Abstract

With wide deployment of optical transport networks and the emergence of bandwidth-intensive applications, the idea of multicasts and groupcasts in optical networks stems from the ability to set up optical point-to-multipoint (multicast) and multipoint-to-multipoint (groupcast) sessions in wavelength-routed networks. As the technology for intelligent optical networks grows, optical groupcast applications (such as grid computing, distributed interactive simulations, multimedia-rich interactive services, virtual private network services, personal–customized content authoring services, and Ethernet LAN services) will become widely popular. In this paper we introduce the concept of groupcast routing and wavelength assignment (GC-RWA) and evaluate the performance of GC-RWA for light-forests corresponding to the groupcast sessions, when these light-forests are composed of lightpaths and light-trees.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Multicast routing algorithms and protocols: a tutorial,” IEEE Network, vol. 14, no. 1, pp 90–102, Jan.–Feb. 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Rahman, M. A. Ali, G. Ellinas, “Building light-forest to support group multicast sessions in mesh-based optical grid networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 5–10, 2006, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper OWQ2.
  3. E. Kozlovski, “Impact of customer interactivity on service provisioning costs in multi-service optical networks,” in 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2008. ICTON 2008, Athens, Greece, 22–26 June 2008, vol. 2, pp. 198–200.
  4. N. Kim, J. Kim, S. Lee, H. Song, “Click2movie: Personal-customized content authoring service IPTV platform,” in IEEE Int. Symp. on Consumer Electronics, 2008. ISCE 2008, Vilamoura, Portugal, April 14–16, 2008, pp. 1–4.
  5. TeraGrid User Portal, http://www.teragrid.org/.
  6. CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Computing Grid Project (LGC), http://lcg.web.cern.ch/LGC/.
  7. Open Grid Forum, http://www.ggf.org/.
  8. Ethernet Services Attributes Phase 2, Metro Ethernet Forum Technical Specification MEF 10.1, Nov. 2006.
  9. Requirements and Framework for Ethernet Service Protection in Metro Ethernet Networks, Metro Ethernet Forum Technical Specification MEF 2, Feb. 2004.
  10. S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, June 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. E. Stern, G. Ellinas, K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks: Architectures, Design, and Control, 2nd ed., Cambridge, UK: Cambridge U. Press, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivaranjan, Optical Networks: a Practical Perspective, 2nd ed., San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2002.
  13. O. Yu, Y. Cao, “Dynamic groupcast traffic grooming in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications. ICC ’06, Istanbul, Turkey, June 2006, vol. 6, pp. 2606–2612.
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Cao, O. Yu, “On the study of group multicast in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications. ICC 2005, Seoul, South Korea, May 16–20, 2005, vol. 3, pp. 1625–1630.
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Cao, O. Yu, “Groupcast in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 4286–4295, Nov. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Cao, O. Yu, “QoS-guaranteed routing and wavelength assignment for group multicast in optical WDM networks,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling 2005, Milan, Italy, Feb. 7–9, 2005, pp. 175–184
  17. K. Bala, “Routing in linear lightwave networks,” Ph.D. dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University, 1993.
  18. C. S. R. Murthy, M. Gurusamy, WDM Optical Networks: Concepts, Design, and Algorithms, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002.
  19. T. Rahman, G. Ellinas, “Protection of multicast sessions in WDM mesh optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA: March 6–11 2005, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2005, vol. 2, paper OTuK5.
  20. J. He, S. H. G. Chan, D. H. K. Tsang, “Multicasting in WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 2–20, July 2002.
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, June 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. He, S. H. G. Chan, D. H. K. Tsang, “Multicasting in WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 2–20, July 2002.
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Multicast routing algorithms and protocols: a tutorial,” IEEE Network, vol. 14, no. 1, pp 90–102, Jan.–Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Ali, M. A.

T. Rahman, M. A. Ali, G. Ellinas, “Building light-forest to support group multicast sessions in mesh-based optical grid networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 5–10, 2006, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper OWQ2.

Bala, K.

K. Bala, “Routing in linear lightwave networks,” Ph.D. dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University, 1993.

T. E. Stern, G. Ellinas, K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks: Architectures, Design, and Control, 2nd ed., Cambridge, UK: Cambridge U. Press, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

Y. Cao, O. Yu, “Groupcast in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 4286–4295, Nov. 2006.
[CrossRef]

O. Yu, Y. Cao, “Dynamic groupcast traffic grooming in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications. ICC ’06, Istanbul, Turkey, June 2006, vol. 6, pp. 2606–2612.
[CrossRef]

Y. Cao, O. Yu, “On the study of group multicast in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications. ICC 2005, Seoul, South Korea, May 16–20, 2005, vol. 3, pp. 1625–1630.
[CrossRef]

Y. Cao, O. Yu, “QoS-guaranteed routing and wavelength assignment for group multicast in optical WDM networks,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling 2005, Milan, Italy, Feb. 7–9, 2005, pp. 175–184

Chan, S. H. G.

J. He, S. H. G. Chan, D. H. K. Tsang, “Multicasting in WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 2–20, July 2002.
[CrossRef]

Ellinas, G.

T. E. Stern, G. Ellinas, K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks: Architectures, Design, and Control, 2nd ed., Cambridge, UK: Cambridge U. Press, 2008.
[CrossRef]

T. Rahman, M. A. Ali, G. Ellinas, “Building light-forest to support group multicast sessions in mesh-based optical grid networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 5–10, 2006, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper OWQ2.

T. Rahman, G. Ellinas, “Protection of multicast sessions in WDM mesh optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA: March 6–11 2005, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2005, vol. 2, paper OTuK5.

Gurusamy, M.

C. S. R. Murthy, M. Gurusamy, WDM Optical Networks: Concepts, Design, and Algorithms, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002.

He, J.

J. He, S. H. G. Chan, D. H. K. Tsang, “Multicasting in WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 2–20, July 2002.
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

N. Kim, J. Kim, S. Lee, H. Song, “Click2movie: Personal-customized content authoring service IPTV platform,” in IEEE Int. Symp. on Consumer Electronics, 2008. ISCE 2008, Vilamoura, Portugal, April 14–16, 2008, pp. 1–4.

Kim, N.

N. Kim, J. Kim, S. Lee, H. Song, “Click2movie: Personal-customized content authoring service IPTV platform,” in IEEE Int. Symp. on Consumer Electronics, 2008. ISCE 2008, Vilamoura, Portugal, April 14–16, 2008, pp. 1–4.

Kozlovski, E.

E. Kozlovski, “Impact of customer interactivity on service provisioning costs in multi-service optical networks,” in 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2008. ICTON 2008, Athens, Greece, 22–26 June 2008, vol. 2, pp. 198–200.

Kumar, V.

S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, June 2003.
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

N. Kim, J. Kim, S. Lee, H. Song, “Click2movie: Personal-customized content authoring service IPTV platform,” in IEEE Int. Symp. on Consumer Electronics, 2008. ISCE 2008, Vilamoura, Portugal, April 14–16, 2008, pp. 1–4.

Mukherjee, B.

L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Multicast routing algorithms and protocols: a tutorial,” IEEE Network, vol. 14, no. 1, pp 90–102, Jan.–Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Murthy, C. S. R.

C. S. R. Murthy, M. Gurusamy, WDM Optical Networks: Concepts, Design, and Algorithms, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002.

Rahman, T.

T. Rahman, M. A. Ali, G. Ellinas, “Building light-forest to support group multicast sessions in mesh-based optical grid networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 5–10, 2006, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper OWQ2.

T. Rahman, G. Ellinas, “Protection of multicast sessions in WDM mesh optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA: March 6–11 2005, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2005, vol. 2, paper OTuK5.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivaranjan, Optical Networks: a Practical Perspective, 2nd ed., San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2002.

Saha, D.

S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, June 2003.
[CrossRef]

Sahasrabuddhe, L. H.

L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Multicast routing algorithms and protocols: a tutorial,” IEEE Network, vol. 14, no. 1, pp 90–102, Jan.–Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Sengupta, S.

S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, June 2003.
[CrossRef]

Sivaranjan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivaranjan, Optical Networks: a Practical Perspective, 2nd ed., San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2002.

Song, H.

N. Kim, J. Kim, S. Lee, H. Song, “Click2movie: Personal-customized content authoring service IPTV platform,” in IEEE Int. Symp. on Consumer Electronics, 2008. ISCE 2008, Vilamoura, Portugal, April 14–16, 2008, pp. 1–4.

Stern, T. E.

T. E. Stern, G. Ellinas, K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks: Architectures, Design, and Control, 2nd ed., Cambridge, UK: Cambridge U. Press, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Tsang, D. H. K.

J. He, S. H. G. Chan, D. H. K. Tsang, “Multicasting in WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 2–20, July 2002.
[CrossRef]

Yu, O.

Y. Cao, O. Yu, “Groupcast in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 4286–4295, Nov. 2006.
[CrossRef]

O. Yu, Y. Cao, “Dynamic groupcast traffic grooming in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications. ICC ’06, Istanbul, Turkey, June 2006, vol. 6, pp. 2606–2612.
[CrossRef]

Y. Cao, O. Yu, “On the study of group multicast in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications. ICC 2005, Seoul, South Korea, May 16–20, 2005, vol. 3, pp. 1625–1630.
[CrossRef]

Y. Cao, O. Yu, “QoS-guaranteed routing and wavelength assignment for group multicast in optical WDM networks,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling 2005, Milan, Italy, Feb. 7–9, 2005, pp. 175–184

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, June 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

J. He, S. H. G. Chan, D. H. K. Tsang, “Multicasting in WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 2–20, July 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network (1)

L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Multicast routing algorithms and protocols: a tutorial,” IEEE Network, vol. 14, no. 1, pp 90–102, Jan.–Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Other (16)

T. Rahman, M. A. Ali, G. Ellinas, “Building light-forest to support group multicast sessions in mesh-based optical grid networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 5–10, 2006, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper OWQ2.

E. Kozlovski, “Impact of customer interactivity on service provisioning costs in multi-service optical networks,” in 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2008. ICTON 2008, Athens, Greece, 22–26 June 2008, vol. 2, pp. 198–200.

N. Kim, J. Kim, S. Lee, H. Song, “Click2movie: Personal-customized content authoring service IPTV platform,” in IEEE Int. Symp. on Consumer Electronics, 2008. ISCE 2008, Vilamoura, Portugal, April 14–16, 2008, pp. 1–4.

TeraGrid User Portal, http://www.teragrid.org/.

CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Computing Grid Project (LGC), http://lcg.web.cern.ch/LGC/.

Open Grid Forum, http://www.ggf.org/.

Ethernet Services Attributes Phase 2, Metro Ethernet Forum Technical Specification MEF 10.1, Nov. 2006.

Requirements and Framework for Ethernet Service Protection in Metro Ethernet Networks, Metro Ethernet Forum Technical Specification MEF 2, Feb. 2004.

T. E. Stern, G. Ellinas, K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks: Architectures, Design, and Control, 2nd ed., Cambridge, UK: Cambridge U. Press, 2008.
[CrossRef]

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivaranjan, Optical Networks: a Practical Perspective, 2nd ed., San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2002.

O. Yu, Y. Cao, “Dynamic groupcast traffic grooming in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications. ICC ’06, Istanbul, Turkey, June 2006, vol. 6, pp. 2606–2612.
[CrossRef]

Y. Cao, O. Yu, “On the study of group multicast in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications. ICC 2005, Seoul, South Korea, May 16–20, 2005, vol. 3, pp. 1625–1630.
[CrossRef]

Y. Cao, O. Yu, “QoS-guaranteed routing and wavelength assignment for group multicast in optical WDM networks,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling 2005, Milan, Italy, Feb. 7–9, 2005, pp. 175–184

K. Bala, “Routing in linear lightwave networks,” Ph.D. dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University, 1993.

C. S. R. Murthy, M. Gurusamy, WDM Optical Networks: Concepts, Design, and Algorithms, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002.

T. Rahman, G. Ellinas, “Protection of multicast sessions in WDM mesh optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA: March 6–11 2005, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2005, vol. 2, paper OTuK5.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Lightpath- and light-tree-based groupcast in wavelength-routed networks.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

14-node NSFNet.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

24-node AT&T network.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Groupcast versus multicast performance in wavelength-routed networks.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Groupcast performance in a 14-node versus a 24-node network.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wavelengths required for groupcast in NSFNet versus AT&T network.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Groupcast routing performance for MCP versus MHP in NSFNet.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Wavelengths per fiber required in NSFNet for MCP and MHP algorithms.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Groupcast sessions in OXC-based network (NSFNet) with and without wavelength conversion.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Wavelength usage per groupcast session in the wavelength-continuous OXC-based NSFNet network.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Cost ratio per groupcast session in the wavelength-continuous OXC-based NSFNet network.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Light-forest with four light-trees.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Performance of lightpath- versus light-tree-based GC-RWA for dynamic traffic.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Heuristic comparison for groupcast sessions in the NSFNet network.

Tables (9)

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Table 1 Lightpath-Based Minimum-Cost Groupcast RWA Algorithm (MC_GCRWA)

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Table 2 Lightpath-Based Minimum-Cost Multicast RWA Algorithm (MC_MCRWA)

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Table 3 Lightpath-Based MHP GC-RWA Algorithm (MHP_GCRWA)

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Table 4 Lightpath-Based Groupcast With No Wavelength Conversion: Optical Groupcast Heuristic for Monocolor Light-Trees

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Table 5 Lightpath-Based Groupcast With No Wavelength Conversion: Optical Groupcast Heuristic for Multicolor Light-Trees

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Table 6 Lightpath-Based Groupcast With Wavelength Conversion for Rainbow Light-Trees: Optical Groupcast Heuristic for Rainbow Light-Forests

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Table 7 Layered-Graph-Based Groupcasting for Wavelength-Continuous OXC-Based Networks: Wavelength-Optimized Optical Groupcast Heuristic

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Table 8 Routing Algorithms to Build Groupcast Light-Forest

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Table 9 Light-Tree-Based Groupcasts With No Wavelength Conversion: Cost Optimization Heuristic for Groupcast in MC-OXC Networks