Abstract

Aiming at better resource utilization, an important requirement of future optical transport networks is the capability to accommodate subwavelength client flows efficiently. This can be put into action thanks to the enhanced traffic engineering (TE) protocols provided within the generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS) standardization. The present paper concentrates on the design and implementation of a GMPLS-controlled grooming-capable transport infrastructure, namely, the automatically switched optical network (ASON)/GMPLS CARISMA test bed. Through the paper, the operation of a GMPLS-controlled multilayer network architecture is introduced, subsequently highlighting implementation issues that come to light. Special attention is devoted to a centralized flow reallocation module deployed in the CARISMA test bed to minimize the overall network cost. In this context, an integer linear programming (ILP) formulation to obtain its optimal cost is derived and low-weighted metaheuristics providing a nearly optimal solution are additionally proposed. All contributions in the paper are supported by illustrative experimental results.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. ITU-T Rec. G.8080/Y.1304, “Architecture for the automatically switched optical networks,” Nov. 2001.
  2. E. Mannie, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” IETF RFC 3945, Oct. 2004.
  3. O. Gerstel, P. Lin, G. Sasaki, “Combined WDM and SONET network design,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 1998, pp. 734–743.
  4. K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM meshed network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Dutta, G. N. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks: past and future,” IEEE Network, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 46–56, Nov. 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Label switched paths (LSP) hierarchy with generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) traffic engineering (TE),” IETF RFC 4206, Oct. 2005.
  7. J. Comellas, R. Martínez, J. Prat, V. Sales, G. Junyent, “Integrated IP/WDM routing in GMPLS-based optical networks,” IEEE Network, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Katz, K. Kompella, D. Yeung, “Traffic engineering (TE) extensions to OSPF version 2,” IETF RFC 3630, Sept. 2003.
  9. L. Berger, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) signaling resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions,” IETF RFC 3473, Jan. 2003.
  10. D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” IETF RFC 3209, Dec. 2001.
  11. B. Ramamurthy, A. Ramakrishnan, “Virtual topology reconfiguration of wavelength routed optical WDM networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2000, pp. 1269–1275.
  12. R. Mahalati, R. Dutta, “Reconfiguration of traffic grooming optical networks,” in Proc. BROADNETS, 2004, pp. 170–179.
  13. A. Gencata, B. Mukherjee, “Virtual-topology adaptation for WDM mesh networks under dynamic traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 236–247, April 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  14. ITU-T Rec. G.805, “Generic functional architecture of transport networks,” March 2000.
  15. D. Fedyk, O. Aboul-Magd, D. Brungard, J. Lang, D. Papadimitriou, “A transport network view of the link management protocol (LMP),” IETF RFC 4394, Feb. 2006.
  16. I. Bryskin, A. Farrell, “A lexicography for the interpretation of generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) terminology within the context of the ITU-T’s automatically switched optical network (ASON) architecture,” IETF RFC 4397.
  17. ILOG Inc., www.ilog.com
  18. T. Feo, M. Resende, “Greedy randomized adaptive search procedures,” J. Glob. Optim., vol. 6, pp. 109–133, June 1995.
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Bhandari, Survivable Networks: Algorithms for Diverse Routing, Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic, 1999.
  20. J. Perelló, E. Escalona, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, G. Junyent, “Resource discovery in ASON/GMPLS transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 86–92, Aug. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Lang, “Link management protocol (LMP),” IETF RFC 4204, Oct. 2005.
  22. K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Signalling unnumbered links in resource reservation protocol—traffic engineering (RSVP-TE),” IETF RFC 3477, Jan. 2003.

2007 (1)

J. Perelló, E. Escalona, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, G. Junyent, “Resource discovery in ASON/GMPLS transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 86–92, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. Comellas, R. Martínez, J. Prat, V. Sales, G. Junyent, “Integrated IP/WDM routing in GMPLS-based optical networks,” IEEE Network, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar. 2003.
[CrossRef]

A. Gencata, B. Mukherjee, “Virtual-topology adaptation for WDM mesh networks under dynamic traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 236–247, April 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM meshed network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

R. Dutta, G. N. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks: past and future,” IEEE Network, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 46–56, Nov. 2002.
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Feo, M. Resende, “Greedy randomized adaptive search procedures,” J. Glob. Optim., vol. 6, pp. 109–133, June 1995.
[CrossRef]

Aboul-Magd, O.

D. Fedyk, O. Aboul-Magd, D. Brungard, J. Lang, D. Papadimitriou, “A transport network view of the link management protocol (LMP),” IETF RFC 4394, Feb. 2006.

Awduche, D.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” IETF RFC 3209, Dec. 2001.

Berger, L.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” IETF RFC 3209, Dec. 2001.

L. Berger, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) signaling resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions,” IETF RFC 3473, Jan. 2003.

Bhandari, R.

R. Bhandari, Survivable Networks: Algorithms for Diverse Routing, Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic, 1999.

Brungard, D.

D. Fedyk, O. Aboul-Magd, D. Brungard, J. Lang, D. Papadimitriou, “A transport network view of the link management protocol (LMP),” IETF RFC 4394, Feb. 2006.

Bryskin, I.

I. Bryskin, A. Farrell, “A lexicography for the interpretation of generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) terminology within the context of the ITU-T’s automatically switched optical network (ASON) architecture,” IETF RFC 4397.

Comellas, J.

J. Perelló, E. Escalona, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, G. Junyent, “Resource discovery in ASON/GMPLS transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 86–92, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

J. Comellas, R. Martínez, J. Prat, V. Sales, G. Junyent, “Integrated IP/WDM routing in GMPLS-based optical networks,” IEEE Network, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Dutta, R.

R. Dutta, G. N. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks: past and future,” IEEE Network, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 46–56, Nov. 2002.
[CrossRef]

R. Mahalati, R. Dutta, “Reconfiguration of traffic grooming optical networks,” in Proc. BROADNETS, 2004, pp. 170–179.

Escalona, E.

J. Perelló, E. Escalona, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, G. Junyent, “Resource discovery in ASON/GMPLS transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 86–92, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Farrell, A.

I. Bryskin, A. Farrell, “A lexicography for the interpretation of generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) terminology within the context of the ITU-T’s automatically switched optical network (ASON) architecture,” IETF RFC 4397.

Fedyk, D.

D. Fedyk, O. Aboul-Magd, D. Brungard, J. Lang, D. Papadimitriou, “A transport network view of the link management protocol (LMP),” IETF RFC 4394, Feb. 2006.

Feo, T.

T. Feo, M. Resende, “Greedy randomized adaptive search procedures,” J. Glob. Optim., vol. 6, pp. 109–133, June 1995.
[CrossRef]

Gan, D.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” IETF RFC 3209, Dec. 2001.

Gencata, A.

A. Gencata, B. Mukherjee, “Virtual-topology adaptation for WDM mesh networks under dynamic traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 236–247, April 2003.
[CrossRef]

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, P. Lin, G. Sasaki, “Combined WDM and SONET network design,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 1998, pp. 734–743.

Junyent, G.

J. Perelló, E. Escalona, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, G. Junyent, “Resource discovery in ASON/GMPLS transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 86–92, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

J. Comellas, R. Martínez, J. Prat, V. Sales, G. Junyent, “Integrated IP/WDM routing in GMPLS-based optical networks,” IEEE Network, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Katz, D.

D. Katz, K. Kompella, D. Yeung, “Traffic engineering (TE) extensions to OSPF version 2,” IETF RFC 3630, Sept. 2003.

Kompella, K.

D. Katz, K. Kompella, D. Yeung, “Traffic engineering (TE) extensions to OSPF version 2,” IETF RFC 3630, Sept. 2003.

K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Signalling unnumbered links in resource reservation protocol—traffic engineering (RSVP-TE),” IETF RFC 3477, Jan. 2003.

K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Label switched paths (LSP) hierarchy with generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) traffic engineering (TE),” IETF RFC 4206, Oct. 2005.

Lang, J.

D. Fedyk, O. Aboul-Magd, D. Brungard, J. Lang, D. Papadimitriou, “A transport network view of the link management protocol (LMP),” IETF RFC 4394, Feb. 2006.

J. Lang, “Link management protocol (LMP),” IETF RFC 4204, Oct. 2005.

Li, T.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” IETF RFC 3209, Dec. 2001.

Lin, P.

O. Gerstel, P. Lin, G. Sasaki, “Combined WDM and SONET network design,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 1998, pp. 734–743.

Mahalati, R.

R. Mahalati, R. Dutta, “Reconfiguration of traffic grooming optical networks,” in Proc. BROADNETS, 2004, pp. 170–179.

Mannie, E.

E. Mannie, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” IETF RFC 3945, Oct. 2004.

Martínez, R.

J. Comellas, R. Martínez, J. Prat, V. Sales, G. Junyent, “Integrated IP/WDM routing in GMPLS-based optical networks,” IEEE Network, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

A. Gencata, B. Mukherjee, “Virtual-topology adaptation for WDM mesh networks under dynamic traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 236–247, April 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM meshed network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Papadimitriou, D.

D. Fedyk, O. Aboul-Magd, D. Brungard, J. Lang, D. Papadimitriou, “A transport network view of the link management protocol (LMP),” IETF RFC 4394, Feb. 2006.

Perelló, J.

J. Perelló, E. Escalona, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, G. Junyent, “Resource discovery in ASON/GMPLS transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 86–92, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Prat, J.

J. Comellas, R. Martínez, J. Prat, V. Sales, G. Junyent, “Integrated IP/WDM routing in GMPLS-based optical networks,” IEEE Network, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Ramakrishnan, A.

B. Ramamurthy, A. Ramakrishnan, “Virtual topology reconfiguration of wavelength routed optical WDM networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2000, pp. 1269–1275.

Ramamurthy, B.

B. Ramamurthy, A. Ramakrishnan, “Virtual topology reconfiguration of wavelength routed optical WDM networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2000, pp. 1269–1275.

Rekhter, Y.

K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Signalling unnumbered links in resource reservation protocol—traffic engineering (RSVP-TE),” IETF RFC 3477, Jan. 2003.

K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Label switched paths (LSP) hierarchy with generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) traffic engineering (TE),” IETF RFC 4206, Oct. 2005.

Resende, M.

T. Feo, M. Resende, “Greedy randomized adaptive search procedures,” J. Glob. Optim., vol. 6, pp. 109–133, June 1995.
[CrossRef]

Rouskas, G. N.

R. Dutta, G. N. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks: past and future,” IEEE Network, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 46–56, Nov. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Sales, V.

J. Comellas, R. Martínez, J. Prat, V. Sales, G. Junyent, “Integrated IP/WDM routing in GMPLS-based optical networks,” IEEE Network, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, G.

O. Gerstel, P. Lin, G. Sasaki, “Combined WDM and SONET network design,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 1998, pp. 734–743.

Spadaro, S.

J. Perelló, E. Escalona, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, G. Junyent, “Resource discovery in ASON/GMPLS transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 86–92, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, V.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” IETF RFC 3209, Dec. 2001.

Swallow, G.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” IETF RFC 3209, Dec. 2001.

Yeung, D.

D. Katz, K. Kompella, D. Yeung, “Traffic engineering (TE) extensions to OSPF version 2,” IETF RFC 3630, Sept. 2003.

Zhu, K.

K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM meshed network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

J. Perelló, E. Escalona, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, G. Junyent, “Resource discovery in ASON/GMPLS transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 86–92, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM meshed network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network (2)

R. Dutta, G. N. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks: past and future,” IEEE Network, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 46–56, Nov. 2002.
[CrossRef]

J. Comellas, R. Martínez, J. Prat, V. Sales, G. Junyent, “Integrated IP/WDM routing in GMPLS-based optical networks,” IEEE Network, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar. 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

A. Gencata, B. Mukherjee, “Virtual-topology adaptation for WDM mesh networks under dynamic traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 236–247, April 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Glob. Optim. (1)

T. Feo, M. Resende, “Greedy randomized adaptive search procedures,” J. Glob. Optim., vol. 6, pp. 109–133, June 1995.
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

R. Bhandari, Survivable Networks: Algorithms for Diverse Routing, Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic, 1999.

J. Lang, “Link management protocol (LMP),” IETF RFC 4204, Oct. 2005.

K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Signalling unnumbered links in resource reservation protocol—traffic engineering (RSVP-TE),” IETF RFC 3477, Jan. 2003.

ITU-T Rec. G.805, “Generic functional architecture of transport networks,” March 2000.

D. Fedyk, O. Aboul-Magd, D. Brungard, J. Lang, D. Papadimitriou, “A transport network view of the link management protocol (LMP),” IETF RFC 4394, Feb. 2006.

I. Bryskin, A. Farrell, “A lexicography for the interpretation of generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) terminology within the context of the ITU-T’s automatically switched optical network (ASON) architecture,” IETF RFC 4397.

ILOG Inc., www.ilog.com

D. Katz, K. Kompella, D. Yeung, “Traffic engineering (TE) extensions to OSPF version 2,” IETF RFC 3630, Sept. 2003.

L. Berger, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) signaling resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions,” IETF RFC 3473, Jan. 2003.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” IETF RFC 3209, Dec. 2001.

B. Ramamurthy, A. Ramakrishnan, “Virtual topology reconfiguration of wavelength routed optical WDM networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2000, pp. 1269–1275.

R. Mahalati, R. Dutta, “Reconfiguration of traffic grooming optical networks,” in Proc. BROADNETS, 2004, pp. 170–179.

K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Label switched paths (LSP) hierarchy with generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) traffic engineering (TE),” IETF RFC 4206, Oct. 2005.

ITU-T Rec. G.8080/Y.1304, “Architecture for the automatically switched optical networks,” Nov. 2001.

E. Mannie, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” IETF RFC 3945, Oct. 2004.

O. Gerstel, P. Lin, G. Sasaki, “Combined WDM and SONET network design,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 1998, pp. 734–743.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of a single-layered network architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-layer network architecture (a) before and (b) after setting up an end-to-end client LSP supported by three FA-LSPs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of resource reallocation for optimization purposes in a two-layered network scenario.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The ASON/GMPLS CARISMA test bed describing a nine-node meshed scenario.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example of FA-LSP establishment.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

FA-LSP creation cost function for the nine-node topology under study. Bar graph shows the probability that a client LSP request has 1, 2, 3, or 4 hops.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Client LSP blocking probability as a function of the offered load to the network. The situations without FA-LSP capability in the network, with FA-LSP capability, and with FA-LSP capability also deploying a centralized resource reallocation module are considered.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

O/E port reduction in the network in percentages when the ORO metaheuristic is applied in the network.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Algorithm 1: ORO Constructive Phase

Tables Icon

Table 2 Algorithm 2: ORO Reroute Algorithm

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C FA ( H ) = H [ ( 1 p H ) + h H ] ,
α 1 × k S [ C k × ( 1 ζ k ) ] + α 2 × i E j R ( i ) ( ψ i j × L i j ) + α 3 × k S δ k
j R ( i ) η i j = 1 , i E ,
i E j R ( i ) W i × Q i j k × η i j δ k , k S ,
ζ k δ k ( M k × ζ k ) , k S ,
ρ i + k S [ ζ k × j R ( i ) ( N ij × Q i j k ) ] k S j R ( i ) ( N ij × Q i j k ) 1 , i E ,
k S [ ( 1 ζ k ) × j R ( i ) ( N ij × Q i j k ) ] ρ i 0 , i E ,
ψ i j = η i j N i j × η i j , i E , j R ( i ) ,
j R ( i ) ψ i j = ρ i , i E ,
ζ k , η i j , ρ i , ψ i j { 0 , 1 } , δ k integer .