDM networks with multi-core fibers,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Stockholm, Sweden, 2014, pp. 192–197.

Freyling, S.

T. Hayashi, A. Mekis, T. Nakanishi, M. Peterson, S. Sahni, P. Sun, S. Freyling, G. Armijo, C. Sohn, D. Foltz, T. Pinguet, M. Mack, Y. Kaneuchi, O. Shimakawa, T. Morishima, T. Sasaki, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “End-to-end multi-core fibre transmission link enabled by silicon photonics transceiver with grating coupler array,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2017, paper Th.2.A.

Fujii, S.

Garrich, M.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. S. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620-km field fiber,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Gené, J. M.

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
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M. A. Mestre, H. Mardoyan, A. Konczykowska, R. Rios-Müller, J. Renaudier, F. Jorge, B. Duval, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Ghazisaeidi, P. Jennevé, and S. Bigo, “Direct detection transceiver at 150-Gbit/s net data rate using PAM 8 for optical interconnects,” in 42nd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, pp. 1–3.

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P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J. Y. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, pp. 1–3.

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T. Hayashi, T. Taru, O. Shimakawa, T. Sasaki, and E. Sasaoka, “Ultra-low-crosstalk multi-core fiber feasible to ultra-long-haul transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, paper PDPC2.

T. Hayashi, A. Mekis, T. Nakanishi, M. Peterson, S. Sahni, P. Sun, S. Freyling, G. Armijo, C. Sohn, D. Foltz, T. Pinguet, M. Mack, Y. Kaneuchi, O. Shimakawa, T. Morishima, T. Sasaki, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “End-to-end multi-core fibre transmission link enabled by silicon photonics transceiver with grating coupler array,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2017, paper Th.2.A.

Hayes, J.

H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Parker, B. King, D. Smith, M. Kovacs, S. Jain, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and N. Parsons, “Beam-steering all-optical switch for multi-core fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Henning, I.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. S. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620-km field fiber,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Hirota, Y.

S. Fujii, Y. Hirota, H. Tode, and K. Murakami, “On-demand spectrum and core allocation for reducing crosstalk in multicore fibers in elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  6, no. 12, pp. 1059–1071, Dec. 2014.
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K. Igarashi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, and M. Suzuki, “Ultra-long-haul high-capacity super-Nyquist-WDM transmission experiment using multi-core fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  33, no. 5, pp. 1027–1036, Mar. 2015.
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I. Morita, K. Igarashi, and T. Tsuritani, “1 exabit/s·km transmission with multi-core fibre and spectral efficient modulation format,” in OptoElectronics and Communication Conf. and Australian Conf. on Optical Fibre Technology, July 6–10, 2014, pp. 316–318.

Irfan, M.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. S. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620-km field fiber,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Ishida, I.

Jain, S.

H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Parker, B. King, D. Smith, M. Kovacs, S. Jain, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and N. Parsons, “Beam-steering all-optical switch for multi-core fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Jennevé, P.

M. A. Mestre, H. Mardoyan, A. Konczykowska, R. Rios-Müller, J. Renaudier, F. Jorge, B. Duval, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Ghazisaeidi, P. Jennevé, and S. Bigo, “Direct detection transceiver at 150-Gbit/s net data rate using PAM 8 for optical interconnects,” in 42nd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, pp. 1–3.

Jiang, F.

G. Zervas, F. Jiang, Q. Chen, V. Mishra, H. Yuan, K. Katrinis, D. Syrivelis, A. Reale, D. Pnevmatikatos, M. Enrico, and N. Parsons, “Disaggregated compute, memory and network systems: A new era for optical data centre architectures,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Jinno, M.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
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Jorge, F.

M. A. Mestre, H. Mardoyan, A. Konczykowska, R. Rios-Müller, J. Renaudier, F. Jorge, B. Duval, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Ghazisaeidi, P. Jennevé, and S. Bigo, “Direct detection transceiver at 150-Gbit/s net data rate using PAM 8 for optical interconnects,” in 42nd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, pp. 1–3.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J. Y. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, pp. 1–3.

Jue, J. P.

H. Zang and J. P. Jue, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 47—60, 2000.

Junyent, G.

Kachris, C.

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Kaneuchi, Y.

T. Hayashi, A. Mekis, T. Nakanishi, M. Peterson, S. Sahni, P. Sun, S. Freyling, G. Armijo, C. Sohn, D. Foltz, T. Pinguet, M. Mack, Y. Kaneuchi, O. Shimakawa, T. Morishima, T. Sasaki, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “End-to-end multi-core fibre transmission link enabled by silicon photonics transceiver with grating coupler array,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2017, paper Th.2.A.

Kanno, A.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, and T. Kawanishi, “Large-capacity transmission over a 19-core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, California, 2013, pp. 1–3.

Katib, I.

Katrinis, K.

G. Zervas, F. Jiang, Q. Chen, V. Mishra, H. Yuan, K. Katrinis, D. Syrivelis, A. Reale, D. Pnevmatikatos, M. Enrico, and N. Parsons, “Disaggregated compute, memory and network systems: A new era for optical data centre architectures,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Kawakami, H.

Kawanishi, T.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, and T. Kawanishi, “Large-capacity transmission over a 19-core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, California, 2013, pp. 1–3.

King, B.

H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Parker, B. King, D. Smith, M. Kovacs, S. Jain, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and N. Parsons, “Beam-steering all-optical switch for multi-core fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Kishikawa, H.

Klaus, W.

W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luis, J. Sakaguchi, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, and N. Wada, “Advanced space division multiplexing technologies for optical networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  9, no. 4, pp. C1–C11, Apr. 2017.
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J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, and T. Kawanishi, “Large-capacity transmission over a 19-core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, California, 2013, pp. 1–3.

Kobayashi, T.

Konczykowska, A.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J. Y. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, pp. 1–3.

M. A. Mestre, H. Mardoyan, A. Konczykowska, R. Rios-Müller, J. Renaudier, F. Jorge, B. Duval, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Ghazisaeidi, P. Jennevé, and S. Bigo, “Direct detection transceiver at 150-Gbit/s net data rate using PAM 8 for optical interconnects,” in 42nd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, pp. 1–3.

Koshiba, M.

A. Sano, H. Takara, T. Kobayashi, H. Kawakami, H. Kishikawa, T. Nakagawa, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Abe, H. Ono, K. Shikama, M. Nagatani, T. Mori, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “409-Tb/s + 409-Tb/s crosstalk suppressed bidirectional MCF transmission over 450  km using propagation-direction interleaving,” Opt. Express, vol.  21, pp. 16777–16783, 2013.
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M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, and S. Matsuo, “Analytical expression of average power-coupling coefficients for estimating intercore crosstalk in multicore fibres,” IEEE Photonics J., vol.  4, no. 5, pp. 1987–1995, Oct. 2012.
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K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, K. Takenaga, and S. Matsuo, “Crosstalk and core density in uncoupled multicore fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol.  24, no. 21, pp. 1898–1901, Nov. 2012.
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M. Koshiba, “Design aspects of multicore optical fibres for high-capacity long-haul transmission,” in Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP) and the 9th Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conf. (APMP), Oct. 20–23, 2014, pp. 318–323.

Kovacs, M.

H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Parker, B. King, D. Smith, M. Kovacs, S. Jain, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and N. Parsons, “Beam-steering all-optical switch for multi-core fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Lazaro, J. A.

Liu, S.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. S. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620-km field fiber,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, H. Yuan, A. Peters, and G. Zervas, “Comparison of SDM and WDM on direct and indirect optical data center networks,” in 42nd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Dusseldorf, Germany, 2016, pp. 1–3.

Liu, Z.

P. Zhou, X. Xu, S. Guo, and Z. Liu, “Analysis on power scalability of multicore fiber laser,” in IEEE PhotonicsGlobal@Singapore (IPGC), Singapore, 2008, pp. 1–3.

Lord, A.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
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N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. S. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620-km field fiber,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Lucarelli, G.

Luis, R. S.

Mack, M.

T. Hayashi, A. Mekis, T. Nakanishi, M. Peterson, S. Sahni, P. Sun, S. Freyling, G. Armijo, C. Sohn, D. Foltz, T. Pinguet, M. Mack, Y. Kaneuchi, O. Shimakawa, T. Morishima, T. Sasaki, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “End-to-end multi-core fibre transmission link enabled by silicon photonics transceiver with grating coupler array,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2017, paper Th.2.A.

Maltz, D. A.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in 10th Annu. Conf. on Internet Measurement (IMC), 2010, pp. 267–280.

Mardoyan, H.

M. A. Mestre, H. Mardoyan, A. Konczykowska, R. Rios-Müller, J. Renaudier, F. Jorge, B. Duval, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Ghazisaeidi, P. Jennevé, and S. Bigo, “Direct detection transceiver at 150-Gbit/s net data rate using PAM 8 for optical interconnects,” in 42nd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, pp. 1–3.

Masuda, H.

Matsuo, S.

F. Ye, J. Tu, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, H. Takara, and T. Morioka, “Wavelength-dependence of inter-core crosstalk in homogeneous multi-core fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol.  28, no. 1, pp. 27–30, Jan. 2016.
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A. Sano, H. Takara, T. Kobayashi, H. Kawakami, H. Kishikawa, T. Nakagawa, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Abe, H. Ono, K. Shikama, M. Nagatani, T. Mori, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “409-Tb/s + 409-Tb/s crosstalk suppressed bidirectional MCF transmission over 450  km using propagation-direction interleaving,” Opt. Express, vol.  21, pp. 16777–16783, 2013.
[Crossref]

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, K. Takenaga, and S. Matsuo, “Crosstalk and core density in uncoupled multicore fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol.  24, no. 21, pp. 1898–1901, Nov. 2012.
[Crossref]

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, and S. Matsuo, “Analytical expression of average power-coupling coefficients for estimating intercore crosstalk in multicore fibres,” IEEE Photonics J., vol.  4, no. 5, pp. 1987–1995, Oct. 2012.
[Crossref]

F. Ye, J. Tu, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, and T. Morioka, “A new and simple method for crosstalk estimation in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conf., 2014, paper AW4C.3.

Mekis, A.

T. Hayashi, A. Mekis, T. Nakanishi, M. Peterson, S. Sahni, P. Sun, S. Freyling, G. Armijo, C. Sohn, D. Foltz, T. Pinguet, M. Mack, Y. Kaneuchi, O. Shimakawa, T. Morishima, T. Sasaki, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “End-to-end multi-core fibre transmission link enabled by silicon photonics transceiver with grating coupler array,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2017, paper Th.2.A.

Mendinueta, J. M. D.

W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luis, J. Sakaguchi, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, and N. Wada, “Advanced space division multiplexing technologies for optical networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  9, no. 4, pp. C1–C11, Apr. 2017.
[Crossref]

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, and T. Kawanishi, “Large-capacity transmission over a 19-core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, California, 2013, pp. 1–3.

Mestre, M. A.

M. A. Mestre, H. Mardoyan, A. Konczykowska, R. Rios-Müller, J. Renaudier, F. Jorge, B. Duval, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Ghazisaeidi, P. Jennevé, and S. Bigo, “Direct detection transceiver at 150-Gbit/s net data rate using PAM 8 for optical interconnects,” in 42nd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, pp. 1–3.

Mishra, V.

G. Zervas, F. Jiang, Q. Chen, V. Mishra, H. Yuan, K. Katrinis, D. Syrivelis, A. Reale, D. Pnevmatikatos, M. Enrico, and N. Parsons, “Disaggregated compute, memory and network systems: A new era for optical data centre architectures,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Miyamoto, Y.

Mori, T.

Morioka, T.

F. Ye, J. Tu, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, H. Takara, and T. Morioka, “Wavelength-dependence of inter-core crosstalk in homogeneous multi-core fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol.  28, no. 1, pp. 27–30, Jan. 2016.
[Crossref]

A. Sano, H. Takara, T. Kobayashi, H. Kawakami, H. Kishikawa, T. Nakagawa, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Abe, H. Ono, K. Shikama, M. Nagatani, T. Mori, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “409-Tb/s + 409-Tb/s crosstalk suppressed bidirectional MCF transmission over 450  km using propagation-direction interleaving,” Opt. Express, vol.  21, pp. 16777–16783, 2013.
[Crossref]

F. Ye, J. Tu, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, and T. Morioka, “A new and simple method for crosstalk estimation in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conf., 2014, paper AW4C.3.

F. Ye, T. Morioka, J. Tu, and K. Saitoh, “Theoretical investigation of inter-core crosstalk properties in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibres,” in IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, July 14–16, 2014, pp. 180–181.

F. Ye, K. Saitoh, H. Takara, R. Asif, and T. Morioka, “High-count multi-core fibers for space-division multiplexing with propagation-direction interleaving,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2015, pp. 1–3.

Morishima, T.

T. Hayashi, A. Mekis, T. Nakanishi, M. Peterson, S. Sahni, P. Sun, S. Freyling, G. Armijo, C. Sohn, D. Foltz, T. Pinguet, M. Mack, Y. Kaneuchi, O. Shimakawa, T. Morishima, T. Sasaki, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “End-to-end multi-core fibre transmission link enabled by silicon photonics transceiver with grating coupler array,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2017, paper Th.2.A.

Morita, I.

K. Igarashi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, and M. Suzuki, “Ultra-long-haul high-capacity super-Nyquist-WDM transmission experiment using multi-core fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  33, no. 5, pp. 1027–1036, Mar. 2015.
[Crossref]

I. Morita, K. Igarashi, and T. Tsuritani, “1 exabit/s·km transmission with multi-core fibre and spectral efficient modulation format,” in OptoElectronics and Communication Conf. and Australian Conf. on Optical Fibre Technology, July 6–10, 2014, pp. 316–318.

Muhammad, A.

A. Muhammad, G. Zervas, and R. Forchheimer, “Resource allocation for space-division multiplexing: Optical white box versus optical black box networking,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  33, no. 23, pp. 4928–4941, Dec. 2015.
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A. Muhammad, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, and R. Forchheimer, “Routing, spectrum and core allocation in flexgrid SDM networks with multi-core fibers,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Stockholm, Sweden, 2014, pp. 192–197.

Mukherjee, B.

Mulvad, H. C. H.

H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Parker, B. King, D. Smith, M. Kovacs, S. Jain, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and N. Parsons, “Beam-steering all-optical switch for multi-core fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Murakami, K.

Nagatani, M.

Nakagawa, T.

Nakanishi, T.

T. Hayashi, A. Mekis, T. Nakanishi, M. Peterson, S. Sahni, P. Sun, S. Freyling, G. Armijo, C. Sohn, D. Foltz, T. Pinguet, M. Mack, Y. Kaneuchi, O. Shimakawa, T. Morishima, T. Sasaki, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “End-to-end multi-core fibre transmission link enabled by silicon photonics transceiver with grating coupler array,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2017, paper Th.2.A.

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics, vol.  7, pp. 354–362, 2013.
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Ono, H.

Pagès, A.

Papen, G.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  41, pp. 339–350, 2011.

Parker, A.

H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Parker, B. King, D. Smith, M. Kovacs, S. Jain, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and N. Parsons, “Beam-steering all-optical switch for multi-core fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Parsons, N.

H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Parker, B. King, D. Smith, M. Kovacs, S. Jain, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and N. Parsons, “Beam-steering all-optical switch for multi-core fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

G. Zervas, F. Jiang, Q. Chen, V. Mishra, H. Yuan, K. Katrinis, D. Syrivelis, A. Reale, D. Pnevmatikatos, M. Enrico, and N. Parsons, “Disaggregated compute, memory and network systems: A new era for optical data centre architectures,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Perelló, J.

Peters, A.

Y. Liu, H. Yuan, A. Peters, and G. Zervas, “Comparison of SDM and WDM on direct and indirect optical data center networks,” in 42nd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Dusseldorf, Germany, 2016, pp. 1–3.

Peterson, M.

T. Hayashi, A. Mekis, T. Nakanishi, M. Peterson, S. Sahni, P. Sun, S. Freyling, G. Armijo, C. Sohn, D. Foltz, T. Pinguet, M. Mack, Y. Kaneuchi, O. Shimakawa, T. Morishima, T. Sasaki, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “End-to-end multi-core fibre transmission link enabled by silicon photonics transceiver with grating coupler array,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2017, paper Th.2.A.

Petropoulos, P.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. S. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620-km field fiber,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Petrovich, M.

H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Parker, B. King, D. Smith, M. Kovacs, S. Jain, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and N. Parsons, “Beam-steering all-optical switch for multi-core fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Pinguet, T.

T. Hayashi, A. Mekis, T. Nakanishi, M. Peterson, S. Sahni, P. Sun, S. Freyling, G. Armijo, C. Sohn, D. Foltz, T. Pinguet, M. Mack, Y. Kaneuchi, O. Shimakawa, T. Morishima, T. Sasaki, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “End-to-end multi-core fibre transmission link enabled by silicon photonics transceiver with grating coupler array,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2017, paper Th.2.A.

Pnevmatikatos, D.

G. Zervas, F. Jiang, Q. Chen, V. Mishra, H. Yuan, K. Katrinis, D. Syrivelis, A. Reale, D. Pnevmatikatos, M. Enrico, and N. Parsons, “Disaggregated compute, memory and network systems: A new era for optical data centre architectures,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Porter, G.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  41, pp. 339–350, 2011.

Puttnam, B. J.

W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luis, J. Sakaguchi, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, and N. Wada, “Advanced space division multiplexing technologies for optical networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  9, no. 4, pp. C1–C11, Apr. 2017.
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J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, and T. Kawanishi, “Large-capacity transmission over a 19-core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, California, 2013, pp. 1–3.

Radhakrishnan, S.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  41, pp. 339–350, 2011.

Rancano, V.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. S. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620-km field fiber,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Reale, A.

G. Zervas, F. Jiang, Q. Chen, V. Mishra, H. Yuan, K. Katrinis, D. Syrivelis, A. Reale, D. Pnevmatikatos, M. Enrico, and N. Parsons, “Disaggregated compute, memory and network systems: A new era for optical data centre architectures,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Renaudier, J.

M. A. Mestre, H. Mardoyan, A. Konczykowska, R. Rios-Müller, J. Renaudier, F. Jorge, B. Duval, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Ghazisaeidi, P. Jennevé, and S. Bigo, “Direct detection transceiver at 150-Gbit/s net data rate using PAM 8 for optical interconnects,” in 42nd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, pp. 1–3.

Richardson, D.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. S. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620-km field fiber,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics, vol.  7, pp. 354–362, 2013.
[Crossref]

H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Parker, B. King, D. Smith, M. Kovacs, S. Jain, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and N. Parsons, “Beam-steering all-optical switch for multi-core fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Rios-Müller, R.

M. A. Mestre, H. Mardoyan, A. Konczykowska, R. Rios-Müller, J. Renaudier, F. Jorge, B. Duval, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Ghazisaeidi, P. Jennevé, and S. Bigo, “Direct detection transceiver at 150-Gbit/s net data rate using PAM 8 for optical interconnects,” in 42nd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, pp. 1–3.

Rouskas, G. N.

Ruiz, M.

Sahni, S.

T. Hayashi, A. Mekis, T. Nakanishi, M. Peterson, S. Sahni, P. Sun, S. Freyling, G. Armijo, C. Sohn, D. Foltz, T. Pinguet, M. Mack, Y. Kaneuchi, O. Shimakawa, T. Morishima, T. Sasaki, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “End-to-end multi-core fibre transmission link enabled by silicon photonics transceiver with grating coupler array,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2017, paper Th.2.A.

Saitoh, K.

F. Ye, J. Tu, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, H. Takara, and T. Morioka, “Wavelength-dependence of inter-core crosstalk in homogeneous multi-core fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol.  28, no. 1, pp. 27–30, Jan. 2016.
[Crossref]

A. Sano, H. Takara, T. Kobayashi, H. Kawakami, H. Kishikawa, T. Nakagawa, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Abe, H. Ono, K. Shikama, M. Nagatani, T. Mori, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “409-Tb/s + 409-Tb/s crosstalk suppressed bidirectional MCF transmission over 450  km using propagation-direction interleaving,” Opt. Express, vol.  21, pp. 16777–16783, 2013.
[Crossref]

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, and S. Matsuo, “Analytical expression of average power-coupling coefficients for estimating intercore crosstalk in multicore fibres,” IEEE Photonics J., vol.  4, no. 5, pp. 1987–1995, Oct. 2012.
[Crossref]

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, K. Takenaga, and S. Matsuo, “Crosstalk and core density in uncoupled multicore fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol.  24, no. 21, pp. 1898–1901, Nov. 2012.
[Crossref]

F. Ye, K. Saitoh, H. Takara, R. Asif, and T. Morioka, “High-count multi-core fibers for space-division multiplexing with propagation-direction interleaving,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2015, pp. 1–3.

F. Ye, T. Morioka, J. Tu, and K. Saitoh, “Theoretical investigation of inter-core crosstalk properties in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibres,” in IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, July 14–16, 2014, pp. 180–181.

F. Ye, J. Tu, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, and T. Morioka, “A new and simple method for crosstalk estimation in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conf., 2014, paper AW4C.3.

Sakaguchi, J.

W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luis, J. Sakaguchi, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, and N. Wada, “Advanced space division multiplexing technologies for optical networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  9, no. 4, pp. C1–C11, Apr. 2017.
[Crossref]

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, and T. Kawanishi, “Large-capacity transmission over a 19-core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, California, 2013, pp. 1–3.

Sano, A.

Saridis, G. M.

G. M. Saridis, D. Alexandropoulos, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Survey and evaluation of space division multiplexing: From technologies to optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  17, no. 4, pp. 2136–2156, 2015.
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Sasaki, T.

T. Hayashi, T. Taru, O. Shimakawa, T. Sasaki, and E. Sasaoka, “Design and fabrication of ultra-low crosstalk and low-loss multi-core fiber,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, pp. 16576–16592, 2011.
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T. Hayashi, T. Taru, O. Shimakawa, T. Sasaki, and E. Sasaoka, “Ultra-low-crosstalk multi-core fiber feasible to ultra-long-haul transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, paper PDPC2.

T. Hayashi, A. Mekis, T. Nakanishi, M. Peterson, S. Sahni, P. Sun, S. Freyling, G. Armijo, C. Sohn, D. Foltz, T. Pinguet, M. Mack, Y. Kaneuchi, O. Shimakawa, T. Morishima, T. Sasaki, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “End-to-end multi-core fibre transmission link enabled by silicon photonics transceiver with grating coupler array,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2017, paper Th.2.A.

Sasaki, Y.

Sasaoka, E.

T. Hayashi, T. Taru, O. Shimakawa, T. Sasaki, and E. Sasaoka, “Design and fabrication of ultra-low crosstalk and low-loss multi-core fiber,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, pp. 16576–16592, 2011.
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T. Hayashi, T. Taru, O. Shimakawa, T. Sasaki, and E. Sasaoka, “Ultra-low-crosstalk multi-core fiber feasible to ultra-long-haul transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, paper PDPC2.

Shikama, K.

Shimakawa, O.

T. Hayashi, T. Taru, O. Shimakawa, T. Sasaki, and E. Sasaoka, “Design and fabrication of ultra-low crosstalk and low-loss multi-core fiber,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, pp. 16576–16592, 2011.
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T. Hayashi, T. Taru, O. Shimakawa, T. Sasaki, and E. Sasaoka, “Ultra-low-crosstalk multi-core fiber feasible to ultra-long-haul transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, paper PDPC2.

T. Hayashi, A. Mekis, T. Nakanishi, M. Peterson, S. Sahni, P. Sun, S. Freyling, G. Armijo, C. Sohn, D. Foltz, T. Pinguet, M. Mack, Y. Kaneuchi, O. Shimakawa, T. Morishima, T. Sasaki, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “End-to-end multi-core fibre transmission link enabled by silicon photonics transceiver with grating coupler array,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2017, paper Th.2.A.

Simeonidou, D.

G. M. Saridis, D. Alexandropoulos, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Survey and evaluation of space division multiplexing: From technologies to optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  17, no. 4, pp. 2136–2156, 2015.
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A. Muhammad, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, and R. Forchheimer, “Routing, spectrum and core allocation in flexgrid SDM networks with multi-core fibers,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Stockholm, Sweden, 2014, pp. 192–197.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. S. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620-km field fiber,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Smith, D.

H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Parker, B. King, D. Smith, M. Kovacs, S. Jain, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and N. Parsons, “Beam-steering all-optical switch for multi-core fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Smith, K.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. S. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620-km field fiber,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Sohn, C.

T. Hayashi, A. Mekis, T. Nakanishi, M. Peterson, S. Sahni, P. Sun, S. Freyling, G. Armijo, C. Sohn, D. Foltz, T. Pinguet, M. Mack, Y. Kaneuchi, O. Shimakawa, T. Morishima, T. Sasaki, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “End-to-end multi-core fibre transmission link enabled by silicon photonics transceiver with grating coupler array,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2017, paper Th.2.A.

Spadaro, S.

Subramanya, V.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  41, pp. 339–350, 2011.

Sun, P.

T. Hayashi, A. Mekis, T. Nakanishi, M. Peterson, S. Sahni, P. Sun, S. Freyling, G. Armijo, C. Sohn, D. Foltz, T. Pinguet, M. Mack, Y. Kaneuchi, O. Shimakawa, T. Morishima, T. Sasaki, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “End-to-end multi-core fibre transmission link enabled by silicon photonics transceiver with grating coupler array,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2017, paper Th.2.A.

Suzuki, M.

Syrivelis, D.

G. Zervas, F. Jiang, Q. Chen, V. Mishra, H. Yuan, K. Katrinis, D. Syrivelis, A. Reale, D. Pnevmatikatos, M. Enrico, and N. Parsons, “Disaggregated compute, memory and network systems: A new era for optical data centre architectures,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Takara, H.

F. Ye, J. Tu, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, H. Takara, and T. Morioka, “Wavelength-dependence of inter-core crosstalk in homogeneous multi-core fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol.  28, no. 1, pp. 27–30, Jan. 2016.
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A. Sano, H. Takara, T. Kobayashi, and Y. Miyamoto, “Crosstalk-managed high capacity long haul multicore fibre transmission with propagation-direction interleaving,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  32, no. 16, pp. 2771–2779, 2014.
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A. Sano, H. Takara, T. Kobayashi, H. Kawakami, H. Kishikawa, T. Nakagawa, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Abe, H. Ono, K. Shikama, M. Nagatani, T. Mori, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “409-Tb/s + 409-Tb/s crosstalk suppressed bidirectional MCF transmission over 450  km using propagation-direction interleaving,” Opt. Express, vol.  21, pp. 16777–16783, 2013.
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F. Ye, K. Saitoh, H. Takara, R. Asif, and T. Morioka, “High-count multi-core fibers for space-division multiplexing with propagation-direction interleaving,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2015, pp. 1–3.

Takenaga, K.

F. Ye, J. Tu, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, H. Takara, and T. Morioka, “Wavelength-dependence of inter-core crosstalk in homogeneous multi-core fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol.  28, no. 1, pp. 27–30, Jan. 2016.
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A. Sano, H. Takara, T. Kobayashi, H. Kawakami, H. Kishikawa, T. Nakagawa, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Abe, H. Ono, K. Shikama, M. Nagatani, T. Mori, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “409-Tb/s + 409-Tb/s crosstalk suppressed bidirectional MCF transmission over 450  km using propagation-direction interleaving,” Opt. Express, vol.  21, pp. 16777–16783, 2013.
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M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, and S. Matsuo, “Analytical expression of average power-coupling coefficients for estimating intercore crosstalk in multicore fibres,” IEEE Photonics J., vol.  4, no. 5, pp. 1987–1995, Oct. 2012.
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K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, K. Takenaga, and S. Matsuo, “Crosstalk and core density in uncoupled multicore fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol.  24, no. 21, pp. 1898–1901, Nov. 2012.
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F. Ye, J. Tu, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, and T. Morioka, “A new and simple method for crosstalk estimation in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conf., 2014, paper AW4C.3.

Talebi, S.

Taru, T.

T. Hayashi, T. Taru, O. Shimakawa, T. Sasaki, and E. Sasaoka, “Design and fabrication of ultra-low crosstalk and low-loss multi-core fiber,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, pp. 16576–16592, 2011.
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T. Hayashi, T. Taru, O. Shimakawa, T. Sasaki, and E. Sasaoka, “Ultra-low-crosstalk multi-core fiber feasible to ultra-long-haul transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, paper PDPC2.

Tode, H.

S. Fujii, Y. Hirota, H. Tode, and K. Murakami, “On-demand spectrum and core allocation for reducing crosstalk in multicore fibers in elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  6, no. 12, pp. 1059–1071, Dec. 2014.
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Tu, J.

F. Ye, J. Tu, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, H. Takara, and T. Morioka, “Wavelength-dependence of inter-core crosstalk in homogeneous multi-core fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol.  28, no. 1, pp. 27–30, Jan. 2016.
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F. Ye, T. Morioka, J. Tu, and K. Saitoh, “Theoretical investigation of inter-core crosstalk properties in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibres,” in IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, July 14–16, 2014, pp. 180–181.

F. Ye, J. Tu, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, and T. Morioka, “A new and simple method for crosstalk estimation in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conf., 2014, paper AW4C.3.

Vahdat, A.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  41, pp. 339–350, 2011.

Velasco, L.

Wada, N.

W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luis, J. Sakaguchi, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, and N. Wada, “Advanced space division multiplexing technologies for optical networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  9, no. 4, pp. C1–C11, Apr. 2017.
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J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, and T. Kawanishi, “Large-capacity transmission over a 19-core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, California, 2013, pp. 1–3.

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P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J. Y. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, pp. 1–3.

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F. Ye, J. Tu, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, H. Takara, and T. Morioka, “Wavelength-dependence of inter-core crosstalk in homogeneous multi-core fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol.  28, no. 1, pp. 27–30, Jan. 2016.
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F. Ye, T. Morioka, J. Tu, and K. Saitoh, “Theoretical investigation of inter-core crosstalk properties in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibres,” in IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, July 14–16, 2014, pp. 180–181.

F. Ye, K. Saitoh, H. Takara, R. Asif, and T. Morioka, “High-count multi-core fibers for space-division multiplexing with propagation-direction interleaving,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), Los Angeles, California, 2015, pp. 1–3.

F. Ye, J. Tu, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, and T. Morioka, “A new and simple method for crosstalk estimation in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conf., 2014, paper AW4C.3.

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Figures (23)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Examples of homogenous MCFs (CP represents core pitch).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Example of crosstalk in MCF.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Priority mapping starting from one MCF (start1).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Priority mapping starting from different MCFs (start2).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Core priority map with defined spectrum division for 19-core MCF.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Resource checking in original division based on priority map.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Spectrum division swap after a lack of slots in the original division has occurred.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Flowchart of the hard-spectrum-split approach.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Topologies used in the simulations: (a) Spine-Leaf topology, (b) Facebook Data Center topology, and (c) Three-Tier Fat Tree topology.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Procedure of simulation for each request.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Coupling coefficient versus core pitch values.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. XT reduction in the central core due to bi-directional transmission and trench-assisted technique.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. Network behavior for uni-directional and bi-directional transmission in the Spine-Leaf topology.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 14. Algorithm comparison for 7-core hexagonal MCF in the Spine-Leaf topology.
Fig. 15.
Fig. 15. Spectrum fragmentation for algorithms in 7-core hexagonal MCF: (a) A1T1, benchmark; (b) A4, hard split; (c) A2T3, soft split; and (d) A3, soft split and slot split.
Fig. 16.
Fig. 16. Computational time for A1T1, A2T3, A3, and A4.
Fig. 17.
Fig. 17. Percentage of blocking due to XT with 7-core MCF.
Fig. 18.
Fig. 18. Blocking probability as a function of network utilization obtained by A2T3 for the considered topologies.
Fig. 19.
Fig. 19. Total network capacity obtained by A2T3 in different topologies and for different schemes. S-W, SDM-WDM.
Fig. 20.
Fig. 20. Spatial efficiency obtained by A2T3 in different topologies and for different schemes. S-W, SDM-WDM.
Fig. 21.
Fig. 21. Comparison of front panel core density.
Fig. 22.
Fig. 22. Total network capacity as a function of link distance for different normal step-index fiber types.
Fig. 23.
Fig. 23. Improvement of the total network capacity by using TA-MCF over using SI-MCF.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Parameters Used in all Formulas [4]

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TABLE II Predefined Spectrum Division for Bi-Directional Model

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TABLE III Symbols Used

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TABLE IV Algorithms Used In the Simulationsa

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TABLE V Assumed Modulation and Multiplexing Schemes of the Requests

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TABLE VI MCF Parameters

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TABLE VII Parameters and Values Used for XT Calculation [4,16,31,44]

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

h(κ,CP)=2*κ2*Rβ*CP.
XT=nne(n+1)*2*h*L1+ne(n+1)*2*h*L.
XT=Pr*(nne(n+1)*2*h*L)1+ne(n+1)*2*h*L,
Pr=SαR2α[eαLeαLαL2eαL].
XTsame=n1n1e(n+1)*2*h*L1+ne(n+1)*2*h*L,
XTopposite=Pr*(n2n2e(n+1)*2*h*L)1+ne(n+1)*2*h*L.
XThex=XTsame+XTopposite=n1n1e(n+1)*2*h*L+Pr*n2Pr*n2e(n+1)*2*h*L1+n1e(n+1)*2*h*L+n2e(n+1)*2*h*L.
ΔXTdB=10*log10(10.001256*Δλ)4+19.85π*r1*2Δ1*Δλ*CPλ*λ0.
Pr=10ΔXTdBΔXTdB10.
XTwdhex=Pi*n1Pi*n1e(n+1)*2*h*L+Pr*n2Pr*n2e(n+1)*2*h*L1+Pi*n1e(n+1)*2*h*L+Pi*n2e(n+1)*2*h*L.
h(κ,CP)=h*W1[W1+(W2W1)*wtCP]*e[4(W2W1)*wt/a],
XTTAwdhex=Pi*n1Pi*n1e(n+1)*2*h*L+Pr*n2Pr*n2e(n+1)*2*h*L1+Pi*n1e(n+1)*2*h*L+Pi*n2e(n+1)*2*h*L.
XTpath=i=1i=LNXTlinki,LN:  link number.
Fiber Number per Connector=72×Cladding Area of SMFCladding Area of the Fiber.
Connector Area per Core=Connector SizeFiber Number×Core Number per Fiber,
Core Number per Front Panel=Front Panel Area×Percentage of the Area Dedicated to ConnectorsConnector Area per Core.