Abstract

A comparative study of three chemometric algorithms combined with NIR spectroscopy with the aim of determining the best performing algorithm for quantitative prediction of iodine value, saponification value, free fatty acids content, and peroxide values of unrefined shea butter. Multivariate calibrations were developed for each parameter using supervised partial least squares, interval partial least squares, and genetic-algorithm partial least square regression methods to establish a linear relationship between standard reference and the Fourier transformed-near infrared predicted. Results showed that genetic-algorithm partial least square models were superior in predicting iodine value and saponification value while partial least squares was excellent in predicting free fatty acids content and peroxide values. The nine-factor genetic-algorithm partial least square iodine value calibration model for predicting iodine value yielded excellent (R2 cal = 0.97), (R2 val = 0.97), low (root mean square error of cross-validation = 0.26), low (root mean square error of Prediction = 0.23), and (ratio of performance to deviation = 6.41); for saponification value, the nine-factor genetic-algorithm partial least square saponification value calibration model had excellent R2 cal (0.97), R2 val (0.99); low root mean square error of cross-validation (0.73), low root mean square error of Prediction (0.53), and (ratio of performance to deviation = 8.27); while for free fatty acids, the 11-factor partial least square free fatty acids produced very high R2 cal (0.97) and R2 val (0.97) with very low root mean square error of cross-validation (0.03), low root mean square error of Prediction (0.04) and (ratio of performance to deviation = 5.30) and finally for peroxide values, the 11-factor partial least square peroxide values calibration model obtained excellent R2 cal (0.96) and R2val (0.98) with low root mean square error of cross-validation (0.05), low root mean square error of Prediction (0.04), and (ratio of performance to deviation = 5.86). The built models were accurate and robust and can be reliably applied in developing a handheld quality detection device for screening, quality control checks, and prediction of shea butter quality on-site.

© 2019 The Author(s)

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