Abstract

We experimentally show how the virtual private large-area network service (VPLS) technique, a layer 2 service, can improve optical network performance in terms of quality of service (QoS), and how a VPLS network behaves when it adopts all-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC), a new optical process that will be introduced in future optical networks. The advantages of VPLS are based on the capability to generate logical reliable paths in each wavelength channel, permitting suitable partitioning of the bandwidth according to the user requirements. In particular, we show the advantages of VPLS in access networks based on passive optical networks, and we test QoS properties of VPLS paths when an AOWC process occurs both in the core and in the access networks. The experimental investigation is carried out in a wide-area, all-optical gigabit Ethernet testbed with an access section based on an Ethernet passive optical network. As far as the core segment is concerned, we chose a high-efficiency AOWC process based on four-wave mixing in dispersion-shifted fiber; conversely in the access segment we chose a cheaper AOWC process based on cross gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier. The reported results show that gigabit Ethernet transmission, with the relative layer 2 techniques, is also well suitable for wide-area WDM architectures, and in particular it is able to guarantee end-to-end QoS for huge bandwidth services such as high-definition TV and also in the case of congestion, restoration, and wavelength conversion processes.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009

D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “Architecture to integrate multiple PONs with long reach DWDM backhaul,” IEEE J. Sel. Area in Commun., vol. 27, pp. 1–7, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Pompei, L. Rea, F. Matera, A. Valenti, “Experimental Investigation on optical gigabit Ethernet network reliability for high-definition IPTV services,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 7, pp. 426–435, 2008.
[CrossRef]

F. Matera, L. Rea, A. Valenti, S. Pompei, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, F. Curti, D. Forin, G. Incerti, S. Di Bartolo, M. Settembre, “Network performance investigation in a wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed adopting the all optical wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 2144–2146, 2008.
[CrossRef]

L. Rea, S. Pompei, A. Valenti, F. Matera, C. Zema, M. Settembre, “Quality of service control based on virtual private network services in wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 27, pp. 301–307, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007

F. Matera, L. Rea, M. Venezia, L. Capanna, G. Del Prete, “Fast restoration based on alternative wavelength paths in a wide area optical IP network,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 123–134, 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, R. S. Tucker, “Bandwidth-efficient PON system for broad-band access and local customer internetworking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 670–672, 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2001

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, “Ethernet PON (ePON): design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 307–319, 2001.
[CrossRef]

1996

S. J. B. Yoo, “Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network application,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 955–966, 1996.
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.-G.

Ali, M.

G. Chiruvolu, A. Ge, D. Elie-Dit-Cosaque, M. Ali, J. Rouyer, “Issue and approaches on extending Ethernet beyond LANs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 80–86, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, A.

Batayneh, M.

M. Batayneh, D. A. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstadter, B. Mukherjee, “On reliable and cost-efficient design of carrier- grade Ethernet in a multi-line rate network under transmission-range constraints,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, Calif., March 25–29, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP10.

Bayvel, P.

Breuer, D.

Capanna, L.

F. Matera, L. Rea, M. Venezia, L. Capanna, G. Del Prete, “Fast restoration based on alternative wavelength paths in a wide area optical IP network,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 123–134, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Cavendish, D.

D. Cavendish, “Operation, administration, and maintenance of Ethernet services in wide area networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 72–79, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Chae, C. J.

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, R. S. Tucker, “Bandwidth-efficient PON system for broad-band access and local customer internetworking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 670–672, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Cheval, P.

F. Le Faucher, B. Davie, S. Davari, P. Vaananen, R. Krishnan, P. Cheval, J. Heinanen, “Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) support of differentiated services,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3270, May 2002, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3270.

Chiruvolu, G.

G. Chiruvolu, A. Ge, D. Elie-Dit-Cosaque, M. Ali, J. Rouyer, “Issue and approaches on extending Ethernet beyond LANs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 80–86, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Clarke, F.

Curti, F.

F. Matera, L. Rea, A. Valenti, S. Pompei, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, F. Curti, D. Forin, G. Incerti, S. Di Bartolo, M. Settembre, “Network performance investigation in a wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed adopting the all optical wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 2144–2146, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Davari, S.

F. Le Faucher, B. Davie, S. Davari, P. Vaananen, R. Krishnan, P. Cheval, J. Heinanen, “Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) support of differentiated services,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3270, May 2002, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3270.

Davie, B.

F. Le Faucher, B. Davie, S. Davari, P. Vaananen, R. Krishnan, P. Cheval, J. Heinanen, “Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) support of differentiated services,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3270, May 2002, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3270.

de Miguel, I.

Del Prete, G.

F. Matera, L. Rea, M. Venezia, L. Capanna, G. Del Prete, “Fast restoration based on alternative wavelength paths in a wide area optical IP network,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 123–134, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Di Bartolo, S.

F. Matera, L. Rea, A. Valenti, S. Pompei, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, F. Curti, D. Forin, G. Incerti, S. Di Bartolo, M. Settembre, “Network performance investigation in a wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed adopting the all optical wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 2144–2146, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Duser, M.

Elie-Dit-Cosaque, D.

G. Chiruvolu, A. Ge, D. Elie-Dit-Cosaque, M. Ali, J. Rouyer, “Issue and approaches on extending Ethernet beyond LANs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 80–86, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Forin, D.

F. Matera, L. Rea, A. Valenti, S. Pompei, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, F. Curti, D. Forin, G. Incerti, S. Di Bartolo, M. Settembre, “Network performance investigation in a wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed adopting the all optical wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 2144–2146, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Ge, A.

G. Chiruvolu, A. Ge, D. Elie-Dit-Cosaque, M. Ali, J. Rouyer, “Issue and approaches on extending Ethernet beyond LANs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 80–86, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Gladish, A.

Hanik, N.

Hares, S.

Y. Rekhter, T. Li, S. Hares, “A border gateway protocol 4 (BGP-4),” Network Working Group Request for Comments 4271, Jan. 2006, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4271.

Heinanen, J.

F. Le Faucher, B. Davie, S. Davari, P. Vaananen, R. Krishnan, P. Cheval, J. Heinanen, “Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) support of differentiated services,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3270, May 2002, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3270.

Hoffmann, M.

M. Batayneh, D. A. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstadter, B. Mukherjee, “On reliable and cost-efficient design of carrier- grade Ethernet in a multi-line rate network under transmission-range constraints,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, Calif., March 25–29, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP10.

Incerti, G.

F. Matera, L. Rea, A. Valenti, S. Pompei, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, F. Curti, D. Forin, G. Incerti, S. Di Bartolo, M. Settembre, “Network performance investigation in a wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed adopting the all optical wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 2144–2146, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Jeong, K.-T.

Kim, K.

Kirstadter, A.

M. Batayneh, D. A. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstadter, B. Mukherjee, “On reliable and cost-efficient design of carrier- grade Ethernet in a multi-line rate network under transmission-range constraints,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, Calif., March 25–29, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP10.

Kompella, K.

K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Virtual private LAN service (VPLS) using BGP for autodiscovery and signaling,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 4761, Jan. 2007, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4761.

Kramer, G.

Krishnan, R.

F. Le Faucher, B. Davie, S. Davari, P. Vaananen, R. Krishnan, P. Cheval, J. Heinanen, “Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) support of differentiated services,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3270, May 2002, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3270.

Le Faucher, F.

F. Le Faucher, B. Davie, S. Davari, P. Vaananen, R. Krishnan, P. Cheval, J. Heinanen, “Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) support of differentiated services,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3270, May 2002, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3270.

Lee, C.-H.

Li, T.

Y. Rekhter, T. Li, S. Hares, “A border gateway protocol 4 (BGP-4),” Network Working Group Request for Comments 4271, Jan. 2006, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4271.

Matera, F.

S. Pompei, L. Rea, F. Matera, A. Valenti, “Experimental Investigation on optical gigabit Ethernet network reliability for high-definition IPTV services,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 7, pp. 426–435, 2008.
[CrossRef]

F. Matera, L. Rea, A. Valenti, S. Pompei, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, F. Curti, D. Forin, G. Incerti, S. Di Bartolo, M. Settembre, “Network performance investigation in a wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed adopting the all optical wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 2144–2146, 2008.
[CrossRef]

L. Rea, S. Pompei, A. Valenti, F. Matera, C. Zema, M. Settembre, “Quality of service control based on virtual private network services in wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 27, pp. 301–307, 2008.
[CrossRef]

F. Matera, L. Rea, M. Venezia, L. Capanna, G. Del Prete, “Fast restoration based on alternative wavelength paths in a wide area optical IP network,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 123–134, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, J. E.

D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “Architecture to integrate multiple PONs with long reach DWDM backhaul,” IEEE J. Sel. Area in Commun., vol. 27, pp. 1–7, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Moy, J.

J. Moy, “OSPF Version 2,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 2328, April 1998, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2328.

Mukherjee, B.

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 4, pp. 737–758, 2005.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, “Ethernet PON (ePON): design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 307–319, 2001.
[CrossRef]

M. Batayneh, D. A. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstadter, B. Mukherjee, “On reliable and cost-efficient design of carrier- grade Ethernet in a multi-line rate network under transmission-range constraints,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, Calif., March 25–29, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP10.

Park, H.-J.

Park, S.-J.

Park, Y.

Pompei, S.

S. Pompei, L. Rea, F. Matera, A. Valenti, “Experimental Investigation on optical gigabit Ethernet network reliability for high-definition IPTV services,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 7, pp. 426–435, 2008.
[CrossRef]

F. Matera, L. Rea, A. Valenti, S. Pompei, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, F. Curti, D. Forin, G. Incerti, S. Di Bartolo, M. Settembre, “Network performance investigation in a wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed adopting the all optical wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 2144–2146, 2008.
[CrossRef]

L. Rea, S. Pompei, A. Valenti, F. Matera, C. Zema, M. Settembre, “Quality of service control based on virtual private network services in wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 27, pp. 301–307, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Rea, L.

L. Rea, S. Pompei, A. Valenti, F. Matera, C. Zema, M. Settembre, “Quality of service control based on virtual private network services in wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 27, pp. 301–307, 2008.
[CrossRef]

F. Matera, L. Rea, A. Valenti, S. Pompei, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, F. Curti, D. Forin, G. Incerti, S. Di Bartolo, M. Settembre, “Network performance investigation in a wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed adopting the all optical wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 2144–2146, 2008.
[CrossRef]

S. Pompei, L. Rea, F. Matera, A. Valenti, “Experimental Investigation on optical gigabit Ethernet network reliability for high-definition IPTV services,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 7, pp. 426–435, 2008.
[CrossRef]

F. Matera, L. Rea, M. Venezia, L. Capanna, G. Del Prete, “Fast restoration based on alternative wavelength paths in a wide area optical IP network,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 123–134, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Rekhter, Y.

Y. Rekhter, T. Li, S. Hares, “A border gateway protocol 4 (BGP-4),” Network Working Group Request for Comments 4271, Jan. 2006, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4271.

K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Virtual private LAN service (VPLS) using BGP for autodiscovery and signaling,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 4761, Jan. 2007, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4761.

Rouyer, J.

G. Chiruvolu, A. Ge, D. Elie-Dit-Cosaque, M. Ali, J. Rouyer, “Issue and approaches on extending Ethernet beyond LANs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 80–86, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Schupke, D. A.

M. Batayneh, D. A. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstadter, B. Mukherjee, “On reliable and cost-efficient design of carrier- grade Ethernet in a multi-line rate network under transmission-range constraints,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, Calif., March 25–29, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP10.

Settembre, M.

L. Rea, S. Pompei, A. Valenti, F. Matera, C. Zema, M. Settembre, “Quality of service control based on virtual private network services in wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 27, pp. 301–307, 2008.
[CrossRef]

F. Matera, L. Rea, A. Valenti, S. Pompei, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, F. Curti, D. Forin, G. Incerti, S. Di Bartolo, M. Settembre, “Network performance investigation in a wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed adopting the all optical wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 2144–2146, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Shea, D. P.

D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “Architecture to integrate multiple PONs with long reach DWDM backhaul,” IEEE J. Sel. Area in Commun., vol. 27, pp. 1–7, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Song, H.

Song, K.-H.

Spencer, J.

Suzuki, M.

M. Suzuki, “Optical networks for broadband fixed and mobile services,” presented at the 33rd European Conf. on Optical Communications, Berlin, Germany, Sept. 16–20, 2007.

Tosi Beleffi, G. M.

F. Matera, L. Rea, A. Valenti, S. Pompei, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, F. Curti, D. Forin, G. Incerti, S. Di Bartolo, M. Settembre, “Network performance investigation in a wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed adopting the all optical wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 2144–2146, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Tran, A. V.

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, R. S. Tucker, “Bandwidth-efficient PON system for broad-band access and local customer internetworking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 670–672, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, R. S. Tucker, “Bandwidth-efficient PON system for broad-band access and local customer internetworking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 670–672, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Vaananen, P.

F. Le Faucher, B. Davie, S. Davari, P. Vaananen, R. Krishnan, P. Cheval, J. Heinanen, “Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) support of differentiated services,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3270, May 2002, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3270.

Valenti, A.

F. Matera, L. Rea, A. Valenti, S. Pompei, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, F. Curti, D. Forin, G. Incerti, S. Di Bartolo, M. Settembre, “Network performance investigation in a wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed adopting the all optical wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 2144–2146, 2008.
[CrossRef]

L. Rea, S. Pompei, A. Valenti, F. Matera, C. Zema, M. Settembre, “Quality of service control based on virtual private network services in wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 27, pp. 301–307, 2008.
[CrossRef]

S. Pompei, L. Rea, F. Matera, A. Valenti, “Experimental Investigation on optical gigabit Ethernet network reliability for high-definition IPTV services,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 7, pp. 426–435, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Venezia, M.

F. Matera, L. Rea, M. Venezia, L. Capanna, G. Del Prete, “Fast restoration based on alternative wavelength paths in a wide area optical IP network,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 123–134, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Yoo, S. J. B.

S. J. B. Yoo, “Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network application,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 955–966, 1996.
[CrossRef]

Zapata, A.

Zema, C.

L. Rea, S. Pompei, A. Valenti, F. Matera, C. Zema, M. Settembre, “Quality of service control based on virtual private network services in wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 27, pp. 301–307, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt.

F. Matera, L. Rea, M. Venezia, L. Capanna, G. Del Prete, “Fast restoration based on alternative wavelength paths in a wide area optical IP network,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 123–134, 2007.
[CrossRef]

L. Rea, S. Pompei, A. Valenti, F. Matera, C. Zema, M. Settembre, “Quality of service control based on virtual private network services in wide area gigabit Ethernet test bed,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 27, pp. 301–307, 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

D. Cavendish, “Operation, administration, and maintenance of Ethernet services in wide area networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 72–79, 2004.
[CrossRef]

G. Chiruvolu, A. Ge, D. Elie-Dit-Cosaque, M. Ali, J. Rouyer, “Issue and approaches on extending Ethernet beyond LANs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 80–86, 2004.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Area in Commun.

D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “Architecture to integrate multiple PONs with long reach DWDM backhaul,” IEEE J. Sel. Area in Commun., vol. 27, pp. 1–7, 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, R. S. Tucker, “Bandwidth-efficient PON system for broad-band access and local customer internetworking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 670–672, 2006.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Testbed design. Routers, OLT, and ONUs are interconnected with optical fiber GbE interfaces. Provider edge (PE) nodes are Juniper M10, and customer edge (CE) nodes are CISCO 3845.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

For 44 Mbits s streams at the ONU2 output, (a) throughput, (b) lost data evaluation, (c) jitter evaluation, (d) one-way delay evaluation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Testbed including all-optical wavelength conversion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength converter setup: Ph mod, phase modulator to control the Brillouin effect; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical spectrum at the DS fiber output.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Thoughput for 40 Mbit s fluxes at the ONU2 output in the presence of the wavelength conversion process. T1, wavelength conversion restoration [case (b); T2, failure repaired and λ 1 reaches J4; T3, as at T1; T4, as at T2; T5, simple variation from λ 1 to λ c ; and T6, λ c changes to λ 1 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental setup for AOWC based on an SOA. PC, polarization control.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Signal conversions with double XGM.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

BER versus received power: a) back to back, b) AOWC with double XGM, c) ASE noise modulation and XGM.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Signal conversions with noise modulation and single XGM.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Two pictures taken from MPEG2 HD TV streaming at ONU2 output with SOA AOWC in the access. On the left the AOWC is based on double XGM; on the right, on noise modulation and single XGM