Abstract

The intensification of traffic in the access network requires the development of novel architectural solutions for a reconfigurable network topology and components based on optical technologies. We present a hybrid ring-shaped wavelength division multiplexing (WDM)–time division multiplexing (TDM) passive optical network (PON) that is capable of providing bandwidth on demand at high bit rates in a transparent and dynamic manner. Our cost-efficient and scalable network architecture is based on integratable components such as a wavelength-agile optical networking unit and a microring-resonator-based remote node. An appropriately modified control layer is introduced to manage the network. We also discuss the implementation of optical codes instead of time slots to take the step toward optical code division multiplexing (OCDM) WDM PONs that relieve the network of strict time scheduling of traffic and ranging. Therefore, an additional reduction of complexity in network management, improvement of network scalability, and a guarantee of fully symmetric traffic are foreseen for every user. Finally, we show a scenario for smooth migration from existing PON solutions to our WDM–TDM PON architecture.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009

P. J. Urban, E. G. C. Pluk, M. M. de Laat, F. M. Huijskens, G. D. Khoe, A. M. J. Koonen, H. de Waardt, “1.25 Gbit∕s transmission over an access network link with tuneable OADM and a reflective SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 380–382, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008

E. Iannone, “Passive optical networks must evolve to survive,” Fibre Systems Eur., pp. 26–27, Jan. 2008, http://fibresystems.org/cws/article/magazine/32042.

E. Yetginer, E. Karasan, “Dynamic wavelength allocation in IP/WDM metro access networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, pp. 13–27, 2008.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Heron, T. Pfeiffer, D. T. van Veen, J. Smith, S. S. Patel, “Technology innovations and architecture solutions for the next-generation optical access network,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 13, pp. 163–181, 2008.
[CrossRef]

K. Grobe, J.-P. Elbers, “PON in adolescence: from TDMA to WDM-PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 26–34, Jan. 2008.
[CrossRef]

P. W. Shumate, “Fiber-to-the-home: 1977–2007,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, pp. 1093–1103, 2008.
[CrossRef]

B. Huiszoon, F. T. H. den Hartog, M. Garcia Larrode, A. M. J. Koonen, “Layer 2 and 3 contention resolution and radio-over-fiber in OCDMA PON for transparent optical access in personal networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, pp. 1752–1764, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007

A. E. Wilner, P. Saghari, V. R. Arbab, “Advanced techniques to increase the number of users and bit rate in OCDMA networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 13, pp. 1403–1414, 2007.
[CrossRef]

E. J. Klein, P. J. Urban, G. Sengo, L. T. H. Hilderink, M. Hoekman, R. Pellens, P. van Dijk, A. Driessen, “Densely integrated microring resonator based photonic devices for use in access networks,” Opt. Express, vol. 15, pp. 10346–10355, 2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xiao, X. Du, J. Zhang, F. Hu, S. Guizani, “Internet protocol television (IPTV): the killer application for the next-generation internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 126–134, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

B. Huiszoon, L. M. Augustin, E. A. J. M. Bente, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, A. M. J. Koonen, “Integrated Mach-Zehnder-based spectral amplitude OCDMA on a passive optical network,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 13, pp. 1487–1496, 2007.
[CrossRef]

K. Fouli, M. Maier, “OCDMA and optical coding: principles, applications, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 27–34, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 4, pp. 737–757, 2005.
[CrossRef]

F.-T. An, D. Gutierrez, K. S. Kim, J. W. Lee, L. G. Kazovsky, “SUCCESS-HPON: a next-generation optical access architecture for smooth migration from TDM-PON to WDM-PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 11, pp. S40–S47, Nov. 2005.
[CrossRef]

V. Baby, I. Glesk, R. J. Runser, R. Fischer, Y.-K. Huang, C. -S. Bres, W. C. Kwong, T. H. Curtis, P. R. Prucnal, “Experimental demonstration and scalability analysis of a four-node 102-Gchip∕s fast frequency-hopping time-spreading optical CDMA network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 253–255, 2005.
[CrossRef]

2001

A. M. J. Koonen, K. Steenbergen, F. Janssen, J. Wellen, “Flexibly reconfigurable fiber-wireless network using wavelength routing techniques: the ACTS project AC349 PRISMA,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 3, pp. 297–306, 2001.
[CrossRef]

2000

I. van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, “The SuperPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

1999

A. M. J. Koonen, “Flexible wavelength multiplexing techniques for broadband fibre access networks,” Telektronikk, vol. 95, pp. 119–128, 1999.

1997

A. M. J. Koonen, T. Muys, C. van der Plaats, S. M. Heemstra de Groot, H. J. H. N. Kenter, I. G. M. M. Niemegeers, F. N. C. Slothouber, “TOBASCO: an innovative approach for upgrading CATV fiber-coax networks for broadband interactive services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 76–81, Apr. 1997.
[CrossRef]

1972

F. Zernike, J. C. Webster, “Amplitude modulators based on the Michelson interferometer,” IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason., vol. 3, pp. 163–167, 1972.
[CrossRef]

An, F.-T.

F.-T. An, D. Gutierrez, K. S. Kim, J. W. Lee, L. G. Kazovsky, “SUCCESS-HPON: a next-generation optical access architecture for smooth migration from TDM-PON to WDM-PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 11, pp. S40–S47, Nov. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Arbab, V. R.

A. E. Wilner, P. Saghari, V. R. Arbab, “Advanced techniques to increase the number of users and bit rate in OCDMA networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 13, pp. 1403–1414, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Augustin, L. M.

B. Huiszoon, L. M. Augustin, E. A. J. M. Bente, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, A. M. J. Koonen, “Integrated Mach-Zehnder-based spectral amplitude OCDMA on a passive optical network,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 13, pp. 1487–1496, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Baby, V.

V. Baby, I. Glesk, R. J. Runser, R. Fischer, Y.-K. Huang, C. -S. Bres, W. C. Kwong, T. H. Curtis, P. R. Prucnal, “Experimental demonstration and scalability analysis of a four-node 102-Gchip∕s fast frequency-hopping time-spreading optical CDMA network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 253–255, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Balaguer, P. E.

J. Prat, P. E. Balaguer, J. M. Gené, O. Diaz, Fiber-to-the-Home Technologies, Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, A.

Bente, E. A. J. M.

B. Huiszoon, L. M. Augustin, E. A. J. M. Bente, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, A. M. J. Koonen, “Integrated Mach-Zehnder-based spectral amplitude OCDMA on a passive optical network,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 13, pp. 1487–1496, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Blache, F.

A. Garreau, J. Decobert, C. Kazmierski, M. C. Cuisin, J. G. Provost, H. Sillard, F. Blache, D. Carpentier, J. Landreau, P. Chanclou, “10 Gbit∕s amplified reflective electroabsorption modulator for colorless access networks,” in 2006 Int. Conf. on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials Conf. Proc., Princeton, NJ, May 7–11, 2006, pp. 68–170.

Bres, C. -S.

V. Baby, I. Glesk, R. J. Runser, R. Fischer, Y.-K. Huang, C. -S. Bres, W. C. Kwong, T. H. Curtis, P. R. Prucnal, “Experimental demonstration and scalability analysis of a four-node 102-Gchip∕s fast frequency-hopping time-spreading optical CDMA network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 253–255, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Carpentier, D.

A. Garreau, J. Decobert, C. Kazmierski, M. C. Cuisin, J. G. Provost, H. Sillard, F. Blache, D. Carpentier, J. Landreau, P. Chanclou, “10 Gbit∕s amplified reflective electroabsorption modulator for colorless access networks,” in 2006 Int. Conf. on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials Conf. Proc., Princeton, NJ, May 7–11, 2006, pp. 68–170.

Chanclou, P.

A. Garreau, J. Decobert, C. Kazmierski, M. C. Cuisin, J. G. Provost, H. Sillard, F. Blache, D. Carpentier, J. Landreau, P. Chanclou, “10 Gbit∕s amplified reflective electroabsorption modulator for colorless access networks,” in 2006 Int. Conf. on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials Conf. Proc., Princeton, NJ, May 7–11, 2006, pp. 68–170.

Cho, K.

K. Cho, K. Fukuda, H. Esaki, A. Kato, “The impact and implications of the growth in residential user-to-user traffic,” in Proc. 2006 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Pisa, Italy, Sept. 11–15, 2006, pp. 207–208.

Chow, C. W.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. Davey, T. de Ridder, X.-Z. Qui, P. Ossieur, H.-G. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network PIEMAN,” in 12th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications—NOC 2007, Stockholm, Sweden, June 18–21, 2007, pp. 493–500.

Clarke, F.

Cuisin, M. C.

A. Garreau, J. Decobert, C. Kazmierski, M. C. Cuisin, J. G. Provost, H. Sillard, F. Blache, D. Carpentier, J. Landreau, P. Chanclou, “10 Gbit∕s amplified reflective electroabsorption modulator for colorless access networks,” in 2006 Int. Conf. on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials Conf. Proc., Princeton, NJ, May 7–11, 2006, pp. 68–170.

Curtis, T. H.

V. Baby, I. Glesk, R. J. Runser, R. Fischer, Y.-K. Huang, C. -S. Bres, W. C. Kwong, T. H. Curtis, P. R. Prucnal, “Experimental demonstration and scalability analysis of a four-node 102-Gchip∕s fast frequency-hopping time-spreading optical CDMA network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 253–255, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Davey, R.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. Davey, T. de Ridder, X.-Z. Qui, P. Ossieur, H.-G. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network PIEMAN,” in 12th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications—NOC 2007, Stockholm, Sweden, June 18–21, 2007, pp. 493–500.

de Laat, M. M.

P. J. Urban, E. G. C. Pluk, M. M. de Laat, F. M. Huijskens, G. D. Khoe, A. M. J. Koonen, H. de Waardt, “1.25 Gbit∕s transmission over an access network link with tuneable OADM and a reflective SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 380–382, 2009.
[CrossRef]

de Ridder, T.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. Davey, T. de Ridder, X.-Z. Qui, P. Ossieur, H.-G. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network PIEMAN,” in 12th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications—NOC 2007, Stockholm, Sweden, June 18–21, 2007, pp. 493–500.

de Vries, T.

L. Xu, X. J. M. Leijtens, M. J. H. Sander-Jochem, T. de Vries, Y. S. Oei, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, M. K. Smit, “InP based polarization insensitive tunable duplexer and integrated reflective transceiver,” in European Conf. on Integrated Optics, Copenhagen, Denmark, Apr. 25–27, 2007, paper WA2.

de Waardt, H.

P. J. Urban, E. G. C. Pluk, M. M. de Laat, F. M. Huijskens, G. D. Khoe, A. M. J. Koonen, H. de Waardt, “1.25 Gbit∕s transmission over an access network link with tuneable OADM and a reflective SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 380–382, 2009.
[CrossRef]

B. Huiszoon, L. M. Augustin, E. A. J. M. Bente, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, A. M. J. Koonen, “Integrated Mach-Zehnder-based spectral amplitude OCDMA on a passive optical network,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 13, pp. 1487–1496, 2007.
[CrossRef]

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A. M. J. Koonen, A. Ng’oma, G.-J. Rijckenberg, M. Garcia Larrode, P. J. Urban, H. de Waardt, J. Yang, H. Yang, H. P. A. van den Boom, “How deep should fiber go into the access network?” in 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication—ECOC 2007, Berlin, Germany, Sept. 16–20, 2007, pp. 114–117.
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P. J. Urban, E. J. Klein, L. Xu, E. G. C. Pluk, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “1.25–10 Gbit∕s reconfigurable access network architecture,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2007. ICTON ’07, Rome, Italy, July 1–5, 2007, pp. 293–296.
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P. J. Urban, E. J. Klein, L. Xu, E. G. C. Pluk, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “1.25–10 Gbit∕s bidirectional link in an access network employing a reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer and a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” in 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2008. ICTON 2008, Athens, Greece, June 22–26, 2008, vol. 4, pp. 166–169.

P. J. Urban, E. J. Klein, L. Xu, E. G. C. Pluk, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “1.25–10 Gbit∕s reconfigurable access network architecture,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2007. ICTON ’07, Rome, Italy, July 1–5, 2007, pp. 293–296.
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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System blocking probability versus relative system load for static and dynamic capacity allocation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

BBPhotonics network architecture.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Eight-port OADM.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Basic operation of a microring resonator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Prototype OADM with four microring resonators.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Through-port response of a prototype OADM.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Resonant wavelength shift versus voltage applied to the heaters.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Solutions for the BBPhotonics ONU, including (a) RSOA, (b) REAM, and (c) MIM.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Eye diagrams of the reflective modulators shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Wavelength architecture (a) at the OADM and (b) at the MZ duplexer outputs in the ONU.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Setup for transmission experiment [28].

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Transmission experiment results. BER, bit error rate; ROP, received optical power.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Setup for switching experiment.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Switching experiment results.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Concept of bandwidth reallocation.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

CO enabling 2D OCDMA in BBPhotonics.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

RN enabling 2D OCDMA in BBPhotonics.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Architecture of the optical networking unit enabling 2D OCDMA in BBPhotonics.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Filter scheme applied in the the optical networking unit enabling 2D OCDMA in BBPhotonics.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Migration scenario from (a) existing PtP topology via (b) PtMP topology to (c) hybrid ring–PtMP topology.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Downstream Bandwidth Requirements for Future Access Networks