Abstract

We propose a new model of pulse propagation over a linear dispersive optical channel and use this model to comprehensively analyze the performance of spectral amplitude encoding optical code-division multiplexing (SAE/OCDM) systems under the impact of group velocity dispersion (GVD). We quantitatively discuss the impact of GVD on various aspects of SAE/OCDM system performance, including the number of supportable users and the maximum transmission length and power penalty. We also investigate the system performance with several types of optical fibers, such as single-mode fiber (SMF), dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF), and nonzero DSF. In addition, we discuss techniques to compensate for GVD so that the performance of SAE/OCDM systems can be improved.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. R. Prucnal, M. Santoro, T. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 547–554, May 1986.
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  2. P. R. Prucnal, ed., Optical Code Division Multiple Access: Fundamentals and Applications. CRC, Taylor and Francis, 2006.
  3. A. Stok, E. H. Sargent, “The role of optical CDMA in access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 83–87, Sept. 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Fouli, M. Maier, “OCDMA and optical coding: principles, applications, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 27–34, Aug. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Zaccarin, M. Kavehrad, “An optical CDMA system based on spectral encoding of LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 479–482, Apr. 1993.
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Nguyen, B. Aazhang, J. F. Young, “All-optical CDMA with bipolar codes,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 469–470, Mar. 1995.
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. D. J. Smith, P. T. Gough, D. P. Taylor, “Noise limits of optical spectral-encoding CDMA systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 17, pp. 1469–1470, Aug. 1995.
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. D. J. Smith, R. J. Blaikie, D. P. Taylor, “Performance enhancement of spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA using pulse-position modulation,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1176–1185, Sept. 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. F. Lam, D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, E. Yablonovitch, “Experimental demonstration of bipolar optical CDMA system using a balanced transmitter and complementary spectral encoding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1504–1506, Oct. 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Wei, H. M. H. Shalaby, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, “Modified quadratic congruence codes for fiber Bragg-grating-based spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1274–1281, Sept. 2001.
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Wei, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, H. M. H. Shalaby, “New code families for fiber-Bragg-grating-based spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 890–892, Aug. 2001.
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Pham, N. Miki, H. Yashima, “Spectral-amplitude-encoding optical-code-division-multiplexing system with a heterodyne detection receiver for broadband optical multiple-access networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 621–631, Oct. 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Bres, Y. Huang, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, “Scalable asynchronous incoherent optical CDMA [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 599–615, June 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, “Coherent ultra short light pulse CDMA communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 478–491, Nov. 1990.
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. Academic, 2001.
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  17. S. P. Majumder, A. Azhari, M. Abbou, “Impact of fiber chromatic dispersion on the BER performance of an optical CDMA IM/DD transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1340–1342, June 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. K. H. Ng, G. E. Weichenberg, E. H. Sargent, “Dispersion in multiwavelength optical code division multiple-access systems: impact and remedies,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1811–1816, Aug. 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, J. N. Sweetser, “Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 13, pp. 1096–1097, June 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Magne, D.-P. Wei, S. Ayotte, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-encoded optical CDMA using superimposed fiber Bragg gratings,” in Proc. of the OSA Topical Meeting on Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling, Sept. 2003, pp. 1–3.
  21. H. Taima, H. Iwamura, N. Minato, S. Oshiba, “Experimental study on time-spread/wavelength-hop optical code division multiplexing with group delay compensating en/decoder,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 335–337, Jan. 2004.
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  22. C. Zuo, W. Ma, H. Pu, J. Lin, “The impact of group velocity on frequency-hopping optical code division multiple access system,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1416–1419, Oct. 2001.
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2007 (2)

K. Fouli, M. Maier, “OCDMA and optical coding: principles, applications, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 27–34, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

C. Bres, Y. Huang, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, “Scalable asynchronous incoherent optical CDMA [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 599–615, June 2007.
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. P. Majumder, A. Azhari, M. Abbou, “Impact of fiber chromatic dispersion on the BER performance of an optical CDMA IM/DD transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1340–1342, June 2005.
[CrossRef]

A. Pham, N. Miki, H. Yashima, “Spectral-amplitude-encoding optical-code-division-multiplexing system with a heterodyne detection receiver for broadband optical multiple-access networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 621–631, Oct. 2005.
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. Taima, H. Iwamura, N. Minato, S. Oshiba, “Experimental study on time-spread/wavelength-hop optical code division multiplexing with group delay compensating en/decoder,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 335–337, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

E. K. H. Ng, G. E. Weichenberg, E. H. Sargent, “Dispersion in multiwavelength optical code division multiple-access systems: impact and remedies,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1811–1816, Aug. 2002.
[CrossRef]

A. Stok, E. H. Sargent, “The role of optical CDMA in access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 83–87, Sept. 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

1999 (1)

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, J. N. Sweetser, “Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 13, pp. 1096–1097, June 1999.
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

E. D. J. Smith, R. J. Blaikie, D. P. Taylor, “Performance enhancement of spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA using pulse-position modulation,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1176–1185, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lam, D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, E. Yablonovitch, “Experimental demonstration of bipolar optical CDMA system using a balanced transmitter and complementary spectral encoding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1504–1506, Oct. 1998.
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

L. Nguyen, B. Aazhang, J. F. Young, “All-optical CDMA with bipolar codes,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 469–470, Mar. 1995.
[CrossRef]

E. D. J. Smith, P. T. Gough, D. P. Taylor, “Noise limits of optical spectral-encoding CDMA systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 17, pp. 1469–1470, Aug. 1995.
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. Zaccarin, M. Kavehrad, “An optical CDMA system based on spectral encoding of LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 479–482, Apr. 1993.
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, “Coherent ultra short light pulse CDMA communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 478–491, Nov. 1990.
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. R. Prucnal, M. Santoro, T. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 547–554, May 1986.
[CrossRef]

Aazhang, B.

L. Nguyen, B. Aazhang, J. F. Young, “All-optical CDMA with bipolar codes,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 469–470, Mar. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Abbou, M.

S. P. Majumder, A. Azhari, M. Abbou, “Impact of fiber chromatic dispersion on the BER performance of an optical CDMA IM/DD transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1340–1342, June 2005.
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. Academic, 2001.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed.Wiley, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Ayotte, S.

J. Magne, D.-P. Wei, S. Ayotte, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-encoded optical CDMA using superimposed fiber Bragg gratings,” in Proc. of the OSA Topical Meeting on Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling, Sept. 2003, pp. 1–3.

Azhari, A.

S. P. Majumder, A. Azhari, M. Abbou, “Impact of fiber chromatic dispersion on the BER performance of an optical CDMA IM/DD transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1340–1342, June 2005.
[CrossRef]

Blaikie, R. J.

E. D. J. Smith, R. J. Blaikie, D. P. Taylor, “Performance enhancement of spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA using pulse-position modulation,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1176–1185, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Bres, C.

Fan, T.

P. R. Prucnal, M. Santoro, T. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 547–554, May 1986.
[CrossRef]

Fouli, K.

K. Fouli, M. Maier, “OCDMA and optical coding: principles, applications, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 27–34, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Ghafouri-Shiraz, H.

Z. Wei, H. M. H. Shalaby, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, “Modified quadratic congruence codes for fiber Bragg-grating-based spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1274–1281, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Z. Wei, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, H. M. H. Shalaby, “New code families for fiber-Bragg-grating-based spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 890–892, Aug. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Glesk, I.

Gough, P. T.

E. D. J. Smith, P. T. Gough, D. P. Taylor, “Noise limits of optical spectral-encoding CDMA systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 17, pp. 1469–1470, Aug. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Grunnet-Jepsen, A.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, J. N. Sweetser, “Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 13, pp. 1096–1097, June 1999.
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, “Coherent ultra short light pulse CDMA communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 478–491, Nov. 1990.
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Iwamura, H.

H. Taima, H. Iwamura, N. Minato, S. Oshiba, “Experimental study on time-spread/wavelength-hop optical code division multiplexing with group delay compensating en/decoder,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 335–337, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Johnson, A. E.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, J. N. Sweetser, “Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 13, pp. 1096–1097, June 1999.
[CrossRef]

Kavehrad, M.

D. Zaccarin, M. Kavehrad, “An optical CDMA system based on spectral encoding of LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 479–482, Apr. 1993.
[CrossRef]

Lam, C. F.

C. F. Lam, D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, E. Yablonovitch, “Experimental demonstration of bipolar optical CDMA system using a balanced transmitter and complementary spectral encoding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1504–1506, Oct. 1998.
[CrossRef]

LaRochelle, S.

J. Magne, D.-P. Wei, S. Ayotte, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-encoded optical CDMA using superimposed fiber Bragg gratings,” in Proc. of the OSA Topical Meeting on Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling, Sept. 2003, pp. 1–3.

Lin, J.

Ma, W.

Magne, J.

J. Magne, D.-P. Wei, S. Ayotte, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-encoded optical CDMA using superimposed fiber Bragg gratings,” in Proc. of the OSA Topical Meeting on Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling, Sept. 2003, pp. 1–3.

Maier, M.

K. Fouli, M. Maier, “OCDMA and optical coding: principles, applications, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 27–34, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Majumder, S. P.

S. P. Majumder, A. Azhari, M. Abbou, “Impact of fiber chromatic dispersion on the BER performance of an optical CDMA IM/DD transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1340–1342, June 2005.
[CrossRef]

Maniloff, E. S.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, J. N. Sweetser, “Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 13, pp. 1096–1097, June 1999.
[CrossRef]

Miki, N.

Minato, N.

H. Taima, H. Iwamura, N. Minato, S. Oshiba, “Experimental study on time-spread/wavelength-hop optical code division multiplexing with group delay compensating en/decoder,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 335–337, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Mossberg, T. W.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, J. N. Sweetser, “Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 13, pp. 1096–1097, June 1999.
[CrossRef]

Munroe, M. J.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, J. N. Sweetser, “Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 13, pp. 1096–1097, June 1999.
[CrossRef]

Ng, E. K. H.

E. K. H. Ng, G. E. Weichenberg, E. H. Sargent, “Dispersion in multiwavelength optical code division multiple-access systems: impact and remedies,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1811–1816, Aug. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, L.

L. Nguyen, B. Aazhang, J. F. Young, “All-optical CDMA with bipolar codes,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 469–470, Mar. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Oshiba, S.

H. Taima, H. Iwamura, N. Minato, S. Oshiba, “Experimental study on time-spread/wavelength-hop optical code division multiplexing with group delay compensating en/decoder,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 335–337, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Pham, A.

Prucnal, P. R.

C. Bres, Y. Huang, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, “Scalable asynchronous incoherent optical CDMA [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 599–615, June 2007.
[CrossRef]

P. R. Prucnal, M. Santoro, T. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 547–554, May 1986.
[CrossRef]

Pu, H.

Rusch, L. A.

J. Magne, D.-P. Wei, S. Ayotte, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-encoded optical CDMA using superimposed fiber Bragg gratings,” in Proc. of the OSA Topical Meeting on Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling, Sept. 2003, pp. 1–3.

Salehi, J. A.

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, “Coherent ultra short light pulse CDMA communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 478–491, Nov. 1990.
[CrossRef]

Santoro, M.

P. R. Prucnal, M. Santoro, T. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 547–554, May 1986.
[CrossRef]

Sargent, E. H.

A. Stok, E. H. Sargent, “The role of optical CDMA in access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 83–87, Sept. 2002.
[CrossRef]

E. K. H. Ng, G. E. Weichenberg, E. H. Sargent, “Dispersion in multiwavelength optical code division multiple-access systems: impact and remedies,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1811–1816, Aug. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Shalaby, H. M. H.

Z. Wei, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, H. M. H. Shalaby, “New code families for fiber-Bragg-grating-based spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 890–892, Aug. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Z. Wei, H. M. H. Shalaby, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, “Modified quadratic congruence codes for fiber Bragg-grating-based spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1274–1281, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. D. J.

E. D. J. Smith, R. J. Blaikie, D. P. Taylor, “Performance enhancement of spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA using pulse-position modulation,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1176–1185, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

E. D. J. Smith, P. T. Gough, D. P. Taylor, “Noise limits of optical spectral-encoding CDMA systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 17, pp. 1469–1470, Aug. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Stok, A.

A. Stok, E. H. Sargent, “The role of optical CDMA in access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 83–87, Sept. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Sweetser, J. N.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, J. N. Sweetser, “Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 13, pp. 1096–1097, June 1999.
[CrossRef]

Taima, H.

H. Taima, H. Iwamura, N. Minato, S. Oshiba, “Experimental study on time-spread/wavelength-hop optical code division multiplexing with group delay compensating en/decoder,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 335–337, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Taylor, D. P.

E. D. J. Smith, R. J. Blaikie, D. P. Taylor, “Performance enhancement of spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA using pulse-position modulation,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1176–1185, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

E. D. J. Smith, P. T. Gough, D. P. Taylor, “Noise limits of optical spectral-encoding CDMA systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 17, pp. 1469–1470, Aug. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Tong, D. T. K.

C. F. Lam, D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, E. Yablonovitch, “Experimental demonstration of bipolar optical CDMA system using a balanced transmitter and complementary spectral encoding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1504–1506, Oct. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Wei, D.-P.

J. Magne, D.-P. Wei, S. Ayotte, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-encoded optical CDMA using superimposed fiber Bragg gratings,” in Proc. of the OSA Topical Meeting on Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling, Sept. 2003, pp. 1–3.

Wei, Z.

Z. Wei, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, H. M. H. Shalaby, “New code families for fiber-Bragg-grating-based spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 890–892, Aug. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Z. Wei, H. M. H. Shalaby, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, “Modified quadratic congruence codes for fiber Bragg-grating-based spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1274–1281, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Weichenberg, G. E.

E. K. H. Ng, G. E. Weichenberg, E. H. Sargent, “Dispersion in multiwavelength optical code division multiple-access systems: impact and remedies,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1811–1816, Aug. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, “Coherent ultra short light pulse CDMA communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 478–491, Nov. 1990.
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

C. F. Lam, D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, E. Yablonovitch, “Experimental demonstration of bipolar optical CDMA system using a balanced transmitter and complementary spectral encoding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1504–1506, Oct. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

C. F. Lam, D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, E. Yablonovitch, “Experimental demonstration of bipolar optical CDMA system using a balanced transmitter and complementary spectral encoding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1504–1506, Oct. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Yashima, H.

Young, J. F.

L. Nguyen, B. Aazhang, J. F. Young, “All-optical CDMA with bipolar codes,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 469–470, Mar. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Zaccarin, D.

D. Zaccarin, M. Kavehrad, “An optical CDMA system based on spectral encoding of LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 479–482, Apr. 1993.
[CrossRef]

Zuo, C.

Electron. Lett. (3)

L. Nguyen, B. Aazhang, J. F. Young, “All-optical CDMA with bipolar codes,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 469–470, Mar. 1995.
[CrossRef]

E. D. J. Smith, P. T. Gough, D. P. Taylor, “Noise limits of optical spectral-encoding CDMA systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 17, pp. 1469–1470, Aug. 1995.
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, J. N. Sweetser, “Fiber Bragg grating based spectral encoder/decoder for lightwave CDMA,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 13, pp. 1096–1097, June 1999.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

A. Stok, E. H. Sargent, “The role of optical CDMA in access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 83–87, Sept. 2002.
[CrossRef]

K. Fouli, M. Maier, “OCDMA and optical coding: principles, applications, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 27–34, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

D. Zaccarin, M. Kavehrad, “An optical CDMA system based on spectral encoding of LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 479–482, Apr. 1993.
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lam, D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, E. Yablonovitch, “Experimental demonstration of bipolar optical CDMA system using a balanced transmitter and complementary spectral encoding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1504–1506, Oct. 1998.
[CrossRef]

S. P. Majumder, A. Azhari, M. Abbou, “Impact of fiber chromatic dispersion on the BER performance of an optical CDMA IM/DD transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1340–1342, June 2005.
[CrossRef]

H. Taima, H. Iwamura, N. Minato, S. Oshiba, “Experimental study on time-spread/wavelength-hop optical code division multiplexing with group delay compensating en/decoder,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 335–337, Jan. 2004.
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Impact of GVD on an encoded multiwavelength signal propagating along a dispersive optical channel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of an SAE/OCDM system using a heterodyne detection receiver.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Amplitude of the autocorrelation signal with N = 31 , where T b is the bit duration and L is the transmission length.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

BER versus transmission length L when SMF is used. K = 31 × 1 Gbit s users and P b = 5 dBm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average transmitted power per bit versus transmission length when SMF is used. K = 31 × 1 Gbit s users and BER = 10 9 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Power penalty versus transmission length when SMF is used. K = 31 × 1 Gbit s users and BER = 10 9 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Number of supportable users versus transmission length when SMF is used. BER = 10 9 and user’s bit rate is 1 Gbit/s.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

BER versus transmission length L when SMF, DSF, and NZ-DSF are used. P b = 5 dBm and K = 31 × 1 Gbit s users.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 System Parameters and Constants

Equations (15)

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s i ( t ) = P s | A i ( t ) | exp [ j ( ω i t + ϕ i ) ] ,
A i ( t ) = T 0 ( T 0 2 j β 2 i L ) 1 2 exp ( ( t Δ β 1 i L ) 2 2 ( T 0 2 j β 2 i L ) ) .
E s + ( t ) = i = 1 N + 1 2 P s | A i ( t ) | exp [ j ( ω i ( d ) t + ϕ i ( d ) ) ] + k = 1 N d i = 1 N + 1 2 P s | A i ( t ) | exp [ j ( ω i ( k ) t + ϕ i ( k ) ) ] .
E LO ( t ) = i = 1 N P LO exp [ j ( ω LO i t + ϕ LO i ) ] ,
i + ( t ) R = 2 P LO P s i = 1 N + 1 2 | A i ( t ) | cos ( ω IF ( d ) t + Δ ϕ IF i ( d ) ) + 2 P LO P s k = 1 N d i = 1 N + 1 2 | A i ( t ) | cos ( ω IF ( k ) t + Δ ϕ IF i ( k ) ) + 2 P s P s k = 1 N d i = 1 N + 1 2 | A i ( t ) | 2 cos ( Δ ω i ( d , k ) t + Δ ϕ i ( d , k ) ) + 2 P s P s k = 1 N d 2 m = k + 1 N d 1 i = 1 N + 1 2 | A i ( t ) | 2 cos ( Δ ω i ( k , m ) t + Δ ϕ i ( k , m ) ) + n ( t ) .
i d ( t ) = 2 R L LO P s i = 1 N + 1 2 | A i ( t ) | = 2 R P LO P s A d ( t ) ,
i MAI + ( t ) = 2 R N d P LO P s i = 1 N + 1 2 | A i ( t ) | ,
i MAI ( t ) = 2 R N c P LO P s i = N + 1 2 + 1 N | A i ( t ) | .
i b ( t ) = b i d ( t ) + i MAI + ( t ) i MAI ( t ) .
i OBI b 2 = 2 B e τ c R 2 P s 2 [ ( b N d + ( N d 2 ) ) i = 1 N + 1 2 | A i ( 0 ) | 4 + ( N c 2 ) i = N + 1 2 + 1 N | A i ( 0 ) | 4 ] ,
SNR b = ( I b I D ) 2 i n b 2 .
BER = 1 2 erfc ( 1 2 I 1 I 0 i n 1 + i n 0 ) ,
erfc ( x ) = 2 π x exp ( y 2 ) d y .
P b = N T b | G ( t ) | 2 d t ,
G ( t ) = P 0 exp ( t 2 2 T 0 2 ) .