The methods of aquaphotomics were explored as an aid to improve near infrared spectroscopic predictive modelling of the soluble solids content of pure apple juice at different temperatures. The study focussed on the first overtone region of the O–H stretching vibration of water (1300–1600 nm). A transmission-based FT-NIR (Fourier transform near infrared) spectrometer was used to acquire 103 spectra of freshly expressed juice samples from individual ‘Braeburn’ apples over the wavelength range of 870–1800 nm with a 1 mm cuvette at three temperatures, 20, 25 and 30°C. The aquagram of the first overtone water region showed a trend of increasing bound water absorption with rising soluble solids content, from 7.3 to 13.7°Brix, and increasing free water absorption with rising temperature from 20 to 30°C. Predictive models for apple juice soluble solids content at 25°C were developed using partial least squares regression with spectral pre-processing by standard normal variate (SNV) followed by second derivative transformation (SNV + 2D) or no pre-processing on absorbance spectra at all. The best result, with lowest standard error of prediction of 0.38°Brix, was obtained using the first overtone water region with partial least squares regression on the SNV + 2D spectra. The method of extended multiplicative scatter correction was used, as an additional pre-processing step, to improve apple juice soluble solids content prediction at different temperatures. The interference component selected for the extended multiplicative scatter correction method was the first principal component loading measured using pure water samples taken at the same three temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C). Such extended multiplicative scatter correction pre-processing greatly reduced the soluble solids content prediction bias, when applying the partial least squares regression model developed at 20°C to samples measured at 25 and 30°C, from 0.23 to 0.08 and 0.36 to 0.13°Brix, respectively. Model precision (in terms of standard error of prediction) was also slightly improved by 0.02°Brix in each case, from 0.40 to 0.38 and 0.46 to 0.44°Brix at 25 and 30°C respectively.
© 2020 The Author(s)PDF Article