Abstract

Optical switching fabrics (OSFs) are receiving increasing attention in the design of high-speed packet switches, due to their excellent properties in terms of available bandwidth and reduced power consumption. However, for most optical devices, the latency needed to reconfigure input/output switch port connections may not be negligible with respect to the packet transmission time and can adversely affect switch performance, creating high delays and reduced throughput. We consider OSFs, and we propose a multihop approach to schedule packet transfers; i.e., packets are sent to the final destination port by exploiting transmission through intermediate ports. We show that the multihop approach is a promising technique to control the trade-off between delay and throughput, and it permits us to partly decouple the switch reconfiguration rate from the packet duration. We propose a general framework to solve the issue of multihop transmission in input-queued packet switches. Furthermore, we examine the multihop approach when the direct exchange of packets among ports is based on multidimensional regular topologies. We discuss which sequence of intermediate ports should be traversed to reach the final output port (i.e., the internal routing) and the switch time-scheduling problem (i.e., when a pair of ports can exchange packets). Performance is analyzed both analytically and by simulation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Keslassy, S. T. Chuang, K. Yu, D. Miller, M. Horowitz, O. Solgaard, N. McKeown, “Scaling internet routers using optics,” in Proc. 2003 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Karlsruhe, Germany, Aug. 2003, pp. 189–200.
  2. M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, J. E. Ford, “Optical MEMS for lightwave communication,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, Dec. 2006, pp. 4433–4454.
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. D. Dobbelaere, K. Falta, S. Gloeckner, “Advances in integrated 2D MEMS-based solutions for optical network applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 5, May 2003, pp. S16–S23.
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Hengstler, J. J. Uebbing, P. McGuire, “Laser-activated optical bubble switch element,” in 2003 IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. on Optical MEMS, Waikoloa, HI, Aug. 18–21, 2003, pp. 117–118.
  5. K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, T. Vo, “High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching,” in BroadNets 2005. 2nd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, Boston, MA, Oct. 7, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 1118–1123.
  6. S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, “Optical packet switched network layer without optical buffers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 6, June 1998, pp. 896–898.
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kar, D. Stiliadis, T. V. Lakshman, L. Tassiulas, “Scheduling algorithms for optical packet fabrics” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, Sept. 2003, pp. 1143–1155.
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Keslassy, M. Kodialam, L. T. Lakshman, D. Stiliadis, “On guaranteed smooth scheduling for input-queued switches,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2003. 22nd Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies., vol. 2, San Francisco, CA, March 30–Apr. 3, 2003, pp. 1384–1394.
  9. B. Towles, W. J. Dally, “Guaranteed scheduling for switches with configuration overhead,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 835–847, Oct. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  10. Li Xin, M. Hamdi, “On scheduling optical packet switches with reconfiguration delay,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, Sept. 2003, pp. 1156–1164.
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Alaria, A. Bianco, P. Giaccone, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, “Design of switches with reconfiguration latency,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2006. ICC '06, Istanbul, Turkey, Jun. 2006, vol. 6, pp. 2599–2605.
  12. A. Bianco, P. Giaccone, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, P. R. Brusin, “Multi-hop scheduling for optical switches with large reconfiguration overhead,” presented at HPSR 2004, High Performance Switching and Routing, Phoenix, AZ, April 2004.
  13. V. Alaria, A. Bianco, P. Giaccone, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, “Multi-hop Scheduling Algorithms in Switches with Reconfiguration Latency,” in 2006 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, Poznan, Poland, June 7–9, 2006, pp. 1–6.
  14. T. Anderson, S. Owicki, J. Saxe, C. Thacker, “High speed switch scheduling for local area networks,” ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., vol. 11, no. 4, Nov. 1993, pp. 319–352.
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. S. Chang, W. J. Chen, H. Y. Huang, “Birkhoff–von Neumann input buffered crossbar switches,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2000. 19th Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Proceedings, Tel Aviv, Israel, March 26–30, 2000, vol. 3, p. 1614–1623.
  16. T. Weller, B. Hajek, “Scheduling nonuniform traffic in a packet-switching system with small propagation delay,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 813–823, Dec. 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Bianco, M. Franceschinis, S. Ghisolfi, A. Hill, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, R. Webb, “Frame-based matching algorithms for input-queued switches,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, 2002. Merging Optical and IP Technologies, Kobe, Japan, May 2002, pp. 69–76.
  18. K. L. Yeung, T.-S. P. Yum, “Node placement optimization in ShuffleNets,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, no. 3, June 1998, pp. 319–324.
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. J. Dally, B. Towles, Principles and Practise of Interconnection Networks, San Fransisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2004.
  20. F. T. Leighton, Introduction to Parallel Algorithms and Architectures: Arrays, Trees, Hypercubes, San Fransisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1992.

2006 (1)

2003 (4)

K. Kar, D. Stiliadis, T. V. Lakshman, L. Tassiulas, “Scheduling algorithms for optical packet fabrics” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, Sept. 2003, pp. 1143–1155.
[CrossRef]

B. Towles, W. J. Dally, “Guaranteed scheduling for switches with configuration overhead,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 835–847, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Li Xin, M. Hamdi, “On scheduling optical packet switches with reconfiguration delay,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, Sept. 2003, pp. 1156–1164.
[CrossRef]

P. D. Dobbelaere, K. Falta, S. Gloeckner, “Advances in integrated 2D MEMS-based solutions for optical network applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 5, May 2003, pp. S16–S23.
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, “Optical packet switched network layer without optical buffers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 6, June 1998, pp. 896–898.
[CrossRef]

K. L. Yeung, T.-S. P. Yum, “Node placement optimization in ShuffleNets,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, no. 3, June 1998, pp. 319–324.
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Weller, B. Hajek, “Scheduling nonuniform traffic in a packet-switching system with small propagation delay,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 813–823, Dec. 1997.
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. Anderson, S. Owicki, J. Saxe, C. Thacker, “High speed switch scheduling for local area networks,” ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., vol. 11, no. 4, Nov. 1993, pp. 319–352.
[CrossRef]

Alaria, V.

V. Alaria, A. Bianco, P. Giaccone, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, “Design of switches with reconfiguration latency,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2006. ICC '06, Istanbul, Turkey, Jun. 2006, vol. 6, pp. 2599–2605.

V. Alaria, A. Bianco, P. Giaccone, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, “Multi-hop Scheduling Algorithms in Switches with Reconfiguration Latency,” in 2006 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, Poznan, Poland, June 7–9, 2006, pp. 1–6.

Anderson, T.

T. Anderson, S. Owicki, J. Saxe, C. Thacker, “High speed switch scheduling for local area networks,” ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., vol. 11, no. 4, Nov. 1993, pp. 319–352.
[CrossRef]

Bianco, A.

A. Bianco, P. Giaccone, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, P. R. Brusin, “Multi-hop scheduling for optical switches with large reconfiguration overhead,” presented at HPSR 2004, High Performance Switching and Routing, Phoenix, AZ, April 2004.

A. Bianco, M. Franceschinis, S. Ghisolfi, A. Hill, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, R. Webb, “Frame-based matching algorithms for input-queued switches,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, 2002. Merging Optical and IP Technologies, Kobe, Japan, May 2002, pp. 69–76.

V. Alaria, A. Bianco, P. Giaccone, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, “Multi-hop Scheduling Algorithms in Switches with Reconfiguration Latency,” in 2006 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, Poznan, Poland, June 7–9, 2006, pp. 1–6.

V. Alaria, A. Bianco, P. Giaccone, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, “Design of switches with reconfiguration latency,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2006. ICC '06, Istanbul, Turkey, Jun. 2006, vol. 6, pp. 2599–2605.

Brusin, P. R.

A. Bianco, P. Giaccone, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, P. R. Brusin, “Multi-hop scheduling for optical switches with large reconfiguration overhead,” presented at HPSR 2004, High Performance Switching and Routing, Phoenix, AZ, April 2004.

Chang, C. S.

C. S. Chang, W. J. Chen, H. Y. Huang, “Birkhoff–von Neumann input buffered crossbar switches,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2000. 19th Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Proceedings, Tel Aviv, Israel, March 26–30, 2000, vol. 3, p. 1614–1623.

Chen, W. J.

C. S. Chang, W. J. Chen, H. Y. Huang, “Birkhoff–von Neumann input buffered crossbar switches,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2000. 19th Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Proceedings, Tel Aviv, Israel, March 26–30, 2000, vol. 3, p. 1614–1623.

Chuang, S. T.

I. Keslassy, S. T. Chuang, K. Yu, D. Miller, M. Horowitz, O. Solgaard, N. McKeown, “Scaling internet routers using optics,” in Proc. 2003 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Karlsruhe, Germany, Aug. 2003, pp. 189–200.

Dally, W. J.

B. Towles, W. J. Dally, “Guaranteed scheduling for switches with configuration overhead,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 835–847, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

W. J. Dally, B. Towles, Principles and Practise of Interconnection Networks, San Fransisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2004.

Danielsen, S. L.

S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, “Optical packet switched network layer without optical buffers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 6, June 1998, pp. 896–898.
[CrossRef]

Dawley, J.

K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, T. Vo, “High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching,” in BroadNets 2005. 2nd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, Boston, MA, Oct. 7, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 1118–1123.

Dobbelaere, P. D.

P. D. Dobbelaere, K. Falta, S. Gloeckner, “Advances in integrated 2D MEMS-based solutions for optical network applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 5, May 2003, pp. S16–S23.
[CrossRef]

Falta, K.

P. D. Dobbelaere, K. Falta, S. Gloeckner, “Advances in integrated 2D MEMS-based solutions for optical network applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 5, May 2003, pp. S16–S23.
[CrossRef]

Ford, J. E.

Franceschinis, M.

A. Bianco, M. Franceschinis, S. Ghisolfi, A. Hill, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, R. Webb, “Frame-based matching algorithms for input-queued switches,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, 2002. Merging Optical and IP Technologies, Kobe, Japan, May 2002, pp. 69–76.

Ghisolfi, S.

A. Bianco, M. Franceschinis, S. Ghisolfi, A. Hill, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, R. Webb, “Frame-based matching algorithms for input-queued switches,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, 2002. Merging Optical and IP Technologies, Kobe, Japan, May 2002, pp. 69–76.

Giaccone, P.

A. Bianco, P. Giaccone, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, P. R. Brusin, “Multi-hop scheduling for optical switches with large reconfiguration overhead,” presented at HPSR 2004, High Performance Switching and Routing, Phoenix, AZ, April 2004.

V. Alaria, A. Bianco, P. Giaccone, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, “Design of switches with reconfiguration latency,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2006. ICC '06, Istanbul, Turkey, Jun. 2006, vol. 6, pp. 2599–2605.

V. Alaria, A. Bianco, P. Giaccone, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, “Multi-hop Scheduling Algorithms in Switches with Reconfiguration Latency,” in 2006 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, Poznan, Poland, June 7–9, 2006, pp. 1–6.

Gloeckner, S.

P. D. Dobbelaere, K. Falta, S. Gloeckner, “Advances in integrated 2D MEMS-based solutions for optical network applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 5, May 2003, pp. S16–S23.
[CrossRef]

Hajek, B.

T. Weller, B. Hajek, “Scheduling nonuniform traffic in a packet-switching system with small propagation delay,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 813–823, Dec. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Hamdi, M.

Li Xin, M. Hamdi, “On scheduling optical packet switches with reconfiguration delay,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, Sept. 2003, pp. 1156–1164.
[CrossRef]

Hengstler, S.

S. Hengstler, J. J. Uebbing, P. McGuire, “Laser-activated optical bubble switch element,” in 2003 IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. on Optical MEMS, Waikoloa, HI, Aug. 18–21, 2003, pp. 117–118.

Hill, A.

A. Bianco, M. Franceschinis, S. Ghisolfi, A. Hill, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, R. Webb, “Frame-based matching algorithms for input-queued switches,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, 2002. Merging Optical and IP Technologies, Kobe, Japan, May 2002, pp. 69–76.

Horowitz, M.

I. Keslassy, S. T. Chuang, K. Yu, D. Miller, M. Horowitz, O. Solgaard, N. McKeown, “Scaling internet routers using optics,” in Proc. 2003 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Karlsruhe, Germany, Aug. 2003, pp. 189–200.

Huang, H. Y.

C. S. Chang, W. J. Chen, H. Y. Huang, “Birkhoff–von Neumann input buffered crossbar switches,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2000. 19th Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Proceedings, Tel Aviv, Israel, March 26–30, 2000, vol. 3, p. 1614–1623.

Joergensen, C.

S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, “Optical packet switched network layer without optical buffers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 6, June 1998, pp. 896–898.
[CrossRef]

Kar, K.

K. Kar, D. Stiliadis, T. V. Lakshman, L. Tassiulas, “Scheduling algorithms for optical packet fabrics” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, Sept. 2003, pp. 1143–1155.
[CrossRef]

Keslassy, I.

I. Keslassy, S. T. Chuang, K. Yu, D. Miller, M. Horowitz, O. Solgaard, N. McKeown, “Scaling internet routers using optics,” in Proc. 2003 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Karlsruhe, Germany, Aug. 2003, pp. 189–200.

I. Keslassy, M. Kodialam, L. T. Lakshman, D. Stiliadis, “On guaranteed smooth scheduling for input-queued switches,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2003. 22nd Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies., vol. 2, San Francisco, CA, March 30–Apr. 3, 2003, pp. 1384–1394.

Kodialam, M.

I. Keslassy, M. Kodialam, L. T. Lakshman, D. Stiliadis, “On guaranteed smooth scheduling for input-queued switches,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2003. 22nd Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies., vol. 2, San Francisco, CA, March 30–Apr. 3, 2003, pp. 1384–1394.

Kudzuma, D.

K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, T. Vo, “High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching,” in BroadNets 2005. 2nd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, Boston, MA, Oct. 7, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 1118–1123.

LaBuda, M.

K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, T. Vo, “High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching,” in BroadNets 2005. 2nd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, Boston, MA, Oct. 7, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 1118–1123.

Lakshman, L. T.

I. Keslassy, M. Kodialam, L. T. Lakshman, D. Stiliadis, “On guaranteed smooth scheduling for input-queued switches,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2003. 22nd Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies., vol. 2, San Francisco, CA, March 30–Apr. 3, 2003, pp. 1384–1394.

Lakshman, T. V.

K. Kar, D. Stiliadis, T. V. Lakshman, L. Tassiulas, “Scheduling algorithms for optical packet fabrics” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, Sept. 2003, pp. 1143–1155.
[CrossRef]

Leighton, F. T.

F. T. Leighton, Introduction to Parallel Algorithms and Architectures: Arrays, Trees, Hypercubes, San Fransisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1992.

Leonardi, E.

A. Bianco, M. Franceschinis, S. Ghisolfi, A. Hill, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, R. Webb, “Frame-based matching algorithms for input-queued switches,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, 2002. Merging Optical and IP Technologies, Kobe, Japan, May 2002, pp. 69–76.

A. Bianco, P. Giaccone, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, P. R. Brusin, “Multi-hop scheduling for optical switches with large reconfiguration overhead,” presented at HPSR 2004, High Performance Switching and Routing, Phoenix, AZ, April 2004.

V. Alaria, A. Bianco, P. Giaccone, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, “Multi-hop Scheduling Algorithms in Switches with Reconfiguration Latency,” in 2006 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, Poznan, Poland, June 7–9, 2006, pp. 1–6.

V. Alaria, A. Bianco, P. Giaccone, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, “Design of switches with reconfiguration latency,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2006. ICC '06, Istanbul, Turkey, Jun. 2006, vol. 6, pp. 2599–2605.

McGuire, P.

S. Hengstler, J. J. Uebbing, P. McGuire, “Laser-activated optical bubble switch element,” in 2003 IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. on Optical MEMS, Waikoloa, HI, Aug. 18–21, 2003, pp. 117–118.

McKeown, N.

I. Keslassy, S. T. Chuang, K. Yu, D. Miller, M. Horowitz, O. Solgaard, N. McKeown, “Scaling internet routers using optics,” in Proc. 2003 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Karlsruhe, Germany, Aug. 2003, pp. 189–200.

Mikkelsen, B.

S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, “Optical packet switched network layer without optical buffers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 6, June 1998, pp. 896–898.
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

I. Keslassy, S. T. Chuang, K. Yu, D. Miller, M. Horowitz, O. Solgaard, N. McKeown, “Scaling internet routers using optics,” in Proc. 2003 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Karlsruhe, Germany, Aug. 2003, pp. 189–200.

Nashimoto, K.

K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, T. Vo, “High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching,” in BroadNets 2005. 2nd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, Boston, MA, Oct. 7, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 1118–1123.

Neri, F.

V. Alaria, A. Bianco, P. Giaccone, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, “Design of switches with reconfiguration latency,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2006. ICC '06, Istanbul, Turkey, Jun. 2006, vol. 6, pp. 2599–2605.

V. Alaria, A. Bianco, P. Giaccone, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, “Multi-hop Scheduling Algorithms in Switches with Reconfiguration Latency,” in 2006 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, Poznan, Poland, June 7–9, 2006, pp. 1–6.

A. Bianco, M. Franceschinis, S. Ghisolfi, A. Hill, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, R. Webb, “Frame-based matching algorithms for input-queued switches,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, 2002. Merging Optical and IP Technologies, Kobe, Japan, May 2002, pp. 69–76.

A. Bianco, P. Giaccone, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, P. R. Brusin, “Multi-hop scheduling for optical switches with large reconfiguration overhead,” presented at HPSR 2004, High Performance Switching and Routing, Phoenix, AZ, April 2004.

Owicki, S.

T. Anderson, S. Owicki, J. Saxe, C. Thacker, “High speed switch scheduling for local area networks,” ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., vol. 11, no. 4, Nov. 1993, pp. 319–352.
[CrossRef]

Raj, M.

K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, T. Vo, “High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching,” in BroadNets 2005. 2nd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, Boston, MA, Oct. 7, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 1118–1123.

Ritums, D.

K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, T. Vo, “High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching,” in BroadNets 2005. 2nd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, Boston, MA, Oct. 7, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 1118–1123.

Saxe, J.

T. Anderson, S. Owicki, J. Saxe, C. Thacker, “High speed switch scheduling for local area networks,” ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., vol. 11, no. 4, Nov. 1993, pp. 319–352.
[CrossRef]

Solgaard, O.

M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, J. E. Ford, “Optical MEMS for lightwave communication,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, Dec. 2006, pp. 4433–4454.
[CrossRef]

I. Keslassy, S. T. Chuang, K. Yu, D. Miller, M. Horowitz, O. Solgaard, N. McKeown, “Scaling internet routers using optics,” in Proc. 2003 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Karlsruhe, Germany, Aug. 2003, pp. 189–200.

Stiliadis, D.

K. Kar, D. Stiliadis, T. V. Lakshman, L. Tassiulas, “Scheduling algorithms for optical packet fabrics” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, Sept. 2003, pp. 1143–1155.
[CrossRef]

I. Keslassy, M. Kodialam, L. T. Lakshman, D. Stiliadis, “On guaranteed smooth scheduling for input-queued switches,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2003. 22nd Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies., vol. 2, San Francisco, CA, March 30–Apr. 3, 2003, pp. 1384–1394.

Stubkjaer, K. E.

S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, “Optical packet switched network layer without optical buffers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 6, June 1998, pp. 896–898.
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, N.

K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, T. Vo, “High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching,” in BroadNets 2005. 2nd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, Boston, MA, Oct. 7, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 1118–1123.

Tassiulas, L.

K. Kar, D. Stiliadis, T. V. Lakshman, L. Tassiulas, “Scheduling algorithms for optical packet fabrics” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, Sept. 2003, pp. 1143–1155.
[CrossRef]

Thacker, C.

T. Anderson, S. Owicki, J. Saxe, C. Thacker, “High speed switch scheduling for local area networks,” ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., vol. 11, no. 4, Nov. 1993, pp. 319–352.
[CrossRef]

Towles, B.

B. Towles, W. J. Dally, “Guaranteed scheduling for switches with configuration overhead,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 835–847, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

W. J. Dally, B. Towles, Principles and Practise of Interconnection Networks, San Fransisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2004.

Uebbing, J. J.

S. Hengstler, J. J. Uebbing, P. McGuire, “Laser-activated optical bubble switch element,” in 2003 IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. on Optical MEMS, Waikoloa, HI, Aug. 18–21, 2003, pp. 117–118.

Vo, T.

K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, T. Vo, “High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching,” in BroadNets 2005. 2nd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, Boston, MA, Oct. 7, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 1118–1123.

Webb, R.

A. Bianco, M. Franceschinis, S. Ghisolfi, A. Hill, E. Leonardi, F. Neri, R. Webb, “Frame-based matching algorithms for input-queued switches,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, 2002. Merging Optical and IP Technologies, Kobe, Japan, May 2002, pp. 69–76.

Weller, T.

T. Weller, B. Hajek, “Scheduling nonuniform traffic in a packet-switching system with small propagation delay,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 813–823, Dec. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

Xin, Li

Li Xin, M. Hamdi, “On scheduling optical packet switches with reconfiguration delay,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, Sept. 2003, pp. 1156–1164.
[CrossRef]

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