Abstract

This article reviews the application of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in preterm and newborn infants and its clinical value. After an overview of the commercially available instrumentation, which is able to provide absolute values of tissue haemoglobin saturation (StO2), we focus on the application of NIR spectroscopy to measure brain, liver, gastro-intestinal and peripheral oxygenation. From the instrumentation point of view, NIR spectroscopy has gained significantly in clinical importance, especially by being able to measure StO2, i.e. an absolute parameter. An increasing number of commercial instruments is available today and the number of users is virtually exploding. However, the precision of the measurements is still too low from a clinical point of view and the variety of algorithms employed by the different instruments and sensors may provide quite different StO2 values. In the future, the different instruments need to report quantitatively comparable StO2 measurements which are more precise. The measurement of cerebral StO2 may be useful for detecting situations where the oxygenation of the brain may be impaired and the hope is that this indicates situations which lead to brain lesions. However, the clinical utility of cerebral StO2 still needs to be examined. Although liver and gastro-intestinal as well as peripheral measurements are still an object of research and several problems have to be overcome before clinical use, these measurements could be of high value in specific clinical situations.

© 2012 IM Publications LLP

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  89. M.C. Bravo, P. Lopez, F. Cabanas, J. Perez-Rodriguez, E. Perez-Fernandez, and J. Quero, , and A. Pellicer, , “Acute effects of levosimendan on cerebral and systemic perfusion and oxygenation in newborns: An observational study”, Neonatology  99, 217 (2011). doi: 10.1159/000314955

2011 (10)

S.J. Arri, T. Muehlemann, M. Biallas, and H.U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, , “Precision of cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration measurements in neonates measured by near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 047005 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3570303

S.J. Arri, T. Muehlemann, M. Biallas, and H.U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, , “Precision of cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration measurements in neonates measured by near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 047005 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3570303

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J.C. Fauchere, and H.U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, , “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16(9), 097004 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3622756

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J.C. Fauchere, and H.U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, , “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16(9), 097004 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3622756

R.G. Wijbenga and P. Lemmers, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation during the first days of life in preterm and term neonates: Differences between different brain regions”, Pediatr. Res.  70(4), 389 (2011). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e31822a36db

R.G. Wijbenga and P. Lemmers, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation during the first days of life in preterm and term neonates: Differences between different brain regions”, Pediatr. Res.  70(4), 389 (2011). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e31822a36db

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, M. Wolf, P. Lemmers, F. Van Bel, and L. Ameye, and S. Van Huffel, , “Impaired cerebral autoregulation using near-infrared spectroscopy and its relation to clinical outcomes in premature infants”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  701, 233 (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7756-4 31

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, M. Wolf, P. Lemmers, F. Van Bel, and L. Ameye, and S. Van Huffel, , “Impaired cerebral autoregulation using near-infrared spectroscopy and its relation to clinical outcomes in premature infants”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  701, 233 (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7756-4 31

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, G. Naulaers, L. Ameye, J. Vanderhaegen, P. Lemmers, and F. Van Bel, and S. Van Huffel, , “Cerebral tissue oxygenation and regional oxygen saturation can be used to study cerebral autoregulation in pre-maturely born infants”, Pediatr. Res.  69, 548 (2011). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3182176d85

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, G. Naulaers, L. Ameye, J. Vanderhaegen, P. Lemmers, and F. Van Bel, and S. Van Huffel, , “Cerebral tissue oxygenation and regional oxygen saturation can be used to study cerebral autoregulation in pre-maturely born infants”, Pediatr. Res.  69, 548 (2011). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3182176d85

W. Baerts and P.M. Lemmers, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and oxygen extraction in the preterm infant during desaturation: Effects of increasing FiO(2) to assist recovery”, Neonatology  99, 65 (2011). doi: 10.1159/000302717

W. Baerts and P.M. Lemmers, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and oxygen extraction in the preterm infant during desaturation: Effects of increasing FiO(2) to assist recovery”, Neonatology  99, 65 (2011). doi: 10.1159/000302717

J. Cortez, M. Gupta, A. Amaram, J. Pizzino, and M. Sawhney, and B.G. Sood, , “Noninvasive evaluation of splanchnic tissue oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates”, J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.  24, 574 (2011). doi: 10.3109/14767058.2010.511335

J. Cortez, M. Gupta, A. Amaram, J. Pizzino, and M. Sawhney, and B.G. Sood, , “Noninvasive evaluation of splanchnic tissue oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates”, J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.  24, 574 (2011). doi: 10.3109/14767058.2010.511335

S. McNeill, J.C. Gatenby, and S. McElroy, and B. Engelhardt, , “Normal cerebral, renal and abdominal regional oxygen saturations using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm infants”, J. Perinatol.  31, 51 (2011). doi: 10.1038/jp.2010.71

S. McNeill, J.C. Gatenby, and S. McElroy, and B. Engelhardt, , “Normal cerebral, renal and abdominal regional oxygen saturations using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm infants”, J. Perinatol.  31, 51 (2011). doi: 10.1038/jp.2010.71

G. Pichler, M. Pocivalnik, R. Riedl, E. Pichler-Stachl, N. Morris, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Multi-associations: Predisposed to misinterpretation of peripheral tissue oxygenation and circulation in neonates”, Physiol. Meas.  32, 1025 (2011). doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/32/8/003

G. Pichler, M. Pocivalnik, R. Riedl, E. Pichler-Stachl, N. Morris, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Multi-associations: Predisposed to misinterpretation of peripheral tissue oxygenation and circulation in neonates”, Physiol. Meas.  32, 1025 (2011). doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/32/8/003

M.C. Bravo, P. Lopez, F. Cabanas, J. Perez-Rodriguez, E. Perez-Fernandez, and J. Quero, , and A. Pellicer, , “Acute effects of levosimendan on cerebral and systemic perfusion and oxygenation in newborns: An observational study”, Neonatology  99, 217 (2011). doi: 10.1159/000314955

M.C. Bravo, P. Lopez, F. Cabanas, J. Perez-Rodriguez, E. Perez-Fernandez, and J. Quero, , and A. Pellicer, , “Acute effects of levosimendan on cerebral and systemic perfusion and oxygenation in newborns: An observational study”, Neonatology  99, 217 (2011). doi: 10.1159/000314955

2010 (6)

B. Urlesberger, K. Grossauer, M. Pocivalnik, A. Avian, and W. Muller, and G. Pichler, , “Regional oxygen saturation of the brain and peripheral tissue during birth transition of term infants”, J. Pediatr.  157, 740 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.05.013

B. Urlesberger, K. Grossauer, M. Pocivalnik, A. Avian, and W. Muller, and G. Pichler, , “Regional oxygen saturation of the brain and peripheral tissue during birth transition of term infants”, J. Pediatr.  157, 740 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.05.013

D.A. Goff, E.M. Buckley, T. Durduran, and J. Wang, and D.J. Licht, , “Noninvasive cerebral perfusion imaging in high-risk neonates”, Semin. Perinatol.  34, 46 (2010). doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2009.10.005

D.A. Goff, E.M. Buckley, T. Durduran, and J. Wang, and D.J. Licht, , “Noninvasive cerebral perfusion imaging in high-risk neonates”, Semin. Perinatol.  34, 46 (2010). doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2009.10.005

J.C. van Hoften, E.A. Verhagen, P. Keating, and H.J. ter Horst, and A.F. Bos, , “Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation and extraction in preterm infants before and after blood transfusion”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  95, F352 (2010). doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.163592

J.C. van Hoften, E.A. Verhagen, P. Keating, and H.J. ter Horst, and A.F. Bos, , “Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation and extraction in preterm infants before and after blood transfusion”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  95, F352 (2010). doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.163592

P.M. Lemmers, M.C. Molenschot, J. Evens, and M.C. Toet, and F. van Bel, , “Is cerebral oxygen supply compromised in preterm infants undergoing surgical closure for patent ductus arteriosus?”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  95, F429 (2010). doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.180117

P.M. Lemmers, M.C. Molenschot, J. Evens, and M.C. Toet, and F. van Bel, , “Is cerebral oxygen supply compromised in preterm infants undergoing surgical closure for patent ductus arteriosus?”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  95, F429 (2010). doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.180117

G. Ancora, E. Maranella, A. Aceti, L. Pierantoni, S. Grandi, and L. Corvaglia, and G. Faldella, , “Effect of posture on brain hemodynamics in preterm newborns not mechanically ventilated”, Neonatology  97, 212 (2010). doi: 10.1159/000253149

G. Ancora, E. Maranella, A. Aceti, L. Pierantoni, S. Grandi, and L. Corvaglia, and G. Faldella, , “Effect of posture on brain hemodynamics in preterm newborns not mechanically ventilated”, Neonatology  97, 212 (2010). doi: 10.1159/000253149

K.M. Brady, J.O. Mytar, J.K. Lee, D.E. Cameron, L.A. Vricella, W.R. Thompson, and C.W. Hogue, and R.B. Easley, , “Monitoring cerebral blood flow pressure autoregulation in pediatric patients during cardiac surgery”, Stroke  41, 1957 (2010). doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.575167

K.M. Brady, J.O. Mytar, J.K. Lee, D.E. Cameron, L.A. Vricella, W.R. Thompson, and C.W. Hogue, and R.B. Easley, , “Monitoring cerebral blood flow pressure autoregulation in pediatric patients during cardiac surgery”, Stroke  41, 1957 (2010). doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.575167

2009 (6)

P.M. Lemmers, and F. van Bel, , “Left-to-right differences of regional cerebral oxygen saturation and oxygen extraction in preterm infants during the first days of life”, Pediatr. Res.  65, 226 (2009). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e318191fb5d

P.M. Lemmers, and F. van Bel, , “Left-to-right differences of regional cerebral oxygen saturation and oxygen extraction in preterm infants during the first days of life”, Pediatr. Res.  65, 226 (2009). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e318191fb5d

M. Wolf, and G. Greisen, , “Advances in near-infrared spectroscopy to study the brain of the preterm and term neonate”, Clin. Perinatol.  36, 807 (2009).

M. Wolf, and G. Greisen, , “Advances in near-infrared spectroscopy to study the brain of the preterm and term neonate”, Clin. Perinatol.  36, 807 (2009).

C.D. Kurth, J.C. McCann, J. Wu, and L. Miles, and A.W. Loepke, , “Cerebral oxygen saturation-time threshold for hypoxic–ischemic injury in piglets”, Anesth. Analg.  108, 1268 (2009). doi: 10.1213/ane.0b013e318196ac8e

C.D. Kurth, J.C. McCann, J. Wu, and L. Miles, and A.W. Loepke, , “Cerebral oxygen saturation-time threshold for hypoxic–ischemic injury in piglets”, Anesth. Analg.  108, 1268 (2009). doi: 10.1213/ane.0b013e318196ac8e

J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, C. Vanhole, D. De Smet, S. Van Huffel, and S. Vanhaesebrouck, and H. Devlieger, , “The effect of changes in Tpco2 on the fractional tissue oxygen extraction—as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy—neonates during the first days of life”, Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol.  13, 128 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2008.02.012

J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, C. Vanhole, D. De Smet, S. Van Huffel, and S. Vanhaesebrouck, and H. Devlieger, , “The effect of changes in Tpco2 on the fractional tissue oxygen extraction—as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy—neonates during the first days of life”, Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol.  13, 128 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2008.02.012

G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, E. Peichl, A. Gaster, A. Berghold, G. Schwantzer, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Combination of different noninvasive measuring techniques: A new approach to increase accuracy of peripheral near infrared spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 014014 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3076193

G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, E. Peichl, A. Gaster, A. Berghold, G. Schwantzer, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Combination of different noninvasive measuring techniques: A new approach to increase accuracy of peripheral near infrared spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 014014 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3076193

V. Dave, L.P. Brion, D.E. Campbell, M. Schemer, and C. Raab, and S.M. Nafday, , “Splanchnic tissue oxygenation, but not brain tissue oxygenation, increases after feeds in stable preterm neonates tolerating full bolus orogastric feeding”, J. Perinatol.  29, 213 (2009). doi: 10.1038/jp.2008.189

V. Dave, L.P. Brion, D.E. Campbell, M. Schemer, and C. Raab, and S.M. Nafday, , “Splanchnic tissue oxygenation, but not brain tissue oxygenation, increases after feeds in stable preterm neonates tolerating full bolus orogastric feeding”, J. Perinatol.  29, 213 (2009). doi: 10.1038/jp.2008.189

2008 (6)

J. Vanderhaegen, D. De Smet, B. Meyns, M. Van De Velde, and S. Van Huffel, and G. Naulaers, , “Surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus and its effect on the cerebral tissue oxygenation”, Acta Paediatr.  97, 1640 (2008). doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01021.x

J. Vanderhaegen, D. De Smet, B. Meyns, M. Van De Velde, and S. Van Huffel, and G. Naulaers, , “Surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus and its effect on the cerebral tissue oxygenation”, Acta Paediatr.  97, 1640 (2008). doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01021.x

J. Kaufman, M.C. Almodovar, and J. Zuk, and R.H. Friesen, , “Correlation of abdominal site near-infrared spectroscopy with gastric tonometry in infants following surgery for congenital heart disease”, Pediatr. Crit. Care Med.  9, 62 (2008). doi: 10.1097/01.PCC.0000298640.47574.DA

J. Kaufman, M.C. Almodovar, and J. Zuk, and R.H. Friesen, , “Correlation of abdominal site near-infrared spectroscopy with gastric tonometry in infants following surgery for congenital heart disease”, Pediatr. Crit. Care Med.  9, 62 (2008). doi: 10.1097/01.PCC.0000298640.47574.DA

P.M. Lemmers and M.C. Toet, and F. van Bel, , “Impact of patent ductus arteriosus and subsequent therapy with indomethacin on cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants”, Pediatrics  121, 142 (2008). doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-0925

P.M. Lemmers and M.C. Toet, and F. van Bel, , “Impact of patent ductus arteriosus and subsequent therapy with indomethacin on cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants”, Pediatrics  121, 142 (2008). doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-0925

F.Y. Wong, T.S. Leung, T. Austin, M. Wilkinson, J.H. Meek, and J.S. Wyatt, and A.M. Walker, , “Impaired autoregulation in preterm infants identified by using spatially resolved spectroscopy”, Pediatrics  121, e604 (2008). doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-1487

F.Y. Wong, T.S. Leung, T. Austin, M. Wilkinson, J.H. Meek, and J.S. Wyatt, and A.M. Walker, , “Impaired autoregulation in preterm infants identified by using spatially resolved spectroscopy”, Pediatrics  121, e604 (2008). doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-1487

F. van Bel and P. Lemmers, and G. Naulaers, , “Monitoring neonatal regional cerebral oxygen saturation in clinical practice: Value and pitfalls”, Neonatology  94, 237 (2008). doi: 10.1159/000151642

F. van Bel and P. Lemmers, and G. Naulaers, , “Monitoring neonatal regional cerebral oxygen saturation in clinical practice: Value and pitfalls”, Neonatology  94, 237 (2008). doi: 10.1159/000151642

L.C. Sorensen and T.S. Leung, and G. Greisen, , “Comparison of cerebral oxygen saturation in premature infants by near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy: Observations on probe-dependent bias”, J. Biomed. Opt.  13, 064013 (2008). doi: 10.1117/1.3013454

L.C. Sorensen and T.S. Leung, and G. Greisen, , “Comparison of cerebral oxygen saturation in premature infants by near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy: Observations on probe-dependent bias”, J. Biomed. Opt.  13, 064013 (2008). doi: 10.1117/1.3013454

2007 (8)

X. Hou, H. Ding, Y. Teng, C. Zhou, and X. Tang, and S. Li, , “Research on the relationship between brain anoxia at different regional oxygen saturations and brain damage using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Physiol. Meas.  28, 1251 (2007). doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/28/10/010

X. Hou, H. Ding, Y. Teng, C. Zhou, and X. Tang, and S. Li, , “Research on the relationship between brain anoxia at different regional oxygen saturations and brain damage using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Physiol. Meas.  28, 1251 (2007). doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/28/10/010

M. Wolf and M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, , “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications”, J. Biomed. Opt.  12, 062104 (2007). doi: 10.1117/1.2804899

M. Wolf and M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, , “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications”, J. Biomed. Opt.  12, 062104 (2007). doi: 10.1117/1.2804899

M.A. Underwood and J.M. Milstein, and M.P. Sherman, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy as a screening tool for patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants”, Neonatology  91, 134 (2007). doi: 10.1159/000097131

M.A. Underwood and J.M. Milstein, and M.P. Sherman, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy as a screening tool for patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants”, Neonatology  91, 134 (2007). doi: 10.1159/000097131

W.W. Lautt, , “Regulatory processes interacting to maintain hepatic blood flow constancy: Vascular compliance, hepatic arterial buffer response, hepatorenal reflex, liver regeneration, escape from vasoconstriction”, Hepatol. Res.  37, 891 (2007). doi: 10.1111/j.1872-034X.2007.00148.x

A. Sola and M.R. Rogido, and R. Deulofeut, , “Oxygen as a neonatal health hazard: Call for detente in clinical practice”, Acta Paediatr.  96, 801 (2007). doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2007.00287.x

A. Sola and M.R. Rogido, and R. Deulofeut, , “Oxygen as a neonatal health hazard: Call for detente in clinical practice”, Acta Paediatr.  96, 801 (2007). doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2007.00287.x

J. Vanderhaegen, L. Dehing, G. Naulaers, H. Devlieger, Y. Al-Olayet, and F. Penninckx, and M. Miserez, , “Use of the liver tissue oxygenation index as a noninvasive parameter of intestinal ischemia in rabbits”, World J. Surg.  31, 2359 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s00268-007-9269-y

J. Vanderhaegen, L. Dehing, G. Naulaers, H. Devlieger, Y. Al-Olayet, and F. Penninckx, and M. Miserez, , “Use of the liver tissue oxygenation index as a noninvasive parameter of intestinal ischemia in rabbits”, World J. Surg.  31, 2359 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s00268-007-9269-y

G. Pichler, J. Heinzinger, J. Kutschera, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Forearm and calf tissue oxygenation in term neonates measured with near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Physiol. Sci.  57, 317 (2007). doi: 10.2170/physiolsci.SC004407

G. Pichler, J. Heinzinger, J. Kutschera, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Forearm and calf tissue oxygenation in term neonates measured with near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Physiol. Sci.  57, 317 (2007). doi: 10.2170/physiolsci.SC004407

G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, P. Klaritsch, J. Kutschera, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Peripheral oxygenation in term neonates”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  92, F51 (2007). doi: 10.1136/adc.2005.089037

G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, P. Klaritsch, J. Kutschera, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Peripheral oxygenation in term neonates”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  92, F51 (2007). doi: 10.1136/adc.2005.089037

2006 (6)

E. Nahum, P.W. Skippen, R.E. Gagnon, and A.J. Macnab, and E.D. Skarsgard, , “Correlation of transcutaneous hepatic near-infrared spectroscopy readings with liver surface readings and perfusion parameters in a piglet endo-toxemic shock model”, Liver Int.  26, 1277 (2006). doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2006.01383.x

E. Nahum, P.W. Skippen, R.E. Gagnon, and A.J. Macnab, and E.D. Skarsgard, , “Correlation of transcutaneous hepatic near-infrared spectroscopy readings with liver surface readings and perfusion parameters in a piglet endo-toxemic shock model”, Liver Int.  26, 1277 (2006). doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2006.01383.x

M.C. Toet, P.M. Lemmers, and L.J. van Schelven, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and electrical activity after birth asphyxia: Their relation to outcome”, Pediatrics  117, 333 (2006). doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-0987

M.C. Toet, P.M. Lemmers, and L.J. van Schelven, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and electrical activity after birth asphyxia: Their relation to outcome”, Pediatrics  117, 333 (2006). doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-0987

A. Petrova, and R. Mehta, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy in the detection of regional tissue oxygenation during hypoxic events in preterm infants undergoing critical care”, Pediatr. Crit. Care Med.  7, 449 (2006). doi: 10.1097/01.PCC.0000235248.70482.14

A. Petrova, and R. Mehta, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy in the detection of regional tissue oxygenation during hypoxic events in preterm infants undergoing critical care”, Pediatr. Crit. Care Med.  7, 449 (2006). doi: 10.1097/01.PCC.0000235248.70482.14

P.M. Lemmers, M. Toet, and L.J. van Schelven, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and cerebral oxygen extraction in the preterm infant: The impact of respiratory distress syndrome”, Exp. Brain Res.  173, 458 (2006). doi: 10.1007/s00221-006-0388-8

P.M. Lemmers, M. Toet, and L.J. van Schelven, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and cerebral oxygen extraction in the preterm infant: The impact of respiratory distress syndrome”, Exp. Brain Res.  173, 458 (2006). doi: 10.1007/s00221-006-0388-8

L.C. Sorensen, and G. Greisen, , “Precision of measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation index using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates”, J. Biomed. Opt.  11, 054005 (2006). doi: 10.1117/1.2357730

L.C. Sorensen, and G. Greisen, , “Precision of measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation index using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates”, J. Biomed. Opt.  11, 054005 (2006). doi: 10.1117/1.2357730

G. Greisen, , “Is near-infrared spectroscopy living up to its promises?”, Semin. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.  11, 498 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2006.07.010

2005 (5)

T.S. Leung and C.E. Elwell, and D.T. Delpy, , “Estimation of cerebral oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin concentration changes in a layered adult head model using near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis”, Phys Med. Biol.  50, 5783 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/24/002

T.S. Leung and C.E. Elwell, and D.T. Delpy, , “Estimation of cerebral oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin concentration changes in a layered adult head model using near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis”, Phys Med. Biol.  50, 5783 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/24/002

P.B. Benni, B. Chen, F.D. Dykes, S.F. Wagoner, M. Heard, A.J. Tanner, T.L. Young, K. Rais-Bahrami, and O. Rivera, and B.L. Short, , “Validation of the CAS neonatal NIRS system by monitoring vv-ECMO patients: Preliminary results”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  566, 195 (2005). doi: 10.1007/0-387-26206-7 27

P.B. Benni, B. Chen, F.D. Dykes, S.F. Wagoner, M. Heard, A.J. Tanner, T.L. Young, K. Rais-Bahrami, and O. Rivera, and B.L. Short, , “Validation of the CAS neonatal NIRS system by monitoring vv-ECMO patients: Preliminary results”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  566, 195 (2005). doi: 10.1007/0-387-26206-7 27

C.L. Dent, J.P. Spaeth, B.V. Jones, S.M. Schwartz, T.A. Glauser, B. Hallinan, J.M. Pearl, and P.R. Khoury, and C.D. Kurth, , “Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities after the Norwood procedure using regional cerebral perfusion”, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  130, 1523 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2005.07.051

C.L. Dent, J.P. Spaeth, B.V. Jones, S.M. Schwartz, T.A. Glauser, B. Hallinan, J.M. Pearl, and P.R. Khoury, and C.D. Kurth, , “Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities after the Norwood procedure using regional cerebral perfusion”, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  130, 1523 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2005.07.051

S. Victor, R.E. Appleton, M. Beirne, and A.G. Marson, and A.M. Weindling, , “Effect of carbon dioxide on background cerebral electrical activity and fractional oxygen extraction in very low birth weight infants just after birth”, Pediatr. Res.  58, 579 (2005). doi: 10.1203/01.pdr.0000169402.13435.09

S. Victor, R.E. Appleton, M. Beirne, and A.G. Marson, and A.M. Weindling, , “Effect of carbon dioxide on background cerebral electrical activity and fractional oxygen extraction in very low birth weight infants just after birth”, Pediatr. Res.  58, 579 (2005). doi: 10.1203/01.pdr.0000169402.13435.09

G. Naulaers, B. Meyns, M. Miserez, V. Leunens, S. Van Huffel, and P. Casaer, and H. Devlieger, , “Measurement of the liver tissue oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy”, Intensive Care Med.  31, 138 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s00134-004-2482-3

G. Naulaers, B. Meyns, M. Miserez, V. Leunens, S. Van Huffel, and P. Casaer, and H. Devlieger, , “Measurement of the liver tissue oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy”, Intensive Care Med.  31, 138 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s00134-004-2482-3

2004 (2)

T. Kitai, T. Nishio, and M. Miwa, and Y. Yamaoka, , “Optical analysis of the cirrhotic liver by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy”, Surg. Today  34, 424 (2004). doi: 10.1007/s00595-003-2721-1

T. Kitai, T. Nishio, and M. Miwa, and Y. Yamaoka, , “Optical analysis of the cirrhotic liver by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy”, Surg. Today  34, 424 (2004). doi: 10.1007/s00595-003-2721-1

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L.P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, and W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, , “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: Near-infrared spectroscopy approach”, J. Biomed. Opt.  9, 221 (2004). doi: 10.1117/1.1628242

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L.P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, and W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, , “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: Near-infrared spectroscopy approach”, J. Biomed. Opt.  9, 221 (2004). doi: 10.1117/1.1628242

2003 (3)

J. Menke, U. Voss, and G. Moller, and G. Jorch, , “Reproducibility of cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in neonates”, Biol. Neonate  83, 6 (2003). doi: 10.1159/000067006

J. Menke, U. Voss, and G. Moller, and G. Jorch, , “Reproducibility of cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in neonates”, Biol. Neonate  83, 6 (2003). doi: 10.1159/000067006

W. Yang, T. Hafez, C.S. Thompson, D.P. Mikhailidis, B.R. Davidson, and M.C. Winslet, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Direct measurement of hepatic tissue hypoxia by using a Novel TcpO2/pcO2 monitoring system in comparison with near-infrared spectroscopy”, Liver Int.  23, 163 (2003). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0676.2003.00818.x

W. Yang, T. Hafez, C.S. Thompson, D.P. Mikhailidis, B.R. Davidson, and M.C. Winslet, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Direct measurement of hepatic tissue hypoxia by using a Novel TcpO2/pcO2 monitoring system in comparison with near-infrared spectroscopy”, Liver Int.  23, 163 (2003). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0676.2003.00818.x

J.E. Varela, S.M. Cohn, I. Diaz, and G.D. Giannotti, and K.G. Proctor, , “Splanchnic perfusion during delayed, hypotensive, or aggressive fluid resuscitation from uncontrolled hemorrhage”, Shock  20, 476 (2003). doi: 10.1097/01.SHK.0000094036.09886.9b

J.E. Varela, S.M. Cohn, I. Diaz, and G.D. Giannotti, and K.G. Proctor, , “Splanchnic perfusion during delayed, hypotensive, or aggressive fluid resuscitation from uncontrolled hemorrhage”, Shock  20, 476 (2003). doi: 10.1097/01.SHK.0000094036.09886.9b

2002 (4)

M. Weiss, G. Schulz, M. Fasnacht, C. Balmer, J.E. Fischer, A.C. Gerber, and H.U. Bucher, and O. Baenziger, , “Transcutaneously measured near-infrared spectroscopic liver tissue oxygenation does not correlate with hepatic venous oxygenation in children”, Can. J. Anaesth.  49, 824 (2002). doi: 10.1007/BF03017416

M. Weiss, G. Schulz, M. Fasnacht, C. Balmer, J.E. Fischer, A.C. Gerber, and H.U. Bucher, and O. Baenziger, , “Transcutaneously measured near-infrared spectroscopic liver tissue oxygenation does not correlate with hepatic venous oxygenation in children”, Can. J. Anaesth.  49, 824 (2002). doi: 10.1007/BF03017416

G. Schulz, M. Weiss, U. Bauersfeld, J. Teller, D. Haensse, and H.U. Bucher, and O. Baenziger, , “Liver tissue oxygenation as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy in the critically ill child in correlation with central venous oxygen saturation”, Intensive Care Med.  28, 184 (2002). doi: 10.1007/s00134-001-1182-5

G. Schulz, M. Weiss, U. Bauersfeld, J. Teller, D. Haensse, and H.U. Bucher, and O. Baenziger, , “Liver tissue oxygenation as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy in the critically ill child in correlation with central venous oxygen saturation”, Intensive Care Med.  28, 184 (2002). doi: 10.1007/s00134-001-1182-5

K. Yoshitani, M. Kawaguchi, K. Tatsumi, and K. Kitaguchi, and H. Furuya, , “A comparison of the INVOS 4100 and the NIRO 300 near-infrared spectrophotometers”, Anesth. Analg.  94, 586 (2002). doi: 10.1097/00000539-200203000-00020

K. Yoshitani, M. Kawaguchi, K. Tatsumi, and K. Kitaguchi, and H. Furuya, , “A comparison of the INVOS 4100 and the NIRO 300 near-infrared spectrophotometers”, Anesth. Analg.  94, 586 (2002). doi: 10.1097/00000539-200203000-00020

M. Thavasothy, M. Broadhead, C. Elwell, and M. Peters, and M. Smith, , “A comparison of cerebral oxygenation as measured by the NIRO 300 and the INVOS 5100 near-infrared spectrophotometers”, Anaesthesia  57, 999 (2002). doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2044.2002.02826.x

M. Thavasothy, M. Broadhead, C. Elwell, and M. Peters, and M. Smith, , “A comparison of cerebral oxygenation as measured by the NIRO 300 and the INVOS 5100 near-infrared spectrophotometers”, Anaesthesia  57, 999 (2002). doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2044.2002.02826.x

2001 (6)

D.M. Hueber, M.A. Franceschini, H.Y. Ma, Q. Zhang, J.R. Ballesteros, S. Fantini, D. Wallace, and V. Ntziachristos, and B. Chance, , “Non-invasive and quantitative near-infrared haemoglobin spectrometry in the piglet brain during hypoxic stress, using a Frequency-domain multi-distance instrument”, Phys. Med. Biol.  46, 41 (2001). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/46/1/304

D.M. Hueber, M.A. Franceschini, H.Y. Ma, Q. Zhang, J.R. Ballesteros, S. Fantini, D. Wallace, and V. Ntziachristos, and B. Chance, , “Non-invasive and quantitative near-infrared haemoglobin spectrometry in the piglet brain during hypoxic stress, using a Frequency-domain multi-distance instrument”, Phys. Med. Biol.  46, 41 (2001). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/46/1/304

A.M. Seifalian, H. El-Desoky, and D.T. Delpy, and B.R. Davidson, , “Effect of graded hypoxia on the rat hepatic tissue oxygenation and energy metabolism monitored by near-infrared and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy”, FASEB J.  15, 2642 (2001). doi: 10.1096/fj.01-0308com

A.M. Seifalian, H. El-Desoky, and D.T. Delpy, and B.R. Davidson, , “Effect of graded hypoxia on the rat hepatic tissue oxygenation and energy metabolism monitored by near-infrared and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy”, FASEB J.  15, 2642 (2001). doi: 10.1096/fj.01-0308com

B.R. Soller, N. Cingo, J.C. Puyana, T. Khan, C. Hsi, H. Kim, and J. Favreau, and S.O. Heard, , “Simultaneous measurement of hepatic tissue pH, venous oxygen saturation and hemoglobin by near infrared spectroscopy”, Shock  15, 106 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00024382-200115020-00005

B.R. Soller, N. Cingo, J.C. Puyana, T. Khan, C. Hsi, H. Kim, and J. Favreau, and S.O. Heard, , “Simultaneous measurement of hepatic tissue pH, venous oxygen saturation and hemoglobin by near infrared spectroscopy”, Shock  15, 106 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00024382-200115020-00005

A.E. El-Desoky, D.T. Delpy, and B.R. Davidson, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Assessment of hepatic ischaemia reperfusion injury by measuring intracellular tissue oxygenation using near infrared spectroscopy”, Liver  21, 37 (2001). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0676.2001.210106.x

A.E. El-Desoky, D.T. Delpy, and B.R. Davidson, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Assessment of hepatic ischaemia reperfusion injury by measuring intracellular tissue oxygenation using near infrared spectroscopy”, Liver  21, 37 (2001). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0676.2001.210106.x

P.M. Fortune and M. Wagstaff, and A.J. Petros, , “Cerebrosplanchnic oxygenation ratio (CSOR) using near infrared spectroscopy may be able to predict splanchnic ischaemia in neonates”, Intensive Care Med.  27, 1401 (2001). doi: 10.1007/s001340100994

P.M. Fortune and M. Wagstaff, and A.J. Petros, , “Cerebrosplanchnic oxygenation ratio (CSOR) using near infrared spectroscopy may be able to predict splanchnic ischaemia in neonates”, Intensive Care Med.  27, 1401 (2001). doi: 10.1007/s001340100994

S.M. Cohn, J.E. Varela, G. Giannotti, M.O. Dolich, M. Brown, A. Feinstein, and M.G. McKenney, and P. Spalding, , “Splanchnic perfusion evaluation during hemorrhage and resuscitation with gastric near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Trauma  50, 629 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00005373-200104000-00006

S.M. Cohn, J.E. Varela, G. Giannotti, M.O. Dolich, M. Brown, A. Feinstein, and M.G. McKenney, and P. Spalding, , “Splanchnic perfusion evaluation during hemorrhage and resuscitation with gastric near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Trauma  50, 629 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00005373-200104000-00006

2000 (4)

J. Teller, K. Schwendener, M. Wolf, M. Keel, H.U. Bucher, and S. Fanconi, and O. Baenziger, , “Continuous monitoring of liver oxygenation with near infrared spectroscopy during naso-gastric tube feeding in neonates”, Schweiz. Med. Wochenschr.  130, 652 (2000).

J. Teller, K. Schwendener, M. Wolf, M. Keel, H.U. Bucher, and S. Fanconi, and O. Baenziger, , “Continuous monitoring of liver oxygenation with near infrared spectroscopy during naso-gastric tube feeding in neonates”, Schweiz. Med. Wochenschr.  130, 652 (2000).

J. Teller, M. Wolf, M. Keel, H.U. Bucher, and S. Fanconi, and O. Baenziger, , “Can near infrared spectroscopy of the liver monitor tissue oxygenation?”, Eur. J. Pediatr.  159, 549 (2000). doi: 10.1007/s004310051334

J. Teller, M. Wolf, M. Keel, H.U. Bucher, and S. Fanconi, and O. Baenziger, , “Can near infrared spectroscopy of the liver monitor tissue oxygenation?”, Eur. J. Pediatr.  159, 549 (2000). doi: 10.1007/s004310051334

A.E. El-Desoky, L.R. Jiao, R. Havlik, N. Habib, and B.R. Davidson, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Measurement of hepatic tissue hypoxia using near infrared spectroscopy: Comparison with hepatic vein oxygen partial pressure”, Eur. Surg. Res.  32, 207 (2000). doi: 10.1159/000008766

A.E. El-Desoky, L.R. Jiao, R. Havlik, N. Habib, and B.R. Davidson, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Measurement of hepatic tissue hypoxia using near infrared spectroscopy: Comparison with hepatic vein oxygen partial pressure”, Eur. Surg. Res.  32, 207 (2000). doi: 10.1159/000008766

P.L. Madsen, C. Skak, and A. Rasmussen, and N.H. Secher, , “Interference of cerebral near-infrared oximetry in patients with icterus”, Anesth. Analg.  90, 489 (2000).

P.L. Madsen, C. Skak, and A. Rasmussen, and N.H. Secher, , “Interference of cerebral near-infrared oximetry in patients with icterus”, Anesth. Analg.  90, 489 (2000).

1999 (3)

A.E. El-Desoky and A.M. Seifalian, and B.R. Davidson, , “Effect of graded hypoxia on hepatic tissue oxygenation measured by near infrared spectroscopy”, J. Hepatol.  31, 71 (1999). doi: 10.1016/S0168-8278(99)80165-2

A.E. El-Desoky and A.M. Seifalian, and B.R. Davidson, , “Effect of graded hypoxia on hepatic tissue oxygenation measured by near infrared spectroscopy”, J. Hepatol.  31, 71 (1999). doi: 10.1016/S0168-8278(99)80165-2

A.J. Petros, R. Heys, R.C. Tasker, P.M. Fortune, and I. Roberts, and E. Kiely, , “Near infrared spectroscopy can detect changes in splanchnic oxygen delivery in neonates during apnoeic episodes”, Eur. J. Pediatr.  158, 173 (1999). doi: 10.1007/s004310051046

A.J. Petros, R. Heys, R.C. Tasker, P.M. Fortune, and I. Roberts, and E. Kiely, , “Near infrared spectroscopy can detect changes in splanchnic oxygen delivery in neonates during apnoeic episodes”, Eur. J. Pediatr.  158, 173 (1999). doi: 10.1007/s004310051046

G.J. Beilman, K.E. Groehler, and V. Lazaron, and J.P. Ortner, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of regional tissue oxyhemoglobin saturation during hemorrhagic shock”, Shock  12, 196 (1999). doi: 10.1097/00024382-199909000-00005

G.J. Beilman, K.E. Groehler, and V. Lazaron, and J.P. Ortner, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of regional tissue oxyhemoglobin saturation during hemorrhagic shock”, Shock  12, 196 (1999). doi: 10.1097/00024382-199909000-00005

1998 (2)

M.A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, L.A. Paunescu, and J.S. Maier, and E. Gratton, , “Influence of a superficial layer in the quantitative spectroscopic study of strongly scattering media”, Appl. Opt.  37, 7447 (1998). doi: 10.1364/AO.37.007447

M.A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, L.A. Paunescu, and J.S. Maier, and E. Gratton, , “Influence of a superficial layer in the quantitative spectroscopic study of strongly scattering media”, Appl. Opt.  37, 7447 (1998). doi: 10.1364/AO.37.007447

M. Wolf, O. Baenziger, M. Keel, V. Dietz, and K. von Siebenthal, and H.U. Bucher, , “Testing near infrared spectrophotometry using a liquid neonatal head phantom”, P. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins.  3566, 79 (1998).

M. Wolf, O. Baenziger, M. Keel, V. Dietz, and K. von Siebenthal, and H.U. Bucher, , “Testing near infrared spectrophotometry using a liquid neonatal head phantom”, P. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins.  3566, 79 (1998).

1997 (1)

P. Rhee, L. Langdale, and C. Mock, and L.M. Gentilello, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy: Continuous measurement of cytochrome oxidation during hemorrhagic shock”, Crit. Care Med.  25, 166 (1997). doi: 10.1097/00003246-199701000-00030

P. Rhee, L. Langdale, and C. Mock, and L.M. Gentilello, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy: Continuous measurement of cytochrome oxidation during hemorrhagic shock”, Crit. Care Med.  25, 166 (1997). doi: 10.1097/00003246-199701000-00030

1996 (3)

T. Kitai, H. Shinohara, E. Hatano, S. Sato, A. Kanazawa, S. Tsunekawa, M. Yamamoto, Y. Yamaoka, S. Uemoto, Y. Inomata, and K. Tanaka, and A. Tanaka, , “Postoperative monitoring of the oxygenation state of the graft liver in cases with hepatopulmonary syndrome”, Transplantation  62, 1676 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199612150-00026

T. Kitai, H. Shinohara, E. Hatano, S. Sato, A. Kanazawa, S. Tsunekawa, M. Yamamoto, Y. Yamaoka, S. Uemoto, Y. Inomata, and K. Tanaka, and A. Tanaka, , “Postoperative monitoring of the oxygenation state of the graft liver in cases with hepatopulmonary syndrome”, Transplantation  62, 1676 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199612150-00026

T. Kitai and B. Beauvoit, and B. Chance, , “Optical determination of fatty change of the graft liver with near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy”, Transplantation  62, 642 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199609150-00018

T. Kitai and B. Beauvoit, and B. Chance, , “Optical determination of fatty change of the graft liver with near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy”, Transplantation  62, 642 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199609150-00018

E. Okada, and D.T. Delpy, , “The effect of overlying tissue on NIR light propagation in neonatal brain”, Adv. Opt. Imaging Photon Migrat  2, 338 (1996).

E. Okada, and D.T. Delpy, , “The effect of overlying tissue on NIR light propagation in neonatal brain”, Adv. Opt. Imaging Photon Migrat  2, 338 (1996).

1995 (5)

H. Liu, B. Chance, A.H. Hielscher, and S.L. Jacques, and F.K. Tittel, , “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy”, Med. Phys.  22, 1209 (1995). doi: 10.1118/1.597520

H. Liu, B. Chance, A.H. Hielscher, and S.L. Jacques, and F.K. Tittel, , “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy”, Med. Phys.  22, 1209 (1995). doi: 10.1118/1.597520

S.J. Matcher, C.E. Elwell, C.E. Cooper, and M. Cope, and D.T. Delpy, , “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms”, Anal. Biochem.  227, 54 (1995). doi: 10.1006/abio.1995.1252

S.J. Matcher, C.E. Elwell, C.E. Cooper, and M. Cope, and D.T. Delpy, , “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms”, Anal. Biochem.  227, 54 (1995). doi: 10.1006/abio.1995.1252

S. Fantini, M.A. Franceschini, J.S. Maier, S.A. Walker, and B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, , “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry”, Opt. Eng.  34, 32 (1995). doi: 10.1117/12.183988

S. Fantini, M.A. Franceschini, J.S. Maier, S.A. Walker, and B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, , “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry”, Opt. Eng.  34, 32 (1995). doi: 10.1117/12.183988

M.A. O'Leary, D.A. Boas, and B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, , “Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by Frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography”, Optic Lett.  20, 426 (1995). doi: 10.1364/OL.20.000426

M.A. O'Leary, D.A. Boas, and B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, , “Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by Frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography”, Optic Lett.  20, 426 (1995). doi: 10.1364/OL.20.000426

T. Kitai, A. Tanaka, A. Tokuka, B. Sato, S. Mori, N. Yanabu, T. Inomoto, S. Uemoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Yamaoka, K. Ozawa, H. Someda, M. Fujimoto, and F. Moriyasu, and K. Hirao, , “Intraoperative measurement of the graft oxygenation state in living related liver transplantation by near infrared spectroscopy”, Transpl. Int.  8, 111 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.1995.tb01485.x

T. Kitai, A. Tanaka, A. Tokuka, B. Sato, S. Mori, N. Yanabu, T. Inomoto, S. Uemoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Yamaoka, K. Ozawa, H. Someda, M. Fujimoto, and F. Moriyasu, and K. Hirao, , “Intraoperative measurement of the graft oxygenation state in living related liver transplantation by near infrared spectroscopy”, Transpl. Int.  8, 111 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.1995.tb01485.x

1994 (2)

A. Tokuka, A. Tanaka, T. Kitai, N. Yanabu, S. Mori, B. Sato, K. Tanaka, and Y. Yamaoka, and K. Hirao, , “Interrelationship of oxygen supply by hepatic artery and portal vein: Rapid analysis of ischemia-reflow-induced changes in hepatic oxygenation in experimental and clinical subjects by tissue near-infrared spectroscopy”, Eur. Surg. Res.  26, 342 (1994). doi: 10.1159/000129355

A. Tokuka, A. Tanaka, T. Kitai, N. Yanabu, S. Mori, B. Sato, K. Tanaka, and Y. Yamaoka, and K. Hirao, , “Interrelationship of oxygen supply by hepatic artery and portal vein: Rapid analysis of ischemia-reflow-induced changes in hepatic oxygenation in experimental and clinical subjects by tissue near-infrared spectroscopy”, Eur. Surg. Res.  26, 342 (1994). doi: 10.1159/000129355

D.A. Boas, M.A. O'Leary, and B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, , “Scattering of diffuse photon density waves by spherical inhomogeneities within turbid media: Analytic solution and applications”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA  91, 4887 (1994). doi: 10.1073/pnas.91.11.4887

D.A. Boas, M.A. O'Leary, and B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, , “Scattering of diffuse photon density waves by spherical inhomogeneities within turbid media: Analytic solution and applications”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA  91, 4887 (1994). doi: 10.1073/pnas.91.11.4887

1992 (1)

S.R. Arridge and M. Cope, and D.T. Delpy, , “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: Temporal and Frequency analysis”, Phys. Med. Biol.  37, 1531 (1992). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/37/7/005

S.R. Arridge and M. Cope, and D.T. Delpy, , “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: Temporal and Frequency analysis”, Phys. Med. Biol.  37, 1531 (1992). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/37/7/005

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

S. Wray, M. Cope, D.T. Delpy, and J.S. Wyatt, and E.O. Reynolds, , “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation”, Biochim. Biophys. Acta  933, 184 (1988). doi: 10.1016/0005-2728(88)90069-2

S. Wray, M. Cope, D.T. Delpy, and J.S. Wyatt, and E.O. Reynolds, , “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation”, Biochim. Biophys. Acta  933, 184 (1988). doi: 10.1016/0005-2728(88)90069-2

Aceti, A.

G. Ancora, E. Maranella, A. Aceti, L. Pierantoni, S. Grandi, and L. Corvaglia, and G. Faldella, , “Effect of posture on brain hemodynamics in preterm newborns not mechanically ventilated”, Neonatology  97, 212 (2010). doi: 10.1159/000253149

Almodovar, M.C.

J. Kaufman, M.C. Almodovar, and J. Zuk, and R.H. Friesen, , “Correlation of abdominal site near-infrared spectroscopy with gastric tonometry in infants following surgery for congenital heart disease”, Pediatr. Crit. Care Med.  9, 62 (2008). doi: 10.1097/01.PCC.0000298640.47574.DA

Al-Olayet, Y.

J. Vanderhaegen, L. Dehing, G. Naulaers, H. Devlieger, Y. Al-Olayet, and F. Penninckx, and M. Miserez, , “Use of the liver tissue oxygenation index as a noninvasive parameter of intestinal ischemia in rabbits”, World J. Surg.  31, 2359 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s00268-007-9269-y

Amaram, A.

J. Cortez, M. Gupta, A. Amaram, J. Pizzino, and M. Sawhney, and B.G. Sood, , “Noninvasive evaluation of splanchnic tissue oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates”, J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.  24, 574 (2011). doi: 10.3109/14767058.2010.511335

Ameye, L.

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, M. Wolf, P. Lemmers, F. Van Bel, and L. Ameye, and S. Van Huffel, , “Impaired cerebral autoregulation using near-infrared spectroscopy and its relation to clinical outcomes in premature infants”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  701, 233 (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7756-4 31

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, G. Naulaers, L. Ameye, J. Vanderhaegen, P. Lemmers, and F. Van Bel, and S. Van Huffel, , “Cerebral tissue oxygenation and regional oxygen saturation can be used to study cerebral autoregulation in pre-maturely born infants”, Pediatr. Res.  69, 548 (2011). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3182176d85

Ancora, G.

G. Ancora, E. Maranella, A. Aceti, L. Pierantoni, S. Grandi, and L. Corvaglia, and G. Faldella, , “Effect of posture on brain hemodynamics in preterm newborns not mechanically ventilated”, Neonatology  97, 212 (2010). doi: 10.1159/000253149

Appleton, R.E.

S. Victor, R.E. Appleton, M. Beirne, and A.G. Marson, and A.M. Weindling, , “Effect of carbon dioxide on background cerebral electrical activity and fractional oxygen extraction in very low birth weight infants just after birth”, Pediatr. Res.  58, 579 (2005). doi: 10.1203/01.pdr.0000169402.13435.09

Arri, S.J.

S.J. Arri, T. Muehlemann, M. Biallas, and H.U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, , “Precision of cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration measurements in neonates measured by near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 047005 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3570303

Arridge, S.R.

S.R. Arridge and M. Cope, and D.T. Delpy, , “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: Temporal and Frequency analysis”, Phys. Med. Biol.  37, 1531 (1992). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/37/7/005

Austin, T.

F.Y. Wong, T.S. Leung, T. Austin, M. Wilkinson, J.H. Meek, and J.S. Wyatt, and A.M. Walker, , “Impaired autoregulation in preterm infants identified by using spatially resolved spectroscopy”, Pediatrics  121, e604 (2008). doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-1487

Avian, A.

B. Urlesberger, K. Grossauer, M. Pocivalnik, A. Avian, and W. Muller, and G. Pichler, , “Regional oxygen saturation of the brain and peripheral tissue during birth transition of term infants”, J. Pediatr.  157, 740 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.05.013

Baenziger, O.

M. Weiss, G. Schulz, M. Fasnacht, C. Balmer, J.E. Fischer, A.C. Gerber, and H.U. Bucher, and O. Baenziger, , “Transcutaneously measured near-infrared spectroscopic liver tissue oxygenation does not correlate with hepatic venous oxygenation in children”, Can. J. Anaesth.  49, 824 (2002). doi: 10.1007/BF03017416

G. Schulz, M. Weiss, U. Bauersfeld, J. Teller, D. Haensse, and H.U. Bucher, and O. Baenziger, , “Liver tissue oxygenation as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy in the critically ill child in correlation with central venous oxygen saturation”, Intensive Care Med.  28, 184 (2002). doi: 10.1007/s00134-001-1182-5

J. Teller, M. Wolf, M. Keel, H.U. Bucher, and S. Fanconi, and O. Baenziger, , “Can near infrared spectroscopy of the liver monitor tissue oxygenation?”, Eur. J. Pediatr.  159, 549 (2000). doi: 10.1007/s004310051334

J. Teller, K. Schwendener, M. Wolf, M. Keel, H.U. Bucher, and S. Fanconi, and O. Baenziger, , “Continuous monitoring of liver oxygenation with near infrared spectroscopy during naso-gastric tube feeding in neonates”, Schweiz. Med. Wochenschr.  130, 652 (2000).

M. Wolf, O. Baenziger, M. Keel, V. Dietz, and K. von Siebenthal, and H.U. Bucher, , “Testing near infrared spectrophotometry using a liquid neonatal head phantom”, P. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins.  3566, 79 (1998).

Baerts, W.

W. Baerts and P.M. Lemmers, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and oxygen extraction in the preterm infant during desaturation: Effects of increasing FiO(2) to assist recovery”, Neonatology  99, 65 (2011). doi: 10.1159/000302717

Ballesteros, J.R.

D.M. Hueber, M.A. Franceschini, H.Y. Ma, Q. Zhang, J.R. Ballesteros, S. Fantini, D. Wallace, and V. Ntziachristos, and B. Chance, , “Non-invasive and quantitative near-infrared haemoglobin spectrometry in the piglet brain during hypoxic stress, using a Frequency-domain multi-distance instrument”, Phys. Med. Biol.  46, 41 (2001). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/46/1/304

Balmer, C.

M. Weiss, G. Schulz, M. Fasnacht, C. Balmer, J.E. Fischer, A.C. Gerber, and H.U. Bucher, and O. Baenziger, , “Transcutaneously measured near-infrared spectroscopic liver tissue oxygenation does not correlate with hepatic venous oxygenation in children”, Can. J. Anaesth.  49, 824 (2002). doi: 10.1007/BF03017416

Barbieri, B.

S. Fantini, M.A. Franceschini, J.S. Maier, S.A. Walker, and B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, , “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry”, Opt. Eng.  34, 32 (1995). doi: 10.1117/12.183988

Bauersfeld, U.

G. Schulz, M. Weiss, U. Bauersfeld, J. Teller, D. Haensse, and H.U. Bucher, and O. Baenziger, , “Liver tissue oxygenation as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy in the critically ill child in correlation with central venous oxygen saturation”, Intensive Care Med.  28, 184 (2002). doi: 10.1007/s00134-001-1182-5

Beauvoit, B.

T. Kitai and B. Beauvoit, and B. Chance, , “Optical determination of fatty change of the graft liver with near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy”, Transplantation  62, 642 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199609150-00018

Beilman, G.J.

G.J. Beilman, K.E. Groehler, and V. Lazaron, and J.P. Ortner, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of regional tissue oxyhemoglobin saturation during hemorrhagic shock”, Shock  12, 196 (1999). doi: 10.1097/00024382-199909000-00005

Beirne, M.

S. Victor, R.E. Appleton, M. Beirne, and A.G. Marson, and A.M. Weindling, , “Effect of carbon dioxide on background cerebral electrical activity and fractional oxygen extraction in very low birth weight infants just after birth”, Pediatr. Res.  58, 579 (2005). doi: 10.1203/01.pdr.0000169402.13435.09

Benni, P.B.

P.B. Benni, B. Chen, F.D. Dykes, S.F. Wagoner, M. Heard, A.J. Tanner, T.L. Young, K. Rais-Bahrami, and O. Rivera, and B.L. Short, , “Validation of the CAS neonatal NIRS system by monitoring vv-ECMO patients: Preliminary results”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  566, 195 (2005). doi: 10.1007/0-387-26206-7 27

Berghold, A.

G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, E. Peichl, A. Gaster, A. Berghold, G. Schwantzer, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Combination of different noninvasive measuring techniques: A new approach to increase accuracy of peripheral near infrared spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 014014 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3076193

Biallas, M.

S.J. Arri, T. Muehlemann, M. Biallas, and H.U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, , “Precision of cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration measurements in neonates measured by near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 047005 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3570303

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J.C. Fauchere, and H.U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, , “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16(9), 097004 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3622756

Boas, D.A.

M.A. O'Leary, D.A. Boas, and B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, , “Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by Frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography”, Optic Lett.  20, 426 (1995). doi: 10.1364/OL.20.000426

D.A. Boas, M.A. O'Leary, and B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, , “Scattering of diffuse photon density waves by spherical inhomogeneities within turbid media: Analytic solution and applications”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA  91, 4887 (1994). doi: 10.1073/pnas.91.11.4887

Bos, A.F.

J.C. van Hoften, E.A. Verhagen, P. Keating, and H.J. ter Horst, and A.F. Bos, , “Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation and extraction in preterm infants before and after blood transfusion”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  95, F352 (2010). doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.163592

Brady, K.M.

K.M. Brady, J.O. Mytar, J.K. Lee, D.E. Cameron, L.A. Vricella, W.R. Thompson, and C.W. Hogue, and R.B. Easley, , “Monitoring cerebral blood flow pressure autoregulation in pediatric patients during cardiac surgery”, Stroke  41, 1957 (2010). doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.575167

Bravo, M.C.

M.C. Bravo, P. Lopez, F. Cabanas, J. Perez-Rodriguez, E. Perez-Fernandez, and J. Quero, , and A. Pellicer, , “Acute effects of levosimendan on cerebral and systemic perfusion and oxygenation in newborns: An observational study”, Neonatology  99, 217 (2011). doi: 10.1159/000314955

Brion, L.P.

V. Dave, L.P. Brion, D.E. Campbell, M. Schemer, and C. Raab, and S.M. Nafday, , “Splanchnic tissue oxygenation, but not brain tissue oxygenation, increases after feeds in stable preterm neonates tolerating full bolus orogastric feeding”, J. Perinatol.  29, 213 (2009). doi: 10.1038/jp.2008.189

Broadhead, M.

M. Thavasothy, M. Broadhead, C. Elwell, and M. Peters, and M. Smith, , “A comparison of cerebral oxygenation as measured by the NIRO 300 and the INVOS 5100 near-infrared spectrophotometers”, Anaesthesia  57, 999 (2002). doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2044.2002.02826.x

Brown, M.

S.M. Cohn, J.E. Varela, G. Giannotti, M.O. Dolich, M. Brown, A. Feinstein, and M.G. McKenney, and P. Spalding, , “Splanchnic perfusion evaluation during hemorrhage and resuscitation with gastric near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Trauma  50, 629 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00005373-200104000-00006

Bucher, H.U.

S.J. Arri, T. Muehlemann, M. Biallas, and H.U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, , “Precision of cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration measurements in neonates measured by near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 047005 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3570303

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J.C. Fauchere, and H.U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, , “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16(9), 097004 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3622756

G. Schulz, M. Weiss, U. Bauersfeld, J. Teller, D. Haensse, and H.U. Bucher, and O. Baenziger, , “Liver tissue oxygenation as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy in the critically ill child in correlation with central venous oxygen saturation”, Intensive Care Med.  28, 184 (2002). doi: 10.1007/s00134-001-1182-5

M. Weiss, G. Schulz, M. Fasnacht, C. Balmer, J.E. Fischer, A.C. Gerber, and H.U. Bucher, and O. Baenziger, , “Transcutaneously measured near-infrared spectroscopic liver tissue oxygenation does not correlate with hepatic venous oxygenation in children”, Can. J. Anaesth.  49, 824 (2002). doi: 10.1007/BF03017416

J. Teller, K. Schwendener, M. Wolf, M. Keel, H.U. Bucher, and S. Fanconi, and O. Baenziger, , “Continuous monitoring of liver oxygenation with near infrared spectroscopy during naso-gastric tube feeding in neonates”, Schweiz. Med. Wochenschr.  130, 652 (2000).

J. Teller, M. Wolf, M. Keel, H.U. Bucher, and S. Fanconi, and O. Baenziger, , “Can near infrared spectroscopy of the liver monitor tissue oxygenation?”, Eur. J. Pediatr.  159, 549 (2000). doi: 10.1007/s004310051334

M. Wolf, O. Baenziger, M. Keel, V. Dietz, and K. von Siebenthal, and H.U. Bucher, , “Testing near infrared spectrophotometry using a liquid neonatal head phantom”, P. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins.  3566, 79 (1998).

Buckley, E.M.

D.A. Goff, E.M. Buckley, T. Durduran, and J. Wang, and D.J. Licht, , “Noninvasive cerebral perfusion imaging in high-risk neonates”, Semin. Perinatol.  34, 46 (2010). doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2009.10.005

Buursma, A.

W.G. Zijlstra and A. Buursma, and O.W. van Assendelft, , Visible and Near Infrared Absorption Spectra of Human and Animal Haemoglobin. VSP Science, Zeist, The Netherlands (2000).

Cabanas, F.

M.C. Bravo, P. Lopez, F. Cabanas, J. Perez-Rodriguez, E. Perez-Fernandez, and J. Quero, , and A. Pellicer, , “Acute effects of levosimendan on cerebral and systemic perfusion and oxygenation in newborns: An observational study”, Neonatology  99, 217 (2011). doi: 10.1159/000314955

Caicedo, A.

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, G. Naulaers, L. Ameye, J. Vanderhaegen, P. Lemmers, and F. Van Bel, and S. Van Huffel, , “Cerebral tissue oxygenation and regional oxygen saturation can be used to study cerebral autoregulation in pre-maturely born infants”, Pediatr. Res.  69, 548 (2011). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3182176d85

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, M. Wolf, P. Lemmers, F. Van Bel, and L. Ameye, and S. Van Huffel, , “Impaired cerebral autoregulation using near-infrared spectroscopy and its relation to clinical outcomes in premature infants”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  701, 233 (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7756-4 31

Cameron, D.E.

K.M. Brady, J.O. Mytar, J.K. Lee, D.E. Cameron, L.A. Vricella, W.R. Thompson, and C.W. Hogue, and R.B. Easley, , “Monitoring cerebral blood flow pressure autoregulation in pediatric patients during cardiac surgery”, Stroke  41, 1957 (2010). doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.575167

Campbell, D.E.

V. Dave, L.P. Brion, D.E. Campbell, M. Schemer, and C. Raab, and S.M. Nafday, , “Splanchnic tissue oxygenation, but not brain tissue oxygenation, increases after feeds in stable preterm neonates tolerating full bolus orogastric feeding”, J. Perinatol.  29, 213 (2009). doi: 10.1038/jp.2008.189

Casaer, P.

G. Naulaers, B. Meyns, M. Miserez, V. Leunens, S. Van Huffel, and P. Casaer, and H. Devlieger, , “Measurement of the liver tissue oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy”, Intensive Care Med.  31, 138 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s00134-004-2482-3

Chance, B.

D.M. Hueber, M.A. Franceschini, H.Y. Ma, Q. Zhang, J.R. Ballesteros, S. Fantini, D. Wallace, and V. Ntziachristos, and B. Chance, , “Non-invasive and quantitative near-infrared haemoglobin spectrometry in the piglet brain during hypoxic stress, using a Frequency-domain multi-distance instrument”, Phys. Med. Biol.  46, 41 (2001). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/46/1/304

T. Kitai and B. Beauvoit, and B. Chance, , “Optical determination of fatty change of the graft liver with near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy”, Transplantation  62, 642 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199609150-00018

H. Liu, B. Chance, A.H. Hielscher, and S.L. Jacques, and F.K. Tittel, , “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy”, Med. Phys.  22, 1209 (1995). doi: 10.1118/1.597520

M.A. O'Leary, D.A. Boas, and B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, , “Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by Frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography”, Optic Lett.  20, 426 (1995). doi: 10.1364/OL.20.000426

D.A. Boas, M.A. O'Leary, and B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, , “Scattering of diffuse photon density waves by spherical inhomogeneities within turbid media: Analytic solution and applications”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA  91, 4887 (1994). doi: 10.1073/pnas.91.11.4887

M.S. Patterson and B. Chance, and B.C. Wilson, , “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties”, Appl. Opt.  28, 2331 (1989). doi: 10.1364/AO.28.002331

Chen, B.

P.B. Benni, B. Chen, F.D. Dykes, S.F. Wagoner, M. Heard, A.J. Tanner, T.L. Young, K. Rais-Bahrami, and O. Rivera, and B.L. Short, , “Validation of the CAS neonatal NIRS system by monitoring vv-ECMO patients: Preliminary results”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  566, 195 (2005). doi: 10.1007/0-387-26206-7 27

Choi, J.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L.P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, and W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, , “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: Near-infrared spectroscopy approach”, J. Biomed. Opt.  9, 221 (2004). doi: 10.1117/1.1628242

Cingo, N.

B.R. Soller, N. Cingo, J.C. Puyana, T. Khan, C. Hsi, H. Kim, and J. Favreau, and S.O. Heard, , “Simultaneous measurement of hepatic tissue pH, venous oxygen saturation and hemoglobin by near infrared spectroscopy”, Shock  15, 106 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00024382-200115020-00005

Cohn, S.M.

J.E. Varela, S.M. Cohn, I. Diaz, and G.D. Giannotti, and K.G. Proctor, , “Splanchnic perfusion during delayed, hypotensive, or aggressive fluid resuscitation from uncontrolled hemorrhage”, Shock  20, 476 (2003). doi: 10.1097/01.SHK.0000094036.09886.9b

S.M. Cohn, J.E. Varela, G. Giannotti, M.O. Dolich, M. Brown, A. Feinstein, and M.G. McKenney, and P. Spalding, , “Splanchnic perfusion evaluation during hemorrhage and resuscitation with gastric near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Trauma  50, 629 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00005373-200104000-00006

Cooper, C.E.

S.J. Matcher, C.E. Elwell, C.E. Cooper, and M. Cope, and D.T. Delpy, , “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms”, Anal. Biochem.  227, 54 (1995). doi: 10.1006/abio.1995.1252

Cope, M.

S.J. Matcher, C.E. Elwell, C.E. Cooper, and M. Cope, and D.T. Delpy, , “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms”, Anal. Biochem.  227, 54 (1995). doi: 10.1006/abio.1995.1252

S.R. Arridge and M. Cope, and D.T. Delpy, , “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: Temporal and Frequency analysis”, Phys. Med. Biol.  37, 1531 (1992). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/37/7/005

S. Wray, M. Cope, D.T. Delpy, and J.S. Wyatt, and E.O. Reynolds, , “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation”, Biochim. Biophys. Acta  933, 184 (1988). doi: 10.1016/0005-2728(88)90069-2

M. Cope, , “The application of near infrared spectroscopy to non invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in the newborn infant”, PhD thesis. Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London, UK (1991).

Cortez, J.

J. Cortez, M. Gupta, A. Amaram, J. Pizzino, and M. Sawhney, and B.G. Sood, , “Noninvasive evaluation of splanchnic tissue oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates”, J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.  24, 574 (2011). doi: 10.3109/14767058.2010.511335

Corvaglia, L.

G. Ancora, E. Maranella, A. Aceti, L. Pierantoni, S. Grandi, and L. Corvaglia, and G. Faldella, , “Effect of posture on brain hemodynamics in preterm newborns not mechanically ventilated”, Neonatology  97, 212 (2010). doi: 10.1159/000253149

Dave, V.

V. Dave, L.P. Brion, D.E. Campbell, M. Schemer, and C. Raab, and S.M. Nafday, , “Splanchnic tissue oxygenation, but not brain tissue oxygenation, increases after feeds in stable preterm neonates tolerating full bolus orogastric feeding”, J. Perinatol.  29, 213 (2009). doi: 10.1038/jp.2008.189

Davidson, B.R.

W. Yang, T. Hafez, C.S. Thompson, D.P. Mikhailidis, B.R. Davidson, and M.C. Winslet, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Direct measurement of hepatic tissue hypoxia by using a Novel TcpO2/pcO2 monitoring system in comparison with near-infrared spectroscopy”, Liver Int.  23, 163 (2003). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0676.2003.00818.x

A.E. El-Desoky, D.T. Delpy, and B.R. Davidson, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Assessment of hepatic ischaemia reperfusion injury by measuring intracellular tissue oxygenation using near infrared spectroscopy”, Liver  21, 37 (2001). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0676.2001.210106.x

A.M. Seifalian, H. El-Desoky, and D.T. Delpy, and B.R. Davidson, , “Effect of graded hypoxia on the rat hepatic tissue oxygenation and energy metabolism monitored by near-infrared and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy”, FASEB J.  15, 2642 (2001). doi: 10.1096/fj.01-0308com

A.E. El-Desoky, L.R. Jiao, R. Havlik, N. Habib, and B.R. Davidson, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Measurement of hepatic tissue hypoxia using near infrared spectroscopy: Comparison with hepatic vein oxygen partial pressure”, Eur. Surg. Res.  32, 207 (2000). doi: 10.1159/000008766

A.E. El-Desoky and A.M. Seifalian, and B.R. Davidson, , “Effect of graded hypoxia on hepatic tissue oxygenation measured by near infrared spectroscopy”, J. Hepatol.  31, 71 (1999). doi: 10.1016/S0168-8278(99)80165-2

De Smet, D.

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, M. Wolf, P. Lemmers, F. Van Bel, and L. Ameye, and S. Van Huffel, , “Impaired cerebral autoregulation using near-infrared spectroscopy and its relation to clinical outcomes in premature infants”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  701, 233 (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7756-4 31

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, G. Naulaers, L. Ameye, J. Vanderhaegen, P. Lemmers, and F. Van Bel, and S. Van Huffel, , “Cerebral tissue oxygenation and regional oxygen saturation can be used to study cerebral autoregulation in pre-maturely born infants”, Pediatr. Res.  69, 548 (2011). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3182176d85

J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, C. Vanhole, D. De Smet, S. Van Huffel, and S. Vanhaesebrouck, and H. Devlieger, , “The effect of changes in Tpco2 on the fractional tissue oxygen extraction—as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy—neonates during the first days of life”, Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol.  13, 128 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2008.02.012

J. Vanderhaegen, D. De Smet, B. Meyns, M. Van De Velde, and S. Van Huffel, and G. Naulaers, , “Surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus and its effect on the cerebral tissue oxygenation”, Acta Paediatr.  97, 1640 (2008). doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01021.x

Dehing, L.

J. Vanderhaegen, L. Dehing, G. Naulaers, H. Devlieger, Y. Al-Olayet, and F. Penninckx, and M. Miserez, , “Use of the liver tissue oxygenation index as a noninvasive parameter of intestinal ischemia in rabbits”, World J. Surg.  31, 2359 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s00268-007-9269-y

Delpy, D.T.

T.S. Leung and C.E. Elwell, and D.T. Delpy, , “Estimation of cerebral oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin concentration changes in a layered adult head model using near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis”, Phys Med. Biol.  50, 5783 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/24/002

A.M. Seifalian, H. El-Desoky, and D.T. Delpy, and B.R. Davidson, , “Effect of graded hypoxia on the rat hepatic tissue oxygenation and energy metabolism monitored by near-infrared and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy”, FASEB J.  15, 2642 (2001). doi: 10.1096/fj.01-0308com

A.E. El-Desoky, D.T. Delpy, and B.R. Davidson, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Assessment of hepatic ischaemia reperfusion injury by measuring intracellular tissue oxygenation using near infrared spectroscopy”, Liver  21, 37 (2001). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0676.2001.210106.x

E. Okada, and D.T. Delpy, , “The effect of overlying tissue on NIR light propagation in neonatal brain”, Adv. Opt. Imaging Photon Migrat  2, 338 (1996).

S.J. Matcher, C.E. Elwell, C.E. Cooper, and M. Cope, and D.T. Delpy, , “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms”, Anal. Biochem.  227, 54 (1995). doi: 10.1006/abio.1995.1252

S.R. Arridge and M. Cope, and D.T. Delpy, , “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: Temporal and Frequency analysis”, Phys. Med. Biol.  37, 1531 (1992). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/37/7/005

S. Wray, M. Cope, D.T. Delpy, and J.S. Wyatt, and E.O. Reynolds, , “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation”, Biochim. Biophys. Acta  933, 184 (1988). doi: 10.1016/0005-2728(88)90069-2

Dent, C.L.

C.L. Dent, J.P. Spaeth, B.V. Jones, S.M. Schwartz, T.A. Glauser, B. Hallinan, J.M. Pearl, and P.R. Khoury, and C.D. Kurth, , “Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities after the Norwood procedure using regional cerebral perfusion”, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  130, 1523 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2005.07.051

Deulofeut, R.

A. Sola and M.R. Rogido, and R. Deulofeut, , “Oxygen as a neonatal health hazard: Call for detente in clinical practice”, Acta Paediatr.  96, 801 (2007). doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2007.00287.x

Devlieger, H.

J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, C. Vanhole, D. De Smet, S. Van Huffel, and S. Vanhaesebrouck, and H. Devlieger, , “The effect of changes in Tpco2 on the fractional tissue oxygen extraction—as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy—neonates during the first days of life”, Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol.  13, 128 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2008.02.012

J. Vanderhaegen, L. Dehing, G. Naulaers, H. Devlieger, Y. Al-Olayet, and F. Penninckx, and M. Miserez, , “Use of the liver tissue oxygenation index as a noninvasive parameter of intestinal ischemia in rabbits”, World J. Surg.  31, 2359 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s00268-007-9269-y

G. Naulaers, B. Meyns, M. Miserez, V. Leunens, S. Van Huffel, and P. Casaer, and H. Devlieger, , “Measurement of the liver tissue oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy”, Intensive Care Med.  31, 138 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s00134-004-2482-3

Diaz, I.

J.E. Varela, S.M. Cohn, I. Diaz, and G.D. Giannotti, and K.G. Proctor, , “Splanchnic perfusion during delayed, hypotensive, or aggressive fluid resuscitation from uncontrolled hemorrhage”, Shock  20, 476 (2003). doi: 10.1097/01.SHK.0000094036.09886.9b

Dietz, V.

M. Wolf, O. Baenziger, M. Keel, V. Dietz, and K. von Siebenthal, and H.U. Bucher, , “Testing near infrared spectrophotometry using a liquid neonatal head phantom”, P. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins.  3566, 79 (1998).

Ding, H.

X. Hou, H. Ding, Y. Teng, C. Zhou, and X. Tang, and S. Li, , “Research on the relationship between brain anoxia at different regional oxygen saturations and brain damage using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Physiol. Meas.  28, 1251 (2007). doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/28/10/010

Dolich, M.O.

S.M. Cohn, J.E. Varela, G. Giannotti, M.O. Dolich, M. Brown, A. Feinstein, and M.G. McKenney, and P. Spalding, , “Splanchnic perfusion evaluation during hemorrhage and resuscitation with gastric near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Trauma  50, 629 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00005373-200104000-00006

Durduran, T.

D.A. Goff, E.M. Buckley, T. Durduran, and J. Wang, and D.J. Licht, , “Noninvasive cerebral perfusion imaging in high-risk neonates”, Semin. Perinatol.  34, 46 (2010). doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2009.10.005

Dykes, F.D.

P.B. Benni, B. Chen, F.D. Dykes, S.F. Wagoner, M. Heard, A.J. Tanner, T.L. Young, K. Rais-Bahrami, and O. Rivera, and B.L. Short, , “Validation of the CAS neonatal NIRS system by monitoring vv-ECMO patients: Preliminary results”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  566, 195 (2005). doi: 10.1007/0-387-26206-7 27

Easley, R.B.

K.M. Brady, J.O. Mytar, J.K. Lee, D.E. Cameron, L.A. Vricella, W.R. Thompson, and C.W. Hogue, and R.B. Easley, , “Monitoring cerebral blood flow pressure autoregulation in pediatric patients during cardiac surgery”, Stroke  41, 1957 (2010). doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.575167

El-Desoky, A.E.

A.E. El-Desoky, D.T. Delpy, and B.R. Davidson, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Assessment of hepatic ischaemia reperfusion injury by measuring intracellular tissue oxygenation using near infrared spectroscopy”, Liver  21, 37 (2001). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0676.2001.210106.x

A.E. El-Desoky, L.R. Jiao, R. Havlik, N. Habib, and B.R. Davidson, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Measurement of hepatic tissue hypoxia using near infrared spectroscopy: Comparison with hepatic vein oxygen partial pressure”, Eur. Surg. Res.  32, 207 (2000). doi: 10.1159/000008766

A.E. El-Desoky and A.M. Seifalian, and B.R. Davidson, , “Effect of graded hypoxia on hepatic tissue oxygenation measured by near infrared spectroscopy”, J. Hepatol.  31, 71 (1999). doi: 10.1016/S0168-8278(99)80165-2

El-Desoky, H.

A.M. Seifalian, H. El-Desoky, and D.T. Delpy, and B.R. Davidson, , “Effect of graded hypoxia on the rat hepatic tissue oxygenation and energy metabolism monitored by near-infrared and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy”, FASEB J.  15, 2642 (2001). doi: 10.1096/fj.01-0308com

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M. Thavasothy, M. Broadhead, C. Elwell, and M. Peters, and M. Smith, , “A comparison of cerebral oxygenation as measured by the NIRO 300 and the INVOS 5100 near-infrared spectrophotometers”, Anaesthesia  57, 999 (2002). doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2044.2002.02826.x

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T.S. Leung and C.E. Elwell, and D.T. Delpy, , “Estimation of cerebral oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin concentration changes in a layered adult head model using near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis”, Phys Med. Biol.  50, 5783 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/24/002

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Engelhardt, B.

S. McNeill, J.C. Gatenby, and S. McElroy, and B. Engelhardt, , “Normal cerebral, renal and abdominal regional oxygen saturations using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm infants”, J. Perinatol.  31, 51 (2011). doi: 10.1038/jp.2010.71

Evens, J.

P.M. Lemmers, M.C. Molenschot, J. Evens, and M.C. Toet, and F. van Bel, , “Is cerebral oxygen supply compromised in preterm infants undergoing surgical closure for patent ductus arteriosus?”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  95, F429 (2010). doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.180117

Faldella, G.

G. Ancora, E. Maranella, A. Aceti, L. Pierantoni, S. Grandi, and L. Corvaglia, and G. Faldella, , “Effect of posture on brain hemodynamics in preterm newborns not mechanically ventilated”, Neonatology  97, 212 (2010). doi: 10.1159/000253149

Fanconi, S.

J. Teller, M. Wolf, M. Keel, H.U. Bucher, and S. Fanconi, and O. Baenziger, , “Can near infrared spectroscopy of the liver monitor tissue oxygenation?”, Eur. J. Pediatr.  159, 549 (2000). doi: 10.1007/s004310051334

J. Teller, K. Schwendener, M. Wolf, M. Keel, H.U. Bucher, and S. Fanconi, and O. Baenziger, , “Continuous monitoring of liver oxygenation with near infrared spectroscopy during naso-gastric tube feeding in neonates”, Schweiz. Med. Wochenschr.  130, 652 (2000).

Fantini, S.

D.M. Hueber, M.A. Franceschini, H.Y. Ma, Q. Zhang, J.R. Ballesteros, S. Fantini, D. Wallace, and V. Ntziachristos, and B. Chance, , “Non-invasive and quantitative near-infrared haemoglobin spectrometry in the piglet brain during hypoxic stress, using a Frequency-domain multi-distance instrument”, Phys. Med. Biol.  46, 41 (2001). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/46/1/304

M.A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, L.A. Paunescu, and J.S. Maier, and E. Gratton, , “Influence of a superficial layer in the quantitative spectroscopic study of strongly scattering media”, Appl. Opt.  37, 7447 (1998). doi: 10.1364/AO.37.007447

S. Fantini, M.A. Franceschini, J.S. Maier, S.A. Walker, and B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, , “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry”, Opt. Eng.  34, 32 (1995). doi: 10.1117/12.183988

Fasnacht, M.

M. Weiss, G. Schulz, M. Fasnacht, C. Balmer, J.E. Fischer, A.C. Gerber, and H.U. Bucher, and O. Baenziger, , “Transcutaneously measured near-infrared spectroscopic liver tissue oxygenation does not correlate with hepatic venous oxygenation in children”, Can. J. Anaesth.  49, 824 (2002). doi: 10.1007/BF03017416

Fauchere, J.C.

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J.C. Fauchere, and H.U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, , “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16(9), 097004 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3622756

Favreau, J.

B.R. Soller, N. Cingo, J.C. Puyana, T. Khan, C. Hsi, H. Kim, and J. Favreau, and S.O. Heard, , “Simultaneous measurement of hepatic tissue pH, venous oxygen saturation and hemoglobin by near infrared spectroscopy”, Shock  15, 106 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00024382-200115020-00005

Feinstein, A.

S.M. Cohn, J.E. Varela, G. Giannotti, M.O. Dolich, M. Brown, A. Feinstein, and M.G. McKenney, and P. Spalding, , “Splanchnic perfusion evaluation during hemorrhage and resuscitation with gastric near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Trauma  50, 629 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00005373-200104000-00006

Ferrari, M.

M. Wolf and M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, , “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications”, J. Biomed. Opt.  12, 062104 (2007). doi: 10.1117/1.2804899

Fischer, J.E.

M. Weiss, G. Schulz, M. Fasnacht, C. Balmer, J.E. Fischer, A.C. Gerber, and H.U. Bucher, and O. Baenziger, , “Transcutaneously measured near-infrared spectroscopic liver tissue oxygenation does not correlate with hepatic venous oxygenation in children”, Can. J. Anaesth.  49, 824 (2002). doi: 10.1007/BF03017416

Fortune, P.M.

P.M. Fortune and M. Wagstaff, and A.J. Petros, , “Cerebrosplanchnic oxygenation ratio (CSOR) using near infrared spectroscopy may be able to predict splanchnic ischaemia in neonates”, Intensive Care Med.  27, 1401 (2001). doi: 10.1007/s001340100994

A.J. Petros, R. Heys, R.C. Tasker, P.M. Fortune, and I. Roberts, and E. Kiely, , “Near infrared spectroscopy can detect changes in splanchnic oxygen delivery in neonates during apnoeic episodes”, Eur. J. Pediatr.  158, 173 (1999). doi: 10.1007/s004310051046

Franceschini, M.A.

D.M. Hueber, M.A. Franceschini, H.Y. Ma, Q. Zhang, J.R. Ballesteros, S. Fantini, D. Wallace, and V. Ntziachristos, and B. Chance, , “Non-invasive and quantitative near-infrared haemoglobin spectrometry in the piglet brain during hypoxic stress, using a Frequency-domain multi-distance instrument”, Phys. Med. Biol.  46, 41 (2001). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/46/1/304

M.A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, L.A. Paunescu, and J.S. Maier, and E. Gratton, , “Influence of a superficial layer in the quantitative spectroscopic study of strongly scattering media”, Appl. Opt.  37, 7447 (1998). doi: 10.1364/AO.37.007447

S. Fantini, M.A. Franceschini, J.S. Maier, S.A. Walker, and B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, , “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry”, Opt. Eng.  34, 32 (1995). doi: 10.1117/12.183988

Friesen, R.H.

J. Kaufman, M.C. Almodovar, and J. Zuk, and R.H. Friesen, , “Correlation of abdominal site near-infrared spectroscopy with gastric tonometry in infants following surgery for congenital heart disease”, Pediatr. Crit. Care Med.  9, 62 (2008). doi: 10.1097/01.PCC.0000298640.47574.DA

Fujimoto, M.

T. Kitai, A. Tanaka, A. Tokuka, B. Sato, S. Mori, N. Yanabu, T. Inomoto, S. Uemoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Yamaoka, K. Ozawa, H. Someda, M. Fujimoto, and F. Moriyasu, and K. Hirao, , “Intraoperative measurement of the graft oxygenation state in living related liver transplantation by near infrared spectroscopy”, Transpl. Int.  8, 111 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.1995.tb01485.x

Furuya, H.

K. Yoshitani, M. Kawaguchi, K. Tatsumi, and K. Kitaguchi, and H. Furuya, , “A comparison of the INVOS 4100 and the NIRO 300 near-infrared spectrophotometers”, Anesth. Analg.  94, 586 (2002). doi: 10.1097/00000539-200203000-00020

Gagnon, R.E.

E. Nahum, P.W. Skippen, R.E. Gagnon, and A.J. Macnab, and E.D. Skarsgard, , “Correlation of transcutaneous hepatic near-infrared spectroscopy readings with liver surface readings and perfusion parameters in a piglet endo-toxemic shock model”, Liver Int.  26, 1277 (2006). doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2006.01383.x

Gaster, A.

G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, E. Peichl, A. Gaster, A. Berghold, G. Schwantzer, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Combination of different noninvasive measuring techniques: A new approach to increase accuracy of peripheral near infrared spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 014014 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3076193

Gatenby, J.C.

S. McNeill, J.C. Gatenby, and S. McElroy, and B. Engelhardt, , “Normal cerebral, renal and abdominal regional oxygen saturations using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm infants”, J. Perinatol.  31, 51 (2011). doi: 10.1038/jp.2010.71

Gentilello, L.M.

P. Rhee, L. Langdale, and C. Mock, and L.M. Gentilello, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy: Continuous measurement of cytochrome oxidation during hemorrhagic shock”, Crit. Care Med.  25, 166 (1997). doi: 10.1097/00003246-199701000-00030

Gerber, A.C.

M. Weiss, G. Schulz, M. Fasnacht, C. Balmer, J.E. Fischer, A.C. Gerber, and H.U. Bucher, and O. Baenziger, , “Transcutaneously measured near-infrared spectroscopic liver tissue oxygenation does not correlate with hepatic venous oxygenation in children”, Can. J. Anaesth.  49, 824 (2002). doi: 10.1007/BF03017416

Giannotti, G.

S.M. Cohn, J.E. Varela, G. Giannotti, M.O. Dolich, M. Brown, A. Feinstein, and M.G. McKenney, and P. Spalding, , “Splanchnic perfusion evaluation during hemorrhage and resuscitation with gastric near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Trauma  50, 629 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00005373-200104000-00006

Giannotti, G.D.

J.E. Varela, S.M. Cohn, I. Diaz, and G.D. Giannotti, and K.G. Proctor, , “Splanchnic perfusion during delayed, hypotensive, or aggressive fluid resuscitation from uncontrolled hemorrhage”, Shock  20, 476 (2003). doi: 10.1097/01.SHK.0000094036.09886.9b

Glauser, T.A.

C.L. Dent, J.P. Spaeth, B.V. Jones, S.M. Schwartz, T.A. Glauser, B. Hallinan, J.M. Pearl, and P.R. Khoury, and C.D. Kurth, , “Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities after the Norwood procedure using regional cerebral perfusion”, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  130, 1523 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2005.07.051

Goff, D.A.

D.A. Goff, E.M. Buckley, T. Durduran, and J. Wang, and D.J. Licht, , “Noninvasive cerebral perfusion imaging in high-risk neonates”, Semin. Perinatol.  34, 46 (2010). doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2009.10.005

Grandi, S.

G. Ancora, E. Maranella, A. Aceti, L. Pierantoni, S. Grandi, and L. Corvaglia, and G. Faldella, , “Effect of posture on brain hemodynamics in preterm newborns not mechanically ventilated”, Neonatology  97, 212 (2010). doi: 10.1159/000253149

Gratton, E.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L.P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, and W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, , “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: Near-infrared spectroscopy approach”, J. Biomed. Opt.  9, 221 (2004). doi: 10.1117/1.1628242

M.A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, L.A. Paunescu, and J.S. Maier, and E. Gratton, , “Influence of a superficial layer in the quantitative spectroscopic study of strongly scattering media”, Appl. Opt.  37, 7447 (1998). doi: 10.1364/AO.37.007447

S. Fantini, M.A. Franceschini, J.S. Maier, S.A. Walker, and B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, , “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry”, Opt. Eng.  34, 32 (1995). doi: 10.1117/12.183988

Gray, H.

H. Gray, , Gray's Anatomy. Churchill Livingstone, London, UK (1980).

Greisen, G.

M. Wolf, and G. Greisen, , “Advances in near-infrared spectroscopy to study the brain of the preterm and term neonate”, Clin. Perinatol.  36, 807 (2009).

L.C. Sorensen and T.S. Leung, and G. Greisen, , “Comparison of cerebral oxygen saturation in premature infants by near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy: Observations on probe-dependent bias”, J. Biomed. Opt.  13, 064013 (2008). doi: 10.1117/1.3013454

L.C. Sorensen, and G. Greisen, , “Precision of measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation index using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates”, J. Biomed. Opt.  11, 054005 (2006). doi: 10.1117/1.2357730

G. Greisen, , “Is near-infrared spectroscopy living up to its promises?”, Semin. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.  11, 498 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2006.07.010

Groehler, K.E.

G.J. Beilman, K.E. Groehler, and V. Lazaron, and J.P. Ortner, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of regional tissue oxyhemoglobin saturation during hemorrhagic shock”, Shock  12, 196 (1999). doi: 10.1097/00024382-199909000-00005

Grossauer, K.

B. Urlesberger, K. Grossauer, M. Pocivalnik, A. Avian, and W. Muller, and G. Pichler, , “Regional oxygen saturation of the brain and peripheral tissue during birth transition of term infants”, J. Pediatr.  157, 740 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.05.013

G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, E. Peichl, A. Gaster, A. Berghold, G. Schwantzer, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Combination of different noninvasive measuring techniques: A new approach to increase accuracy of peripheral near infrared spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 014014 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3076193

G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, P. Klaritsch, J. Kutschera, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Peripheral oxygenation in term neonates”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  92, F51 (2007). doi: 10.1136/adc.2005.089037

Gupta, M.

J. Cortez, M. Gupta, A. Amaram, J. Pizzino, and M. Sawhney, and B.G. Sood, , “Noninvasive evaluation of splanchnic tissue oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates”, J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.  24, 574 (2011). doi: 10.3109/14767058.2010.511335

Gupta, R.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L.P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, and W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, , “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: Near-infrared spectroscopy approach”, J. Biomed. Opt.  9, 221 (2004). doi: 10.1117/1.1628242

Habib, N.

A.E. El-Desoky, L.R. Jiao, R. Havlik, N. Habib, and B.R. Davidson, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Measurement of hepatic tissue hypoxia using near infrared spectroscopy: Comparison with hepatic vein oxygen partial pressure”, Eur. Surg. Res.  32, 207 (2000). doi: 10.1159/000008766

Haensse, D.

G. Schulz, M. Weiss, U. Bauersfeld, J. Teller, D. Haensse, and H.U. Bucher, and O. Baenziger, , “Liver tissue oxygenation as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy in the critically ill child in correlation with central venous oxygen saturation”, Intensive Care Med.  28, 184 (2002). doi: 10.1007/s00134-001-1182-5

Hafez, T.

W. Yang, T. Hafez, C.S. Thompson, D.P. Mikhailidis, B.R. Davidson, and M.C. Winslet, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Direct measurement of hepatic tissue hypoxia by using a Novel TcpO2/pcO2 monitoring system in comparison with near-infrared spectroscopy”, Liver Int.  23, 163 (2003). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0676.2003.00818.x

Hallinan, B.

C.L. Dent, J.P. Spaeth, B.V. Jones, S.M. Schwartz, T.A. Glauser, B. Hallinan, J.M. Pearl, and P.R. Khoury, and C.D. Kurth, , “Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities after the Norwood procedure using regional cerebral perfusion”, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  130, 1523 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2005.07.051

Hatano, E.

T. Kitai, H. Shinohara, E. Hatano, S. Sato, A. Kanazawa, S. Tsunekawa, M. Yamamoto, Y. Yamaoka, S. Uemoto, Y. Inomata, and K. Tanaka, and A. Tanaka, , “Postoperative monitoring of the oxygenation state of the graft liver in cases with hepatopulmonary syndrome”, Transplantation  62, 1676 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199612150-00026

Havlik, R.

A.E. El-Desoky, L.R. Jiao, R. Havlik, N. Habib, and B.R. Davidson, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Measurement of hepatic tissue hypoxia using near infrared spectroscopy: Comparison with hepatic vein oxygen partial pressure”, Eur. Surg. Res.  32, 207 (2000). doi: 10.1159/000008766

Heard, M.

P.B. Benni, B. Chen, F.D. Dykes, S.F. Wagoner, M. Heard, A.J. Tanner, T.L. Young, K. Rais-Bahrami, and O. Rivera, and B.L. Short, , “Validation of the CAS neonatal NIRS system by monitoring vv-ECMO patients: Preliminary results”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  566, 195 (2005). doi: 10.1007/0-387-26206-7 27

Heard, S.O.

B.R. Soller, N. Cingo, J.C. Puyana, T. Khan, C. Hsi, H. Kim, and J. Favreau, and S.O. Heard, , “Simultaneous measurement of hepatic tissue pH, venous oxygen saturation and hemoglobin by near infrared spectroscopy”, Shock  15, 106 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00024382-200115020-00005

Heinzinger, J.

G. Pichler, J. Heinzinger, J. Kutschera, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Forearm and calf tissue oxygenation in term neonates measured with near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Physiol. Sci.  57, 317 (2007). doi: 10.2170/physiolsci.SC004407

Heys, R.

A.J. Petros, R. Heys, R.C. Tasker, P.M. Fortune, and I. Roberts, and E. Kiely, , “Near infrared spectroscopy can detect changes in splanchnic oxygen delivery in neonates during apnoeic episodes”, Eur. J. Pediatr.  158, 173 (1999). doi: 10.1007/s004310051046

Hielscher, A.H.

H. Liu, B. Chance, A.H. Hielscher, and S.L. Jacques, and F.K. Tittel, , “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy”, Med. Phys.  22, 1209 (1995). doi: 10.1118/1.597520

Hirao, K.

T. Kitai, A. Tanaka, A. Tokuka, B. Sato, S. Mori, N. Yanabu, T. Inomoto, S. Uemoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Yamaoka, K. Ozawa, H. Someda, M. Fujimoto, and F. Moriyasu, and K. Hirao, , “Intraoperative measurement of the graft oxygenation state in living related liver transplantation by near infrared spectroscopy”, Transpl. Int.  8, 111 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.1995.tb01485.x

A. Tokuka, A. Tanaka, T. Kitai, N. Yanabu, S. Mori, B. Sato, K. Tanaka, and Y. Yamaoka, and K. Hirao, , “Interrelationship of oxygen supply by hepatic artery and portal vein: Rapid analysis of ischemia-reflow-induced changes in hepatic oxygenation in experimental and clinical subjects by tissue near-infrared spectroscopy”, Eur. Surg. Res.  26, 342 (1994). doi: 10.1159/000129355

Hogue, C.W.

K.M. Brady, J.O. Mytar, J.K. Lee, D.E. Cameron, L.A. Vricella, W.R. Thompson, and C.W. Hogue, and R.B. Easley, , “Monitoring cerebral blood flow pressure autoregulation in pediatric patients during cardiac surgery”, Stroke  41, 1957 (2010). doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.575167

Hou, X.

X. Hou, H. Ding, Y. Teng, C. Zhou, and X. Tang, and S. Li, , “Research on the relationship between brain anoxia at different regional oxygen saturations and brain damage using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Physiol. Meas.  28, 1251 (2007). doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/28/10/010

Hsi, C.

B.R. Soller, N. Cingo, J.C. Puyana, T. Khan, C. Hsi, H. Kim, and J. Favreau, and S.O. Heard, , “Simultaneous measurement of hepatic tissue pH, venous oxygen saturation and hemoglobin by near infrared spectroscopy”, Shock  15, 106 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00024382-200115020-00005

Hueber, D.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L.P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, and W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, , “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: Near-infrared spectroscopy approach”, J. Biomed. Opt.  9, 221 (2004). doi: 10.1117/1.1628242

Hueber, D.M.

D.M. Hueber, M.A. Franceschini, H.Y. Ma, Q. Zhang, J.R. Ballesteros, S. Fantini, D. Wallace, and V. Ntziachristos, and B. Chance, , “Non-invasive and quantitative near-infrared haemoglobin spectrometry in the piglet brain during hypoxic stress, using a Frequency-domain multi-distance instrument”, Phys. Med. Biol.  46, 41 (2001). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/46/1/304

Inomata, Y.

T. Kitai, H. Shinohara, E. Hatano, S. Sato, A. Kanazawa, S. Tsunekawa, M. Yamamoto, Y. Yamaoka, S. Uemoto, Y. Inomata, and K. Tanaka, and A. Tanaka, , “Postoperative monitoring of the oxygenation state of the graft liver in cases with hepatopulmonary syndrome”, Transplantation  62, 1676 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199612150-00026

Inomoto, T.

T. Kitai, A. Tanaka, A. Tokuka, B. Sato, S. Mori, N. Yanabu, T. Inomoto, S. Uemoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Yamaoka, K. Ozawa, H. Someda, M. Fujimoto, and F. Moriyasu, and K. Hirao, , “Intraoperative measurement of the graft oxygenation state in living related liver transplantation by near infrared spectroscopy”, Transpl. Int.  8, 111 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.1995.tb01485.x

Jacques, S.L.

H. Liu, B. Chance, A.H. Hielscher, and S.L. Jacques, and F.K. Tittel, , “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy”, Med. Phys.  22, 1209 (1995). doi: 10.1118/1.597520

Jenny, C.

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J.C. Fauchere, and H.U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, , “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16(9), 097004 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3622756

Jiao, L.R.

A.E. El-Desoky, L.R. Jiao, R. Havlik, N. Habib, and B.R. Davidson, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Measurement of hepatic tissue hypoxia using near infrared spectroscopy: Comparison with hepatic vein oxygen partial pressure”, Eur. Surg. Res.  32, 207 (2000). doi: 10.1159/000008766

Jones, B.V.

C.L. Dent, J.P. Spaeth, B.V. Jones, S.M. Schwartz, T.A. Glauser, B. Hallinan, J.M. Pearl, and P.R. Khoury, and C.D. Kurth, , “Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities after the Norwood procedure using regional cerebral perfusion”, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  130, 1523 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2005.07.051

Jorch, G.

J. Menke, U. Voss, and G. Moller, and G. Jorch, , “Reproducibility of cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in neonates”, Biol. Neonate  83, 6 (2003). doi: 10.1159/000067006

Kanazawa, A.

T. Kitai, H. Shinohara, E. Hatano, S. Sato, A. Kanazawa, S. Tsunekawa, M. Yamamoto, Y. Yamaoka, S. Uemoto, Y. Inomata, and K. Tanaka, and A. Tanaka, , “Postoperative monitoring of the oxygenation state of the graft liver in cases with hepatopulmonary syndrome”, Transplantation  62, 1676 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199612150-00026

Kaufman, J.

J. Kaufman, M.C. Almodovar, and J. Zuk, and R.H. Friesen, , “Correlation of abdominal site near-infrared spectroscopy with gastric tonometry in infants following surgery for congenital heart disease”, Pediatr. Crit. Care Med.  9, 62 (2008). doi: 10.1097/01.PCC.0000298640.47574.DA

Kawaguchi, M.

K. Yoshitani, M. Kawaguchi, K. Tatsumi, and K. Kitaguchi, and H. Furuya, , “A comparison of the INVOS 4100 and the NIRO 300 near-infrared spectrophotometers”, Anesth. Analg.  94, 586 (2002). doi: 10.1097/00000539-200203000-00020

Keating, P.

J.C. van Hoften, E.A. Verhagen, P. Keating, and H.J. ter Horst, and A.F. Bos, , “Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation and extraction in preterm infants before and after blood transfusion”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  95, F352 (2010). doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.163592

Keel, M.

J. Teller, M. Wolf, M. Keel, H.U. Bucher, and S. Fanconi, and O. Baenziger, , “Can near infrared spectroscopy of the liver monitor tissue oxygenation?”, Eur. J. Pediatr.  159, 549 (2000). doi: 10.1007/s004310051334

J. Teller, K. Schwendener, M. Wolf, M. Keel, H.U. Bucher, and S. Fanconi, and O. Baenziger, , “Continuous monitoring of liver oxygenation with near infrared spectroscopy during naso-gastric tube feeding in neonates”, Schweiz. Med. Wochenschr.  130, 652 (2000).

M. Wolf, O. Baenziger, M. Keel, V. Dietz, and K. von Siebenthal, and H.U. Bucher, , “Testing near infrared spectrophotometry using a liquid neonatal head phantom”, P. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins.  3566, 79 (1998).

Khan, T.

B.R. Soller, N. Cingo, J.C. Puyana, T. Khan, C. Hsi, H. Kim, and J. Favreau, and S.O. Heard, , “Simultaneous measurement of hepatic tissue pH, venous oxygen saturation and hemoglobin by near infrared spectroscopy”, Shock  15, 106 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00024382-200115020-00005

Khoury, P.R.

C.L. Dent, J.P. Spaeth, B.V. Jones, S.M. Schwartz, T.A. Glauser, B. Hallinan, J.M. Pearl, and P.R. Khoury, and C.D. Kurth, , “Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities after the Norwood procedure using regional cerebral perfusion”, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  130, 1523 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2005.07.051

Kiely, E.

A.J. Petros, R. Heys, R.C. Tasker, P.M. Fortune, and I. Roberts, and E. Kiely, , “Near infrared spectroscopy can detect changes in splanchnic oxygen delivery in neonates during apnoeic episodes”, Eur. J. Pediatr.  158, 173 (1999). doi: 10.1007/s004310051046

Kim, H.

B.R. Soller, N. Cingo, J.C. Puyana, T. Khan, C. Hsi, H. Kim, and J. Favreau, and S.O. Heard, , “Simultaneous measurement of hepatic tissue pH, venous oxygen saturation and hemoglobin by near infrared spectroscopy”, Shock  15, 106 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00024382-200115020-00005

Kitaguchi, K.

K. Yoshitani, M. Kawaguchi, K. Tatsumi, and K. Kitaguchi, and H. Furuya, , “A comparison of the INVOS 4100 and the NIRO 300 near-infrared spectrophotometers”, Anesth. Analg.  94, 586 (2002). doi: 10.1097/00000539-200203000-00020

Kitai, T.

T. Kitai, T. Nishio, and M. Miwa, and Y. Yamaoka, , “Optical analysis of the cirrhotic liver by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy”, Surg. Today  34, 424 (2004). doi: 10.1007/s00595-003-2721-1

T. Kitai and B. Beauvoit, and B. Chance, , “Optical determination of fatty change of the graft liver with near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy”, Transplantation  62, 642 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199609150-00018

T. Kitai, H. Shinohara, E. Hatano, S. Sato, A. Kanazawa, S. Tsunekawa, M. Yamamoto, Y. Yamaoka, S. Uemoto, Y. Inomata, and K. Tanaka, and A. Tanaka, , “Postoperative monitoring of the oxygenation state of the graft liver in cases with hepatopulmonary syndrome”, Transplantation  62, 1676 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199612150-00026

T. Kitai, A. Tanaka, A. Tokuka, B. Sato, S. Mori, N. Yanabu, T. Inomoto, S. Uemoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Yamaoka, K. Ozawa, H. Someda, M. Fujimoto, and F. Moriyasu, and K. Hirao, , “Intraoperative measurement of the graft oxygenation state in living related liver transplantation by near infrared spectroscopy”, Transpl. Int.  8, 111 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.1995.tb01485.x

A. Tokuka, A. Tanaka, T. Kitai, N. Yanabu, S. Mori, B. Sato, K. Tanaka, and Y. Yamaoka, and K. Hirao, , “Interrelationship of oxygen supply by hepatic artery and portal vein: Rapid analysis of ischemia-reflow-induced changes in hepatic oxygenation in experimental and clinical subjects by tissue near-infrared spectroscopy”, Eur. Surg. Res.  26, 342 (1994). doi: 10.1159/000129355

Klaritsch, P.

G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, P. Klaritsch, J. Kutschera, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Peripheral oxygenation in term neonates”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  92, F51 (2007). doi: 10.1136/adc.2005.089037

Kurth, C.D.

C.D. Kurth, J.C. McCann, J. Wu, and L. Miles, and A.W. Loepke, , “Cerebral oxygen saturation-time threshold for hypoxic–ischemic injury in piglets”, Anesth. Analg.  108, 1268 (2009). doi: 10.1213/ane.0b013e318196ac8e

C.L. Dent, J.P. Spaeth, B.V. Jones, S.M. Schwartz, T.A. Glauser, B. Hallinan, J.M. Pearl, and P.R. Khoury, and C.D. Kurth, , “Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities after the Norwood procedure using regional cerebral perfusion”, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  130, 1523 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2005.07.051

Kutschera, J.

G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, P. Klaritsch, J. Kutschera, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Peripheral oxygenation in term neonates”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  92, F51 (2007). doi: 10.1136/adc.2005.089037

G. Pichler, J. Heinzinger, J. Kutschera, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Forearm and calf tissue oxygenation in term neonates measured with near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Physiol. Sci.  57, 317 (2007). doi: 10.2170/physiolsci.SC004407

Langdale, L.

P. Rhee, L. Langdale, and C. Mock, and L.M. Gentilello, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy: Continuous measurement of cytochrome oxidation during hemorrhagic shock”, Crit. Care Med.  25, 166 (1997). doi: 10.1097/00003246-199701000-00030

Lautt, W.W.

W.W. Lautt, , “Regulatory processes interacting to maintain hepatic blood flow constancy: Vascular compliance, hepatic arterial buffer response, hepatorenal reflex, liver regeneration, escape from vasoconstriction”, Hepatol. Res.  37, 891 (2007). doi: 10.1111/j.1872-034X.2007.00148.x

Lazaron, V.

G.J. Beilman, K.E. Groehler, and V. Lazaron, and J.P. Ortner, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of regional tissue oxyhemoglobin saturation during hemorrhagic shock”, Shock  12, 196 (1999). doi: 10.1097/00024382-199909000-00005

Lee, J.K.

K.M. Brady, J.O. Mytar, J.K. Lee, D.E. Cameron, L.A. Vricella, W.R. Thompson, and C.W. Hogue, and R.B. Easley, , “Monitoring cerebral blood flow pressure autoregulation in pediatric patients during cardiac surgery”, Stroke  41, 1957 (2010). doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.575167

Lemmers, P.

R.G. Wijbenga and P. Lemmers, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation during the first days of life in preterm and term neonates: Differences between different brain regions”, Pediatr. Res.  70(4), 389 (2011). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e31822a36db

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, G. Naulaers, L. Ameye, J. Vanderhaegen, P. Lemmers, and F. Van Bel, and S. Van Huffel, , “Cerebral tissue oxygenation and regional oxygen saturation can be used to study cerebral autoregulation in pre-maturely born infants”, Pediatr. Res.  69, 548 (2011). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3182176d85

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, M. Wolf, P. Lemmers, F. Van Bel, and L. Ameye, and S. Van Huffel, , “Impaired cerebral autoregulation using near-infrared spectroscopy and its relation to clinical outcomes in premature infants”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  701, 233 (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7756-4 31

F. van Bel and P. Lemmers, and G. Naulaers, , “Monitoring neonatal regional cerebral oxygen saturation in clinical practice: Value and pitfalls”, Neonatology  94, 237 (2008). doi: 10.1159/000151642

Lemmers, P.M.

W. Baerts and P.M. Lemmers, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and oxygen extraction in the preterm infant during desaturation: Effects of increasing FiO(2) to assist recovery”, Neonatology  99, 65 (2011). doi: 10.1159/000302717

P.M. Lemmers, M.C. Molenschot, J. Evens, and M.C. Toet, and F. van Bel, , “Is cerebral oxygen supply compromised in preterm infants undergoing surgical closure for patent ductus arteriosus?”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  95, F429 (2010). doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.180117

P.M. Lemmers, and F. van Bel, , “Left-to-right differences of regional cerebral oxygen saturation and oxygen extraction in preterm infants during the first days of life”, Pediatr. Res.  65, 226 (2009). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e318191fb5d

P.M. Lemmers and M.C. Toet, and F. van Bel, , “Impact of patent ductus arteriosus and subsequent therapy with indomethacin on cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants”, Pediatrics  121, 142 (2008). doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-0925

P.M. Lemmers, M. Toet, and L.J. van Schelven, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and cerebral oxygen extraction in the preterm infant: The impact of respiratory distress syndrome”, Exp. Brain Res.  173, 458 (2006). doi: 10.1007/s00221-006-0388-8

M.C. Toet, P.M. Lemmers, and L.J. van Schelven, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and electrical activity after birth asphyxia: Their relation to outcome”, Pediatrics  117, 333 (2006). doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-0987

Leunens, V.

G. Naulaers, B. Meyns, M. Miserez, V. Leunens, S. Van Huffel, and P. Casaer, and H. Devlieger, , “Measurement of the liver tissue oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy”, Intensive Care Med.  31, 138 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s00134-004-2482-3

Leung, T.S.

F.Y. Wong, T.S. Leung, T. Austin, M. Wilkinson, J.H. Meek, and J.S. Wyatt, and A.M. Walker, , “Impaired autoregulation in preterm infants identified by using spatially resolved spectroscopy”, Pediatrics  121, e604 (2008). doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-1487

L.C. Sorensen and T.S. Leung, and G. Greisen, , “Comparison of cerebral oxygen saturation in premature infants by near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy: Observations on probe-dependent bias”, J. Biomed. Opt.  13, 064013 (2008). doi: 10.1117/1.3013454

T.S. Leung and C.E. Elwell, and D.T. Delpy, , “Estimation of cerebral oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin concentration changes in a layered adult head model using near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis”, Phys Med. Biol.  50, 5783 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/24/002

Li, S.

X. Hou, H. Ding, Y. Teng, C. Zhou, and X. Tang, and S. Li, , “Research on the relationship between brain anoxia at different regional oxygen saturations and brain damage using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Physiol. Meas.  28, 1251 (2007). doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/28/10/010

Licht, D.J.

D.A. Goff, E.M. Buckley, T. Durduran, and J. Wang, and D.J. Licht, , “Noninvasive cerebral perfusion imaging in high-risk neonates”, Semin. Perinatol.  34, 46 (2010). doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2009.10.005

Liu, H.

H. Liu, B. Chance, A.H. Hielscher, and S.L. Jacques, and F.K. Tittel, , “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy”, Med. Phys.  22, 1209 (1995). doi: 10.1118/1.597520

Loepke, A.W.

C.D. Kurth, J.C. McCann, J. Wu, and L. Miles, and A.W. Loepke, , “Cerebral oxygen saturation-time threshold for hypoxic–ischemic injury in piglets”, Anesth. Analg.  108, 1268 (2009). doi: 10.1213/ane.0b013e318196ac8e

Lopez, P.

M.C. Bravo, P. Lopez, F. Cabanas, J. Perez-Rodriguez, E. Perez-Fernandez, and J. Quero, , and A. Pellicer, , “Acute effects of levosimendan on cerebral and systemic perfusion and oxygenation in newborns: An observational study”, Neonatology  99, 217 (2011). doi: 10.1159/000314955

Ma, H.Y.

D.M. Hueber, M.A. Franceschini, H.Y. Ma, Q. Zhang, J.R. Ballesteros, S. Fantini, D. Wallace, and V. Ntziachristos, and B. Chance, , “Non-invasive and quantitative near-infrared haemoglobin spectrometry in the piglet brain during hypoxic stress, using a Frequency-domain multi-distance instrument”, Phys. Med. Biol.  46, 41 (2001). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/46/1/304

Macnab, A.J.

E. Nahum, P.W. Skippen, R.E. Gagnon, and A.J. Macnab, and E.D. Skarsgard, , “Correlation of transcutaneous hepatic near-infrared spectroscopy readings with liver surface readings and perfusion parameters in a piglet endo-toxemic shock model”, Liver Int.  26, 1277 (2006). doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2006.01383.x

Madsen, P.L.

P.L. Madsen, C. Skak, and A. Rasmussen, and N.H. Secher, , “Interference of cerebral near-infrared oximetry in patients with icterus”, Anesth. Analg.  90, 489 (2000).

Maier, J.S.

M.A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, L.A. Paunescu, and J.S. Maier, and E. Gratton, , “Influence of a superficial layer in the quantitative spectroscopic study of strongly scattering media”, Appl. Opt.  37, 7447 (1998). doi: 10.1364/AO.37.007447

S. Fantini, M.A. Franceschini, J.S. Maier, S.A. Walker, and B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, , “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry”, Opt. Eng.  34, 32 (1995). doi: 10.1117/12.183988

Mantulin, W.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L.P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, and W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, , “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: Near-infrared spectroscopy approach”, J. Biomed. Opt.  9, 221 (2004). doi: 10.1117/1.1628242

Maranella, E.

G. Ancora, E. Maranella, A. Aceti, L. Pierantoni, S. Grandi, and L. Corvaglia, and G. Faldella, , “Effect of posture on brain hemodynamics in preterm newborns not mechanically ventilated”, Neonatology  97, 212 (2010). doi: 10.1159/000253149

Marson, A.G.

S. Victor, R.E. Appleton, M. Beirne, and A.G. Marson, and A.M. Weindling, , “Effect of carbon dioxide on background cerebral electrical activity and fractional oxygen extraction in very low birth weight infants just after birth”, Pediatr. Res.  58, 579 (2005). doi: 10.1203/01.pdr.0000169402.13435.09

Matcher, S.J.

S.J. Matcher, C.E. Elwell, C.E. Cooper, and M. Cope, and D.T. Delpy, , “Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms”, Anal. Biochem.  227, 54 (1995). doi: 10.1006/abio.1995.1252

McCann, J.C.

C.D. Kurth, J.C. McCann, J. Wu, and L. Miles, and A.W. Loepke, , “Cerebral oxygen saturation-time threshold for hypoxic–ischemic injury in piglets”, Anesth. Analg.  108, 1268 (2009). doi: 10.1213/ane.0b013e318196ac8e

McElroy, S.

S. McNeill, J.C. Gatenby, and S. McElroy, and B. Engelhardt, , “Normal cerebral, renal and abdominal regional oxygen saturations using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm infants”, J. Perinatol.  31, 51 (2011). doi: 10.1038/jp.2010.71

McKenney, M.G.

S.M. Cohn, J.E. Varela, G. Giannotti, M.O. Dolich, M. Brown, A. Feinstein, and M.G. McKenney, and P. Spalding, , “Splanchnic perfusion evaluation during hemorrhage and resuscitation with gastric near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Trauma  50, 629 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00005373-200104000-00006

McNeill, S.

S. McNeill, J.C. Gatenby, and S. McElroy, and B. Engelhardt, , “Normal cerebral, renal and abdominal regional oxygen saturations using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm infants”, J. Perinatol.  31, 51 (2011). doi: 10.1038/jp.2010.71

Meek, J.H.

F.Y. Wong, T.S. Leung, T. Austin, M. Wilkinson, J.H. Meek, and J.S. Wyatt, and A.M. Walker, , “Impaired autoregulation in preterm infants identified by using spatially resolved spectroscopy”, Pediatrics  121, e604 (2008). doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-1487

Mehta, R.

A. Petrova, and R. Mehta, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy in the detection of regional tissue oxygenation during hypoxic events in preterm infants undergoing critical care”, Pediatr. Crit. Care Med.  7, 449 (2006). doi: 10.1097/01.PCC.0000235248.70482.14

Menke, J.

J. Menke, U. Voss, and G. Moller, and G. Jorch, , “Reproducibility of cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in neonates”, Biol. Neonate  83, 6 (2003). doi: 10.1159/000067006

Meyns, B.

J. Vanderhaegen, D. De Smet, B. Meyns, M. Van De Velde, and S. Van Huffel, and G. Naulaers, , “Surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus and its effect on the cerebral tissue oxygenation”, Acta Paediatr.  97, 1640 (2008). doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01021.x

G. Naulaers, B. Meyns, M. Miserez, V. Leunens, S. Van Huffel, and P. Casaer, and H. Devlieger, , “Measurement of the liver tissue oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy”, Intensive Care Med.  31, 138 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s00134-004-2482-3

Michalos, A.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L.P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, and W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, , “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: Near-infrared spectroscopy approach”, J. Biomed. Opt.  9, 221 (2004). doi: 10.1117/1.1628242

Mikhailidis, D.P.

W. Yang, T. Hafez, C.S. Thompson, D.P. Mikhailidis, B.R. Davidson, and M.C. Winslet, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Direct measurement of hepatic tissue hypoxia by using a Novel TcpO2/pcO2 monitoring system in comparison with near-infrared spectroscopy”, Liver Int.  23, 163 (2003). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0676.2003.00818.x

Miles, L.

C.D. Kurth, J.C. McCann, J. Wu, and L. Miles, and A.W. Loepke, , “Cerebral oxygen saturation-time threshold for hypoxic–ischemic injury in piglets”, Anesth. Analg.  108, 1268 (2009). doi: 10.1213/ane.0b013e318196ac8e

Milstein, J.M.

M.A. Underwood and J.M. Milstein, and M.P. Sherman, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy as a screening tool for patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants”, Neonatology  91, 134 (2007). doi: 10.1159/000097131

Miserez, M.

J. Vanderhaegen, L. Dehing, G. Naulaers, H. Devlieger, Y. Al-Olayet, and F. Penninckx, and M. Miserez, , “Use of the liver tissue oxygenation index as a noninvasive parameter of intestinal ischemia in rabbits”, World J. Surg.  31, 2359 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s00268-007-9269-y

G. Naulaers, B. Meyns, M. Miserez, V. Leunens, S. Van Huffel, and P. Casaer, and H. Devlieger, , “Measurement of the liver tissue oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy”, Intensive Care Med.  31, 138 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s00134-004-2482-3

Miwa, M.

T. Kitai, T. Nishio, and M. Miwa, and Y. Yamaoka, , “Optical analysis of the cirrhotic liver by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy”, Surg. Today  34, 424 (2004). doi: 10.1007/s00595-003-2721-1

Mock, C.

P. Rhee, L. Langdale, and C. Mock, and L.M. Gentilello, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy: Continuous measurement of cytochrome oxidation during hemorrhagic shock”, Crit. Care Med.  25, 166 (1997). doi: 10.1097/00003246-199701000-00030

Molenschot, M.C.

P.M. Lemmers, M.C. Molenschot, J. Evens, and M.C. Toet, and F. van Bel, , “Is cerebral oxygen supply compromised in preterm infants undergoing surgical closure for patent ductus arteriosus?”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  95, F429 (2010). doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.180117

Moller, G.

J. Menke, U. Voss, and G. Moller, and G. Jorch, , “Reproducibility of cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in neonates”, Biol. Neonate  83, 6 (2003). doi: 10.1159/000067006

Mori, S.

T. Kitai, A. Tanaka, A. Tokuka, B. Sato, S. Mori, N. Yanabu, T. Inomoto, S. Uemoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Yamaoka, K. Ozawa, H. Someda, M. Fujimoto, and F. Moriyasu, and K. Hirao, , “Intraoperative measurement of the graft oxygenation state in living related liver transplantation by near infrared spectroscopy”, Transpl. Int.  8, 111 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.1995.tb01485.x

A. Tokuka, A. Tanaka, T. Kitai, N. Yanabu, S. Mori, B. Sato, K. Tanaka, and Y. Yamaoka, and K. Hirao, , “Interrelationship of oxygen supply by hepatic artery and portal vein: Rapid analysis of ischemia-reflow-induced changes in hepatic oxygenation in experimental and clinical subjects by tissue near-infrared spectroscopy”, Eur. Surg. Res.  26, 342 (1994). doi: 10.1159/000129355

Moriyasu, F.

T. Kitai, A. Tanaka, A. Tokuka, B. Sato, S. Mori, N. Yanabu, T. Inomoto, S. Uemoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Yamaoka, K. Ozawa, H. Someda, M. Fujimoto, and F. Moriyasu, and K. Hirao, , “Intraoperative measurement of the graft oxygenation state in living related liver transplantation by near infrared spectroscopy”, Transpl. Int.  8, 111 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.1995.tb01485.x

Morris, N.

G. Pichler, M. Pocivalnik, R. Riedl, E. Pichler-Stachl, N. Morris, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Multi-associations: Predisposed to misinterpretation of peripheral tissue oxygenation and circulation in neonates”, Physiol. Meas.  32, 1025 (2011). doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/32/8/003

Muehlemann, T.

S.J. Arri, T. Muehlemann, M. Biallas, and H.U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, , “Precision of cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration measurements in neonates measured by near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 047005 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3570303

Muller, W.

G. Pichler, M. Pocivalnik, R. Riedl, E. Pichler-Stachl, N. Morris, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Multi-associations: Predisposed to misinterpretation of peripheral tissue oxygenation and circulation in neonates”, Physiol. Meas.  32, 1025 (2011). doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/32/8/003

B. Urlesberger, K. Grossauer, M. Pocivalnik, A. Avian, and W. Muller, and G. Pichler, , “Regional oxygen saturation of the brain and peripheral tissue during birth transition of term infants”, J. Pediatr.  157, 740 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.05.013

G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, E. Peichl, A. Gaster, A. Berghold, G. Schwantzer, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Combination of different noninvasive measuring techniques: A new approach to increase accuracy of peripheral near infrared spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 014014 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3076193

G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, P. Klaritsch, J. Kutschera, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Peripheral oxygenation in term neonates”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  92, F51 (2007). doi: 10.1136/adc.2005.089037

G. Pichler, J. Heinzinger, J. Kutschera, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Forearm and calf tissue oxygenation in term neonates measured with near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Physiol. Sci.  57, 317 (2007). doi: 10.2170/physiolsci.SC004407

Mytar, J.O.

K.M. Brady, J.O. Mytar, J.K. Lee, D.E. Cameron, L.A. Vricella, W.R. Thompson, and C.W. Hogue, and R.B. Easley, , “Monitoring cerebral blood flow pressure autoregulation in pediatric patients during cardiac surgery”, Stroke  41, 1957 (2010). doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.575167

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V. Dave, L.P. Brion, D.E. Campbell, M. Schemer, and C. Raab, and S.M. Nafday, , “Splanchnic tissue oxygenation, but not brain tissue oxygenation, increases after feeds in stable preterm neonates tolerating full bolus orogastric feeding”, J. Perinatol.  29, 213 (2009). doi: 10.1038/jp.2008.189

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E. Nahum, P.W. Skippen, R.E. Gagnon, and A.J. Macnab, and E.D. Skarsgard, , “Correlation of transcutaneous hepatic near-infrared spectroscopy readings with liver surface readings and perfusion parameters in a piglet endo-toxemic shock model”, Liver Int.  26, 1277 (2006). doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2006.01383.x

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A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, M. Wolf, P. Lemmers, F. Van Bel, and L. Ameye, and S. Van Huffel, , “Impaired cerebral autoregulation using near-infrared spectroscopy and its relation to clinical outcomes in premature infants”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  701, 233 (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7756-4 31

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, G. Naulaers, L. Ameye, J. Vanderhaegen, P. Lemmers, and F. Van Bel, and S. Van Huffel, , “Cerebral tissue oxygenation and regional oxygen saturation can be used to study cerebral autoregulation in pre-maturely born infants”, Pediatr. Res.  69, 548 (2011). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3182176d85

J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, C. Vanhole, D. De Smet, S. Van Huffel, and S. Vanhaesebrouck, and H. Devlieger, , “The effect of changes in Tpco2 on the fractional tissue oxygen extraction—as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy—neonates during the first days of life”, Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol.  13, 128 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2008.02.012

F. van Bel and P. Lemmers, and G. Naulaers, , “Monitoring neonatal regional cerebral oxygen saturation in clinical practice: Value and pitfalls”, Neonatology  94, 237 (2008). doi: 10.1159/000151642

J. Vanderhaegen, D. De Smet, B. Meyns, M. Van De Velde, and S. Van Huffel, and G. Naulaers, , “Surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus and its effect on the cerebral tissue oxygenation”, Acta Paediatr.  97, 1640 (2008). doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01021.x

J. Vanderhaegen, L. Dehing, G. Naulaers, H. Devlieger, Y. Al-Olayet, and F. Penninckx, and M. Miserez, , “Use of the liver tissue oxygenation index as a noninvasive parameter of intestinal ischemia in rabbits”, World J. Surg.  31, 2359 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s00268-007-9269-y

G. Naulaers, B. Meyns, M. Miserez, V. Leunens, S. Van Huffel, and P. Casaer, and H. Devlieger, , “Measurement of the liver tissue oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy”, Intensive Care Med.  31, 138 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s00134-004-2482-3

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T. Kitai, T. Nishio, and M. Miwa, and Y. Yamaoka, , “Optical analysis of the cirrhotic liver by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy”, Surg. Today  34, 424 (2004). doi: 10.1007/s00595-003-2721-1

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D.M. Hueber, M.A. Franceschini, H.Y. Ma, Q. Zhang, J.R. Ballesteros, S. Fantini, D. Wallace, and V. Ntziachristos, and B. Chance, , “Non-invasive and quantitative near-infrared haemoglobin spectrometry in the piglet brain during hypoxic stress, using a Frequency-domain multi-distance instrument”, Phys. Med. Biol.  46, 41 (2001). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/46/1/304

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G.J. Beilman, K.E. Groehler, and V. Lazaron, and J.P. Ortner, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of regional tissue oxyhemoglobin saturation during hemorrhagic shock”, Shock  12, 196 (1999). doi: 10.1097/00024382-199909000-00005

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T. Kitai, A. Tanaka, A. Tokuka, B. Sato, S. Mori, N. Yanabu, T. Inomoto, S. Uemoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Yamaoka, K. Ozawa, H. Someda, M. Fujimoto, and F. Moriyasu, and K. Hirao, , “Intraoperative measurement of the graft oxygenation state in living related liver transplantation by near infrared spectroscopy”, Transpl. Int.  8, 111 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.1995.tb01485.x

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Paunescu, L.A.

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C.L. Dent, J.P. Spaeth, B.V. Jones, S.M. Schwartz, T.A. Glauser, B. Hallinan, J.M. Pearl, and P.R. Khoury, and C.D. Kurth, , “Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities after the Norwood procedure using regional cerebral perfusion”, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  130, 1523 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2005.07.051

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G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, E. Peichl, A. Gaster, A. Berghold, G. Schwantzer, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Combination of different noninvasive measuring techniques: A new approach to increase accuracy of peripheral near infrared spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 014014 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3076193

Pellicer, A.

M.C. Bravo, P. Lopez, F. Cabanas, J. Perez-Rodriguez, E. Perez-Fernandez, and J. Quero, , and A. Pellicer, , “Acute effects of levosimendan on cerebral and systemic perfusion and oxygenation in newborns: An observational study”, Neonatology  99, 217 (2011). doi: 10.1159/000314955

Penninckx, F.

J. Vanderhaegen, L. Dehing, G. Naulaers, H. Devlieger, Y. Al-Olayet, and F. Penninckx, and M. Miserez, , “Use of the liver tissue oxygenation index as a noninvasive parameter of intestinal ischemia in rabbits”, World J. Surg.  31, 2359 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s00268-007-9269-y

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M.C. Bravo, P. Lopez, F. Cabanas, J. Perez-Rodriguez, E. Perez-Fernandez, and J. Quero, , and A. Pellicer, , “Acute effects of levosimendan on cerebral and systemic perfusion and oxygenation in newborns: An observational study”, Neonatology  99, 217 (2011). doi: 10.1159/000314955

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M.C. Bravo, P. Lopez, F. Cabanas, J. Perez-Rodriguez, E. Perez-Fernandez, and J. Quero, , and A. Pellicer, , “Acute effects of levosimendan on cerebral and systemic perfusion and oxygenation in newborns: An observational study”, Neonatology  99, 217 (2011). doi: 10.1159/000314955

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M. Thavasothy, M. Broadhead, C. Elwell, and M. Peters, and M. Smith, , “A comparison of cerebral oxygenation as measured by the NIRO 300 and the INVOS 5100 near-infrared spectrophotometers”, Anaesthesia  57, 999 (2002). doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2044.2002.02826.x

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P.M. Fortune and M. Wagstaff, and A.J. Petros, , “Cerebrosplanchnic oxygenation ratio (CSOR) using near infrared spectroscopy may be able to predict splanchnic ischaemia in neonates”, Intensive Care Med.  27, 1401 (2001). doi: 10.1007/s001340100994

A.J. Petros, R. Heys, R.C. Tasker, P.M. Fortune, and I. Roberts, and E. Kiely, , “Near infrared spectroscopy can detect changes in splanchnic oxygen delivery in neonates during apnoeic episodes”, Eur. J. Pediatr.  158, 173 (1999). doi: 10.1007/s004310051046

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A. Petrova, and R. Mehta, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy in the detection of regional tissue oxygenation during hypoxic events in preterm infants undergoing critical care”, Pediatr. Crit. Care Med.  7, 449 (2006). doi: 10.1097/01.PCC.0000235248.70482.14

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G. Pichler, M. Pocivalnik, R. Riedl, E. Pichler-Stachl, N. Morris, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Multi-associations: Predisposed to misinterpretation of peripheral tissue oxygenation and circulation in neonates”, Physiol. Meas.  32, 1025 (2011). doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/32/8/003

B. Urlesberger, K. Grossauer, M. Pocivalnik, A. Avian, and W. Muller, and G. Pichler, , “Regional oxygen saturation of the brain and peripheral tissue during birth transition of term infants”, J. Pediatr.  157, 740 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.05.013

G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, E. Peichl, A. Gaster, A. Berghold, G. Schwantzer, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Combination of different noninvasive measuring techniques: A new approach to increase accuracy of peripheral near infrared spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 014014 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3076193

G. Pichler, J. Heinzinger, J. Kutschera, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Forearm and calf tissue oxygenation in term neonates measured with near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Physiol. Sci.  57, 317 (2007). doi: 10.2170/physiolsci.SC004407

G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, P. Klaritsch, J. Kutschera, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Peripheral oxygenation in term neonates”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  92, F51 (2007). doi: 10.1136/adc.2005.089037

Pichler-Stachl, E.

G. Pichler, M. Pocivalnik, R. Riedl, E. Pichler-Stachl, N. Morris, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Multi-associations: Predisposed to misinterpretation of peripheral tissue oxygenation and circulation in neonates”, Physiol. Meas.  32, 1025 (2011). doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/32/8/003

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G. Ancora, E. Maranella, A. Aceti, L. Pierantoni, S. Grandi, and L. Corvaglia, and G. Faldella, , “Effect of posture on brain hemodynamics in preterm newborns not mechanically ventilated”, Neonatology  97, 212 (2010). doi: 10.1159/000253149

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J. Cortez, M. Gupta, A. Amaram, J. Pizzino, and M. Sawhney, and B.G. Sood, , “Noninvasive evaluation of splanchnic tissue oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates”, J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.  24, 574 (2011). doi: 10.3109/14767058.2010.511335

Pocivalnik, M.

G. Pichler, M. Pocivalnik, R. Riedl, E. Pichler-Stachl, N. Morris, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Multi-associations: Predisposed to misinterpretation of peripheral tissue oxygenation and circulation in neonates”, Physiol. Meas.  32, 1025 (2011). doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/32/8/003

B. Urlesberger, K. Grossauer, M. Pocivalnik, A. Avian, and W. Muller, and G. Pichler, , “Regional oxygen saturation of the brain and peripheral tissue during birth transition of term infants”, J. Pediatr.  157, 740 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.05.013

Polzonetti, C.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L.P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, and W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, , “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: Near-infrared spectroscopy approach”, J. Biomed. Opt.  9, 221 (2004). doi: 10.1117/1.1628242

Proctor, K.G.

J.E. Varela, S.M. Cohn, I. Diaz, and G.D. Giannotti, and K.G. Proctor, , “Splanchnic perfusion during delayed, hypotensive, or aggressive fluid resuscitation from uncontrolled hemorrhage”, Shock  20, 476 (2003). doi: 10.1097/01.SHK.0000094036.09886.9b

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B.R. Soller, N. Cingo, J.C. Puyana, T. Khan, C. Hsi, H. Kim, and J. Favreau, and S.O. Heard, , “Simultaneous measurement of hepatic tissue pH, venous oxygen saturation and hemoglobin by near infrared spectroscopy”, Shock  15, 106 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00024382-200115020-00005

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M. Wolf and M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, , “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications”, J. Biomed. Opt.  12, 062104 (2007). doi: 10.1117/1.2804899

Quero, J.

M.C. Bravo, P. Lopez, F. Cabanas, J. Perez-Rodriguez, E. Perez-Fernandez, and J. Quero, , and A. Pellicer, , “Acute effects of levosimendan on cerebral and systemic perfusion and oxygenation in newborns: An observational study”, Neonatology  99, 217 (2011). doi: 10.1159/000314955

Raab, C.

V. Dave, L.P. Brion, D.E. Campbell, M. Schemer, and C. Raab, and S.M. Nafday, , “Splanchnic tissue oxygenation, but not brain tissue oxygenation, increases after feeds in stable preterm neonates tolerating full bolus orogastric feeding”, J. Perinatol.  29, 213 (2009). doi: 10.1038/jp.2008.189

Rais-Bahrami, K.

P.B. Benni, B. Chen, F.D. Dykes, S.F. Wagoner, M. Heard, A.J. Tanner, T.L. Young, K. Rais-Bahrami, and O. Rivera, and B.L. Short, , “Validation of the CAS neonatal NIRS system by monitoring vv-ECMO patients: Preliminary results”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  566, 195 (2005). doi: 10.1007/0-387-26206-7 27

Rasmussen, A.

P.L. Madsen, C. Skak, and A. Rasmussen, and N.H. Secher, , “Interference of cerebral near-infrared oximetry in patients with icterus”, Anesth. Analg.  90, 489 (2000).

Reynolds, E.O.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D.T. Delpy, and J.S. Wyatt, and E.O. Reynolds, , “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation”, Biochim. Biophys. Acta  933, 184 (1988). doi: 10.1016/0005-2728(88)90069-2

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P. Rhee, L. Langdale, and C. Mock, and L.M. Gentilello, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy: Continuous measurement of cytochrome oxidation during hemorrhagic shock”, Crit. Care Med.  25, 166 (1997). doi: 10.1097/00003246-199701000-00030

Riedl, R.

G. Pichler, M. Pocivalnik, R. Riedl, E. Pichler-Stachl, N. Morris, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Multi-associations: Predisposed to misinterpretation of peripheral tissue oxygenation and circulation in neonates”, Physiol. Meas.  32, 1025 (2011). doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/32/8/003

Rivera, O.

P.B. Benni, B. Chen, F.D. Dykes, S.F. Wagoner, M. Heard, A.J. Tanner, T.L. Young, K. Rais-Bahrami, and O. Rivera, and B.L. Short, , “Validation of the CAS neonatal NIRS system by monitoring vv-ECMO patients: Preliminary results”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  566, 195 (2005). doi: 10.1007/0-387-26206-7 27

Roberts, I.

A.J. Petros, R. Heys, R.C. Tasker, P.M. Fortune, and I. Roberts, and E. Kiely, , “Near infrared spectroscopy can detect changes in splanchnic oxygen delivery in neonates during apnoeic episodes”, Eur. J. Pediatr.  158, 173 (1999). doi: 10.1007/s004310051046

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A. Sola and M.R. Rogido, and R. Deulofeut, , “Oxygen as a neonatal health hazard: Call for detente in clinical practice”, Acta Paediatr.  96, 801 (2007). doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2007.00287.x

Safonova, L.P.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L.P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, and W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, , “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: Near-infrared spectroscopy approach”, J. Biomed. Opt.  9, 221 (2004). doi: 10.1117/1.1628242

Sato, B.

T. Kitai, A. Tanaka, A. Tokuka, B. Sato, S. Mori, N. Yanabu, T. Inomoto, S. Uemoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Yamaoka, K. Ozawa, H. Someda, M. Fujimoto, and F. Moriyasu, and K. Hirao, , “Intraoperative measurement of the graft oxygenation state in living related liver transplantation by near infrared spectroscopy”, Transpl. Int.  8, 111 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.1995.tb01485.x

A. Tokuka, A. Tanaka, T. Kitai, N. Yanabu, S. Mori, B. Sato, K. Tanaka, and Y. Yamaoka, and K. Hirao, , “Interrelationship of oxygen supply by hepatic artery and portal vein: Rapid analysis of ischemia-reflow-induced changes in hepatic oxygenation in experimental and clinical subjects by tissue near-infrared spectroscopy”, Eur. Surg. Res.  26, 342 (1994). doi: 10.1159/000129355

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T. Kitai, H. Shinohara, E. Hatano, S. Sato, A. Kanazawa, S. Tsunekawa, M. Yamamoto, Y. Yamaoka, S. Uemoto, Y. Inomata, and K. Tanaka, and A. Tanaka, , “Postoperative monitoring of the oxygenation state of the graft liver in cases with hepatopulmonary syndrome”, Transplantation  62, 1676 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199612150-00026

Sawhney, M.

J. Cortez, M. Gupta, A. Amaram, J. Pizzino, and M. Sawhney, and B.G. Sood, , “Noninvasive evaluation of splanchnic tissue oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates”, J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.  24, 574 (2011). doi: 10.3109/14767058.2010.511335

Schemer, M.

V. Dave, L.P. Brion, D.E. Campbell, M. Schemer, and C. Raab, and S.M. Nafday, , “Splanchnic tissue oxygenation, but not brain tissue oxygenation, increases after feeds in stable preterm neonates tolerating full bolus orogastric feeding”, J. Perinatol.  29, 213 (2009). doi: 10.1038/jp.2008.189

Schulz, G.

M. Weiss, G. Schulz, M. Fasnacht, C. Balmer, J.E. Fischer, A.C. Gerber, and H.U. Bucher, and O. Baenziger, , “Transcutaneously measured near-infrared spectroscopic liver tissue oxygenation does not correlate with hepatic venous oxygenation in children”, Can. J. Anaesth.  49, 824 (2002). doi: 10.1007/BF03017416

G. Schulz, M. Weiss, U. Bauersfeld, J. Teller, D. Haensse, and H.U. Bucher, and O. Baenziger, , “Liver tissue oxygenation as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy in the critically ill child in correlation with central venous oxygen saturation”, Intensive Care Med.  28, 184 (2002). doi: 10.1007/s00134-001-1182-5

Schwantzer, G.

G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, E. Peichl, A. Gaster, A. Berghold, G. Schwantzer, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Combination of different noninvasive measuring techniques: A new approach to increase accuracy of peripheral near infrared spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 014014 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3076193

Schwartz, S.M.

C.L. Dent, J.P. Spaeth, B.V. Jones, S.M. Schwartz, T.A. Glauser, B. Hallinan, J.M. Pearl, and P.R. Khoury, and C.D. Kurth, , “Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities after the Norwood procedure using regional cerebral perfusion”, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  130, 1523 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2005.07.051

Schwendener, K.

J. Teller, K. Schwendener, M. Wolf, M. Keel, H.U. Bucher, and S. Fanconi, and O. Baenziger, , “Continuous monitoring of liver oxygenation with near infrared spectroscopy during naso-gastric tube feeding in neonates”, Schweiz. Med. Wochenschr.  130, 652 (2000).

Secher, N.H.

P.L. Madsen, C. Skak, and A. Rasmussen, and N.H. Secher, , “Interference of cerebral near-infrared oximetry in patients with icterus”, Anesth. Analg.  90, 489 (2000).

Seifalian, A.M.

W. Yang, T. Hafez, C.S. Thompson, D.P. Mikhailidis, B.R. Davidson, and M.C. Winslet, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Direct measurement of hepatic tissue hypoxia by using a Novel TcpO2/pcO2 monitoring system in comparison with near-infrared spectroscopy”, Liver Int.  23, 163 (2003). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0676.2003.00818.x

A.E. El-Desoky, D.T. Delpy, and B.R. Davidson, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Assessment of hepatic ischaemia reperfusion injury by measuring intracellular tissue oxygenation using near infrared spectroscopy”, Liver  21, 37 (2001). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0676.2001.210106.x

A.M. Seifalian, H. El-Desoky, and D.T. Delpy, and B.R. Davidson, , “Effect of graded hypoxia on the rat hepatic tissue oxygenation and energy metabolism monitored by near-infrared and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy”, FASEB J.  15, 2642 (2001). doi: 10.1096/fj.01-0308com

A.E. El-Desoky, L.R. Jiao, R. Havlik, N. Habib, and B.R. Davidson, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Measurement of hepatic tissue hypoxia using near infrared spectroscopy: Comparison with hepatic vein oxygen partial pressure”, Eur. Surg. Res.  32, 207 (2000). doi: 10.1159/000008766

A.E. El-Desoky and A.M. Seifalian, and B.R. Davidson, , “Effect of graded hypoxia on hepatic tissue oxygenation measured by near infrared spectroscopy”, J. Hepatol.  31, 71 (1999). doi: 10.1016/S0168-8278(99)80165-2

Sherman, M.P.

M.A. Underwood and J.M. Milstein, and M.P. Sherman, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy as a screening tool for patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants”, Neonatology  91, 134 (2007). doi: 10.1159/000097131

Shinohara, H.

T. Kitai, H. Shinohara, E. Hatano, S. Sato, A. Kanazawa, S. Tsunekawa, M. Yamamoto, Y. Yamaoka, S. Uemoto, Y. Inomata, and K. Tanaka, and A. Tanaka, , “Postoperative monitoring of the oxygenation state of the graft liver in cases with hepatopulmonary syndrome”, Transplantation  62, 1676 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199612150-00026

Short, B.L.

P.B. Benni, B. Chen, F.D. Dykes, S.F. Wagoner, M. Heard, A.J. Tanner, T.L. Young, K. Rais-Bahrami, and O. Rivera, and B.L. Short, , “Validation of the CAS neonatal NIRS system by monitoring vv-ECMO patients: Preliminary results”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  566, 195 (2005). doi: 10.1007/0-387-26206-7 27

Skak, C.

P.L. Madsen, C. Skak, and A. Rasmussen, and N.H. Secher, , “Interference of cerebral near-infrared oximetry in patients with icterus”, Anesth. Analg.  90, 489 (2000).

Skarsgard, E.D.

E. Nahum, P.W. Skippen, R.E. Gagnon, and A.J. Macnab, and E.D. Skarsgard, , “Correlation of transcutaneous hepatic near-infrared spectroscopy readings with liver surface readings and perfusion parameters in a piglet endo-toxemic shock model”, Liver Int.  26, 1277 (2006). doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2006.01383.x

Skippen, P.W.

E. Nahum, P.W. Skippen, R.E. Gagnon, and A.J. Macnab, and E.D. Skarsgard, , “Correlation of transcutaneous hepatic near-infrared spectroscopy readings with liver surface readings and perfusion parameters in a piglet endo-toxemic shock model”, Liver Int.  26, 1277 (2006). doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2006.01383.x

Smith, M.

M. Thavasothy, M. Broadhead, C. Elwell, and M. Peters, and M. Smith, , “A comparison of cerebral oxygenation as measured by the NIRO 300 and the INVOS 5100 near-infrared spectrophotometers”, Anaesthesia  57, 999 (2002). doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2044.2002.02826.x

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A. Sola and M.R. Rogido, and R. Deulofeut, , “Oxygen as a neonatal health hazard: Call for detente in clinical practice”, Acta Paediatr.  96, 801 (2007). doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2007.00287.x

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B.R. Soller, N. Cingo, J.C. Puyana, T. Khan, C. Hsi, H. Kim, and J. Favreau, and S.O. Heard, , “Simultaneous measurement of hepatic tissue pH, venous oxygen saturation and hemoglobin by near infrared spectroscopy”, Shock  15, 106 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00024382-200115020-00005

Someda, H.

T. Kitai, A. Tanaka, A. Tokuka, B. Sato, S. Mori, N. Yanabu, T. Inomoto, S. Uemoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Yamaoka, K. Ozawa, H. Someda, M. Fujimoto, and F. Moriyasu, and K. Hirao, , “Intraoperative measurement of the graft oxygenation state in living related liver transplantation by near infrared spectroscopy”, Transpl. Int.  8, 111 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.1995.tb01485.x

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J. Cortez, M. Gupta, A. Amaram, J. Pizzino, and M. Sawhney, and B.G. Sood, , “Noninvasive evaluation of splanchnic tissue oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates”, J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.  24, 574 (2011). doi: 10.3109/14767058.2010.511335

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L.C. Sorensen and T.S. Leung, and G. Greisen, , “Comparison of cerebral oxygen saturation in premature infants by near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy: Observations on probe-dependent bias”, J. Biomed. Opt.  13, 064013 (2008). doi: 10.1117/1.3013454

L.C. Sorensen, and G. Greisen, , “Precision of measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation index using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates”, J. Biomed. Opt.  11, 054005 (2006). doi: 10.1117/1.2357730

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C.L. Dent, J.P. Spaeth, B.V. Jones, S.M. Schwartz, T.A. Glauser, B. Hallinan, J.M. Pearl, and P.R. Khoury, and C.D. Kurth, , “Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities after the Norwood procedure using regional cerebral perfusion”, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  130, 1523 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2005.07.051

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S.M. Cohn, J.E. Varela, G. Giannotti, M.O. Dolich, M. Brown, A. Feinstein, and M.G. McKenney, and P. Spalding, , “Splanchnic perfusion evaluation during hemorrhage and resuscitation with gastric near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Trauma  50, 629 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00005373-200104000-00006

Tanaka, A.

T. Kitai, H. Shinohara, E. Hatano, S. Sato, A. Kanazawa, S. Tsunekawa, M. Yamamoto, Y. Yamaoka, S. Uemoto, Y. Inomata, and K. Tanaka, and A. Tanaka, , “Postoperative monitoring of the oxygenation state of the graft liver in cases with hepatopulmonary syndrome”, Transplantation  62, 1676 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199612150-00026

T. Kitai, A. Tanaka, A. Tokuka, B. Sato, S. Mori, N. Yanabu, T. Inomoto, S. Uemoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Yamaoka, K. Ozawa, H. Someda, M. Fujimoto, and F. Moriyasu, and K. Hirao, , “Intraoperative measurement of the graft oxygenation state in living related liver transplantation by near infrared spectroscopy”, Transpl. Int.  8, 111 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.1995.tb01485.x

A. Tokuka, A. Tanaka, T. Kitai, N. Yanabu, S. Mori, B. Sato, K. Tanaka, and Y. Yamaoka, and K. Hirao, , “Interrelationship of oxygen supply by hepatic artery and portal vein: Rapid analysis of ischemia-reflow-induced changes in hepatic oxygenation in experimental and clinical subjects by tissue near-infrared spectroscopy”, Eur. Surg. Res.  26, 342 (1994). doi: 10.1159/000129355

Tanaka, K.

T. Kitai, H. Shinohara, E. Hatano, S. Sato, A. Kanazawa, S. Tsunekawa, M. Yamamoto, Y. Yamaoka, S. Uemoto, Y. Inomata, and K. Tanaka, and A. Tanaka, , “Postoperative monitoring of the oxygenation state of the graft liver in cases with hepatopulmonary syndrome”, Transplantation  62, 1676 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199612150-00026

T. Kitai, A. Tanaka, A. Tokuka, B. Sato, S. Mori, N. Yanabu, T. Inomoto, S. Uemoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Yamaoka, K. Ozawa, H. Someda, M. Fujimoto, and F. Moriyasu, and K. Hirao, , “Intraoperative measurement of the graft oxygenation state in living related liver transplantation by near infrared spectroscopy”, Transpl. Int.  8, 111 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.1995.tb01485.x

A. Tokuka, A. Tanaka, T. Kitai, N. Yanabu, S. Mori, B. Sato, K. Tanaka, and Y. Yamaoka, and K. Hirao, , “Interrelationship of oxygen supply by hepatic artery and portal vein: Rapid analysis of ischemia-reflow-induced changes in hepatic oxygenation in experimental and clinical subjects by tissue near-infrared spectroscopy”, Eur. Surg. Res.  26, 342 (1994). doi: 10.1159/000129355

Tang, X.

X. Hou, H. Ding, Y. Teng, C. Zhou, and X. Tang, and S. Li, , “Research on the relationship between brain anoxia at different regional oxygen saturations and brain damage using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Physiol. Meas.  28, 1251 (2007). doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/28/10/010

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P.B. Benni, B. Chen, F.D. Dykes, S.F. Wagoner, M. Heard, A.J. Tanner, T.L. Young, K. Rais-Bahrami, and O. Rivera, and B.L. Short, , “Validation of the CAS neonatal NIRS system by monitoring vv-ECMO patients: Preliminary results”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  566, 195 (2005). doi: 10.1007/0-387-26206-7 27

Tasker, R.C.

A.J. Petros, R. Heys, R.C. Tasker, P.M. Fortune, and I. Roberts, and E. Kiely, , “Near infrared spectroscopy can detect changes in splanchnic oxygen delivery in neonates during apnoeic episodes”, Eur. J. Pediatr.  158, 173 (1999). doi: 10.1007/s004310051046

Tatsumi, K.

K. Yoshitani, M. Kawaguchi, K. Tatsumi, and K. Kitaguchi, and H. Furuya, , “A comparison of the INVOS 4100 and the NIRO 300 near-infrared spectrophotometers”, Anesth. Analg.  94, 586 (2002). doi: 10.1097/00000539-200203000-00020

Teller, J.

G. Schulz, M. Weiss, U. Bauersfeld, J. Teller, D. Haensse, and H.U. Bucher, and O. Baenziger, , “Liver tissue oxygenation as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy in the critically ill child in correlation with central venous oxygen saturation”, Intensive Care Med.  28, 184 (2002). doi: 10.1007/s00134-001-1182-5

J. Teller, K. Schwendener, M. Wolf, M. Keel, H.U. Bucher, and S. Fanconi, and O. Baenziger, , “Continuous monitoring of liver oxygenation with near infrared spectroscopy during naso-gastric tube feeding in neonates”, Schweiz. Med. Wochenschr.  130, 652 (2000).

J. Teller, M. Wolf, M. Keel, H.U. Bucher, and S. Fanconi, and O. Baenziger, , “Can near infrared spectroscopy of the liver monitor tissue oxygenation?”, Eur. J. Pediatr.  159, 549 (2000). doi: 10.1007/s004310051334

Teng, Y.

X. Hou, H. Ding, Y. Teng, C. Zhou, and X. Tang, and S. Li, , “Research on the relationship between brain anoxia at different regional oxygen saturations and brain damage using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Physiol. Meas.  28, 1251 (2007). doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/28/10/010

ter Horst, H.J.

J.C. van Hoften, E.A. Verhagen, P. Keating, and H.J. ter Horst, and A.F. Bos, , “Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation and extraction in preterm infants before and after blood transfusion”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  95, F352 (2010). doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.163592

Thavasothy, M.

M. Thavasothy, M. Broadhead, C. Elwell, and M. Peters, and M. Smith, , “A comparison of cerebral oxygenation as measured by the NIRO 300 and the INVOS 5100 near-infrared spectrophotometers”, Anaesthesia  57, 999 (2002). doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2044.2002.02826.x

Thompson, C.S.

W. Yang, T. Hafez, C.S. Thompson, D.P. Mikhailidis, B.R. Davidson, and M.C. Winslet, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Direct measurement of hepatic tissue hypoxia by using a Novel TcpO2/pcO2 monitoring system in comparison with near-infrared spectroscopy”, Liver Int.  23, 163 (2003). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0676.2003.00818.x

Thompson, W.R.

K.M. Brady, J.O. Mytar, J.K. Lee, D.E. Cameron, L.A. Vricella, W.R. Thompson, and C.W. Hogue, and R.B. Easley, , “Monitoring cerebral blood flow pressure autoregulation in pediatric patients during cardiac surgery”, Stroke  41, 1957 (2010). doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.575167

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H. Liu, B. Chance, A.H. Hielscher, and S.L. Jacques, and F.K. Tittel, , “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy”, Med. Phys.  22, 1209 (1995). doi: 10.1118/1.597520

Toet, M.

P.M. Lemmers, M. Toet, and L.J. van Schelven, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and cerebral oxygen extraction in the preterm infant: The impact of respiratory distress syndrome”, Exp. Brain Res.  173, 458 (2006). doi: 10.1007/s00221-006-0388-8

Toet, M.C.

P.M. Lemmers, M.C. Molenschot, J. Evens, and M.C. Toet, and F. van Bel, , “Is cerebral oxygen supply compromised in preterm infants undergoing surgical closure for patent ductus arteriosus?”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  95, F429 (2010). doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.180117

P.M. Lemmers and M.C. Toet, and F. van Bel, , “Impact of patent ductus arteriosus and subsequent therapy with indomethacin on cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants”, Pediatrics  121, 142 (2008). doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-0925

M.C. Toet, P.M. Lemmers, and L.J. van Schelven, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and electrical activity after birth asphyxia: Their relation to outcome”, Pediatrics  117, 333 (2006). doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-0987

Tokuka, A.

T. Kitai, A. Tanaka, A. Tokuka, B. Sato, S. Mori, N. Yanabu, T. Inomoto, S. Uemoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Yamaoka, K. Ozawa, H. Someda, M. Fujimoto, and F. Moriyasu, and K. Hirao, , “Intraoperative measurement of the graft oxygenation state in living related liver transplantation by near infrared spectroscopy”, Transpl. Int.  8, 111 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.1995.tb01485.x

A. Tokuka, A. Tanaka, T. Kitai, N. Yanabu, S. Mori, B. Sato, K. Tanaka, and Y. Yamaoka, and K. Hirao, , “Interrelationship of oxygen supply by hepatic artery and portal vein: Rapid analysis of ischemia-reflow-induced changes in hepatic oxygenation in experimental and clinical subjects by tissue near-infrared spectroscopy”, Eur. Surg. Res.  26, 342 (1994). doi: 10.1159/000129355

Toronov, V.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L.P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, and W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, , “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: Near-infrared spectroscopy approach”, J. Biomed. Opt.  9, 221 (2004). doi: 10.1117/1.1628242

Trajkovic, I.

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J.C. Fauchere, and H.U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, , “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16(9), 097004 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3622756

Tsunekawa, S.

T. Kitai, H. Shinohara, E. Hatano, S. Sato, A. Kanazawa, S. Tsunekawa, M. Yamamoto, Y. Yamaoka, S. Uemoto, Y. Inomata, and K. Tanaka, and A. Tanaka, , “Postoperative monitoring of the oxygenation state of the graft liver in cases with hepatopulmonary syndrome”, Transplantation  62, 1676 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199612150-00026

Uemoto, S.

T. Kitai, H. Shinohara, E. Hatano, S. Sato, A. Kanazawa, S. Tsunekawa, M. Yamamoto, Y. Yamaoka, S. Uemoto, Y. Inomata, and K. Tanaka, and A. Tanaka, , “Postoperative monitoring of the oxygenation state of the graft liver in cases with hepatopulmonary syndrome”, Transplantation  62, 1676 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199612150-00026

T. Kitai, A. Tanaka, A. Tokuka, B. Sato, S. Mori, N. Yanabu, T. Inomoto, S. Uemoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Yamaoka, K. Ozawa, H. Someda, M. Fujimoto, and F. Moriyasu, and K. Hirao, , “Intraoperative measurement of the graft oxygenation state in living related liver transplantation by near infrared spectroscopy”, Transpl. Int.  8, 111 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.1995.tb01485.x

Underwood, M.A.

M.A. Underwood and J.M. Milstein, and M.P. Sherman, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy as a screening tool for patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants”, Neonatology  91, 134 (2007). doi: 10.1159/000097131

Urlesberger, B.

G. Pichler, M. Pocivalnik, R. Riedl, E. Pichler-Stachl, N. Morris, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Multi-associations: Predisposed to misinterpretation of peripheral tissue oxygenation and circulation in neonates”, Physiol. Meas.  32, 1025 (2011). doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/32/8/003

B. Urlesberger, K. Grossauer, M. Pocivalnik, A. Avian, and W. Muller, and G. Pichler, , “Regional oxygen saturation of the brain and peripheral tissue during birth transition of term infants”, J. Pediatr.  157, 740 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.05.013

G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, E. Peichl, A. Gaster, A. Berghold, G. Schwantzer, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Combination of different noninvasive measuring techniques: A new approach to increase accuracy of peripheral near infrared spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 014014 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3076193

G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, P. Klaritsch, J. Kutschera, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Peripheral oxygenation in term neonates”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  92, F51 (2007). doi: 10.1136/adc.2005.089037

G. Pichler, J. Heinzinger, J. Kutschera, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Forearm and calf tissue oxygenation in term neonates measured with near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Physiol. Sci.  57, 317 (2007). doi: 10.2170/physiolsci.SC004407

van Assendelft, O.W.

W.G. Zijlstra and A. Buursma, and O.W. van Assendelft, , Visible and Near Infrared Absorption Spectra of Human and Animal Haemoglobin. VSP Science, Zeist, The Netherlands (2000).

Van Bel, F.

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, G. Naulaers, L. Ameye, J. Vanderhaegen, P. Lemmers, and F. Van Bel, and S. Van Huffel, , “Cerebral tissue oxygenation and regional oxygen saturation can be used to study cerebral autoregulation in pre-maturely born infants”, Pediatr. Res.  69, 548 (2011). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3182176d85

W. Baerts and P.M. Lemmers, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and oxygen extraction in the preterm infant during desaturation: Effects of increasing FiO(2) to assist recovery”, Neonatology  99, 65 (2011). doi: 10.1159/000302717

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, M. Wolf, P. Lemmers, F. Van Bel, and L. Ameye, and S. Van Huffel, , “Impaired cerebral autoregulation using near-infrared spectroscopy and its relation to clinical outcomes in premature infants”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  701, 233 (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7756-4 31

R.G. Wijbenga and P. Lemmers, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation during the first days of life in preterm and term neonates: Differences between different brain regions”, Pediatr. Res.  70(4), 389 (2011). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e31822a36db

P.M. Lemmers, M.C. Molenschot, J. Evens, and M.C. Toet, and F. van Bel, , “Is cerebral oxygen supply compromised in preterm infants undergoing surgical closure for patent ductus arteriosus?”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  95, F429 (2010). doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.180117

P.M. Lemmers, and F. van Bel, , “Left-to-right differences of regional cerebral oxygen saturation and oxygen extraction in preterm infants during the first days of life”, Pediatr. Res.  65, 226 (2009). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e318191fb5d

F. van Bel and P. Lemmers, and G. Naulaers, , “Monitoring neonatal regional cerebral oxygen saturation in clinical practice: Value and pitfalls”, Neonatology  94, 237 (2008). doi: 10.1159/000151642

P.M. Lemmers and M.C. Toet, and F. van Bel, , “Impact of patent ductus arteriosus and subsequent therapy with indomethacin on cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants”, Pediatrics  121, 142 (2008). doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-0925

P.M. Lemmers, M. Toet, and L.J. van Schelven, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and cerebral oxygen extraction in the preterm infant: The impact of respiratory distress syndrome”, Exp. Brain Res.  173, 458 (2006). doi: 10.1007/s00221-006-0388-8

M.C. Toet, P.M. Lemmers, and L.J. van Schelven, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and electrical activity after birth asphyxia: Their relation to outcome”, Pediatrics  117, 333 (2006). doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-0987

Van De Velde, M.

J. Vanderhaegen, D. De Smet, B. Meyns, M. Van De Velde, and S. Van Huffel, and G. Naulaers, , “Surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus and its effect on the cerebral tissue oxygenation”, Acta Paediatr.  97, 1640 (2008). doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01021.x

van der Zee, P.

P. van der Zee, , Measurement and Modelling of the Optical Properties of Human Tissue in the Near Infrared , PhD thesis. Deptartment Medical Physics and Bioengineering University College London, London, UK (1992).

van Hoften, J.C.

J.C. van Hoften, E.A. Verhagen, P. Keating, and H.J. ter Horst, and A.F. Bos, , “Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation and extraction in preterm infants before and after blood transfusion”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  95, F352 (2010). doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.163592

Van Huffel, S.

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, G. Naulaers, L. Ameye, J. Vanderhaegen, P. Lemmers, and F. Van Bel, and S. Van Huffel, , “Cerebral tissue oxygenation and regional oxygen saturation can be used to study cerebral autoregulation in pre-maturely born infants”, Pediatr. Res.  69, 548 (2011). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3182176d85

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, M. Wolf, P. Lemmers, F. Van Bel, and L. Ameye, and S. Van Huffel, , “Impaired cerebral autoregulation using near-infrared spectroscopy and its relation to clinical outcomes in premature infants”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  701, 233 (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7756-4 31

J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, C. Vanhole, D. De Smet, S. Van Huffel, and S. Vanhaesebrouck, and H. Devlieger, , “The effect of changes in Tpco2 on the fractional tissue oxygen extraction—as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy—neonates during the first days of life”, Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol.  13, 128 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2008.02.012

J. Vanderhaegen, D. De Smet, B. Meyns, M. Van De Velde, and S. Van Huffel, and G. Naulaers, , “Surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus and its effect on the cerebral tissue oxygenation”, Acta Paediatr.  97, 1640 (2008). doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01021.x

G. Naulaers, B. Meyns, M. Miserez, V. Leunens, S. Van Huffel, and P. Casaer, and H. Devlieger, , “Measurement of the liver tissue oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy”, Intensive Care Med.  31, 138 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s00134-004-2482-3

van Schelven, L.J.

P.M. Lemmers, M. Toet, and L.J. van Schelven, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and cerebral oxygen extraction in the preterm infant: The impact of respiratory distress syndrome”, Exp. Brain Res.  173, 458 (2006). doi: 10.1007/s00221-006-0388-8

M.C. Toet, P.M. Lemmers, and L.J. van Schelven, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and electrical activity after birth asphyxia: Their relation to outcome”, Pediatrics  117, 333 (2006). doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-0987

Vanderhaegen, J.

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, M. Wolf, P. Lemmers, F. Van Bel, and L. Ameye, and S. Van Huffel, , “Impaired cerebral autoregulation using near-infrared spectroscopy and its relation to clinical outcomes in premature infants”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.  701, 233 (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7756-4 31

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, G. Naulaers, L. Ameye, J. Vanderhaegen, P. Lemmers, and F. Van Bel, and S. Van Huffel, , “Cerebral tissue oxygenation and regional oxygen saturation can be used to study cerebral autoregulation in pre-maturely born infants”, Pediatr. Res.  69, 548 (2011). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3182176d85

J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, C. Vanhole, D. De Smet, S. Van Huffel, and S. Vanhaesebrouck, and H. Devlieger, , “The effect of changes in Tpco2 on the fractional tissue oxygen extraction—as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy—neonates during the first days of life”, Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol.  13, 128 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2008.02.012

J. Vanderhaegen, D. De Smet, B. Meyns, M. Van De Velde, and S. Van Huffel, and G. Naulaers, , “Surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus and its effect on the cerebral tissue oxygenation”, Acta Paediatr.  97, 1640 (2008). doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01021.x

J. Vanderhaegen, L. Dehing, G. Naulaers, H. Devlieger, Y. Al-Olayet, and F. Penninckx, and M. Miserez, , “Use of the liver tissue oxygenation index as a noninvasive parameter of intestinal ischemia in rabbits”, World J. Surg.  31, 2359 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s00268-007-9269-y

Vanhaesebrouck, S.

J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, C. Vanhole, D. De Smet, S. Van Huffel, and S. Vanhaesebrouck, and H. Devlieger, , “The effect of changes in Tpco2 on the fractional tissue oxygen extraction—as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy—neonates during the first days of life”, Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol.  13, 128 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2008.02.012

Vanhole, C.

J. Vanderhaegen, G. Naulaers, C. Vanhole, D. De Smet, S. Van Huffel, and S. Vanhaesebrouck, and H. Devlieger, , “The effect of changes in Tpco2 on the fractional tissue oxygen extraction—as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy—neonates during the first days of life”, Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol.  13, 128 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2008.02.012

Varela, J.E.

J.E. Varela, S.M. Cohn, I. Diaz, and G.D. Giannotti, and K.G. Proctor, , “Splanchnic perfusion during delayed, hypotensive, or aggressive fluid resuscitation from uncontrolled hemorrhage”, Shock  20, 476 (2003). doi: 10.1097/01.SHK.0000094036.09886.9b

S.M. Cohn, J.E. Varela, G. Giannotti, M.O. Dolich, M. Brown, A. Feinstein, and M.G. McKenney, and P. Spalding, , “Splanchnic perfusion evaluation during hemorrhage and resuscitation with gastric near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Trauma  50, 629 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00005373-200104000-00006

Verhagen, E.A.

J.C. van Hoften, E.A. Verhagen, P. Keating, and H.J. ter Horst, and A.F. Bos, , “Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation and extraction in preterm infants before and after blood transfusion”, Arch. Dis. Child, Fetal Neonatal Ed.  95, F352 (2010). doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.163592

Victor, S.

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G. Pichler, K. Grossauer, E. Peichl, A. Gaster, A. Berghold, G. Schwantzer, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Combination of different noninvasive measuring techniques: A new approach to increase accuracy of peripheral near infrared spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 014014 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3076193

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L.P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, and W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, , “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: Near-infrared spectroscopy approach”, J. Biomed. Opt.  9, 221 (2004). doi: 10.1117/1.1628242

M. Wolf and M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, , “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications”, J. Biomed. Opt.  12, 062104 (2007). doi: 10.1117/1.2804899

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J.C. Fauchere, and H.U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, , “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16(9), 097004 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3622756

L.C. Sorensen, and G. Greisen, , “Precision of measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation index using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates”, J. Biomed. Opt.  11, 054005 (2006). doi: 10.1117/1.2357730

S.J. Arri, T. Muehlemann, M. Biallas, and H.U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, , “Precision of cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration measurements in neonates measured by near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 047005 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3570303

L.C. Sorensen and T.S. Leung, and G. Greisen, , “Comparison of cerebral oxygen saturation in premature infants by near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy: Observations on probe-dependent bias”, J. Biomed. Opt.  13, 064013 (2008). doi: 10.1117/1.3013454

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A.E. El-Desoky and A.M. Seifalian, and B.R. Davidson, , “Effect of graded hypoxia on hepatic tissue oxygenation measured by near infrared spectroscopy”, J. Hepatol.  31, 71 (1999). doi: 10.1016/S0168-8278(99)80165-2

J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med. (1)

J. Cortez, M. Gupta, A. Amaram, J. Pizzino, and M. Sawhney, and B.G. Sood, , “Noninvasive evaluation of splanchnic tissue oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates”, J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.  24, 574 (2011). doi: 10.3109/14767058.2010.511335

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B. Urlesberger, K. Grossauer, M. Pocivalnik, A. Avian, and W. Muller, and G. Pichler, , “Regional oxygen saturation of the brain and peripheral tissue during birth transition of term infants”, J. Pediatr.  157, 740 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.05.013

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V. Dave, L.P. Brion, D.E. Campbell, M. Schemer, and C. Raab, and S.M. Nafday, , “Splanchnic tissue oxygenation, but not brain tissue oxygenation, increases after feeds in stable preterm neonates tolerating full bolus orogastric feeding”, J. Perinatol.  29, 213 (2009). doi: 10.1038/jp.2008.189

S. McNeill, J.C. Gatenby, and S. McElroy, and B. Engelhardt, , “Normal cerebral, renal and abdominal regional oxygen saturations using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm infants”, J. Perinatol.  31, 51 (2011). doi: 10.1038/jp.2010.71

J. Physiol. Sci. (1)

G. Pichler, J. Heinzinger, J. Kutschera, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Forearm and calf tissue oxygenation in term neonates measured with near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Physiol. Sci.  57, 317 (2007). doi: 10.2170/physiolsci.SC004407

J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1)

C.L. Dent, J.P. Spaeth, B.V. Jones, S.M. Schwartz, T.A. Glauser, B. Hallinan, J.M. Pearl, and P.R. Khoury, and C.D. Kurth, , “Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities after the Norwood procedure using regional cerebral perfusion”, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  130, 1523 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2005.07.051

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S.M. Cohn, J.E. Varela, G. Giannotti, M.O. Dolich, M. Brown, A. Feinstein, and M.G. McKenney, and P. Spalding, , “Splanchnic perfusion evaluation during hemorrhage and resuscitation with gastric near-infrared spectroscopy”, J. Trauma  50, 629 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00005373-200104000-00006

Liver (1)

A.E. El-Desoky, D.T. Delpy, and B.R. Davidson, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Assessment of hepatic ischaemia reperfusion injury by measuring intracellular tissue oxygenation using near infrared spectroscopy”, Liver  21, 37 (2001). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0676.2001.210106.x

Liver Int. (2)

W. Yang, T. Hafez, C.S. Thompson, D.P. Mikhailidis, B.R. Davidson, and M.C. Winslet, and A.M. Seifalian, , “Direct measurement of hepatic tissue hypoxia by using a Novel TcpO2/pcO2 monitoring system in comparison with near-infrared spectroscopy”, Liver Int.  23, 163 (2003). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0676.2003.00818.x

E. Nahum, P.W. Skippen, R.E. Gagnon, and A.J. Macnab, and E.D. Skarsgard, , “Correlation of transcutaneous hepatic near-infrared spectroscopy readings with liver surface readings and perfusion parameters in a piglet endo-toxemic shock model”, Liver Int.  26, 1277 (2006). doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2006.01383.x

Med. Phys. (1)

H. Liu, B. Chance, A.H. Hielscher, and S.L. Jacques, and F.K. Tittel, , “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy”, Med. Phys.  22, 1209 (1995). doi: 10.1118/1.597520

Neonatology (5)

F. van Bel and P. Lemmers, and G. Naulaers, , “Monitoring neonatal regional cerebral oxygen saturation in clinical practice: Value and pitfalls”, Neonatology  94, 237 (2008). doi: 10.1159/000151642

G. Ancora, E. Maranella, A. Aceti, L. Pierantoni, S. Grandi, and L. Corvaglia, and G. Faldella, , “Effect of posture on brain hemodynamics in preterm newborns not mechanically ventilated”, Neonatology  97, 212 (2010). doi: 10.1159/000253149

M.A. Underwood and J.M. Milstein, and M.P. Sherman, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy as a screening tool for patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants”, Neonatology  91, 134 (2007). doi: 10.1159/000097131

W. Baerts and P.M. Lemmers, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and oxygen extraction in the preterm infant during desaturation: Effects of increasing FiO(2) to assist recovery”, Neonatology  99, 65 (2011). doi: 10.1159/000302717

M.C. Bravo, P. Lopez, F. Cabanas, J. Perez-Rodriguez, E. Perez-Fernandez, and J. Quero, , and A. Pellicer, , “Acute effects of levosimendan on cerebral and systemic perfusion and oxygenation in newborns: An observational study”, Neonatology  99, 217 (2011). doi: 10.1159/000314955

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Fantini, M.A. Franceschini, J.S. Maier, S.A. Walker, and B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, , “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry”, Opt. Eng.  34, 32 (1995). doi: 10.1117/12.183988

Optic Lett. (1)

M.A. O'Leary, D.A. Boas, and B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, , “Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by Frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography”, Optic Lett.  20, 426 (1995). doi: 10.1364/OL.20.000426

P. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins. (1)

M. Wolf, O. Baenziger, M. Keel, V. Dietz, and K. von Siebenthal, and H.U. Bucher, , “Testing near infrared spectrophotometry using a liquid neonatal head phantom”, P. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins.  3566, 79 (1998).

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A. Petrova, and R. Mehta, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy in the detection of regional tissue oxygenation during hypoxic events in preterm infants undergoing critical care”, Pediatr. Crit. Care Med.  7, 449 (2006). doi: 10.1097/01.PCC.0000235248.70482.14

J. Kaufman, M.C. Almodovar, and J. Zuk, and R.H. Friesen, , “Correlation of abdominal site near-infrared spectroscopy with gastric tonometry in infants following surgery for congenital heart disease”, Pediatr. Crit. Care Med.  9, 62 (2008). doi: 10.1097/01.PCC.0000298640.47574.DA

Pediatr. Res. (4)

S. Victor, R.E. Appleton, M. Beirne, and A.G. Marson, and A.M. Weindling, , “Effect of carbon dioxide on background cerebral electrical activity and fractional oxygen extraction in very low birth weight infants just after birth”, Pediatr. Res.  58, 579 (2005). doi: 10.1203/01.pdr.0000169402.13435.09

A. Caicedo, D. De Smet, G. Naulaers, L. Ameye, J. Vanderhaegen, P. Lemmers, and F. Van Bel, and S. Van Huffel, , “Cerebral tissue oxygenation and regional oxygen saturation can be used to study cerebral autoregulation in pre-maturely born infants”, Pediatr. Res.  69, 548 (2011). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3182176d85

P.M. Lemmers, and F. van Bel, , “Left-to-right differences of regional cerebral oxygen saturation and oxygen extraction in preterm infants during the first days of life”, Pediatr. Res.  65, 226 (2009). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e318191fb5d

R.G. Wijbenga and P. Lemmers, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation during the first days of life in preterm and term neonates: Differences between different brain regions”, Pediatr. Res.  70(4), 389 (2011). doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e31822a36db

Pediatrics (3)

F.Y. Wong, T.S. Leung, T. Austin, M. Wilkinson, J.H. Meek, and J.S. Wyatt, and A.M. Walker, , “Impaired autoregulation in preterm infants identified by using spatially resolved spectroscopy”, Pediatrics  121, e604 (2008). doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-1487

P.M. Lemmers and M.C. Toet, and F. van Bel, , “Impact of patent ductus arteriosus and subsequent therapy with indomethacin on cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants”, Pediatrics  121, 142 (2008). doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-0925

M.C. Toet, P.M. Lemmers, and L.J. van Schelven, and F. van Bel, , “Cerebral oxygenation and electrical activity after birth asphyxia: Their relation to outcome”, Pediatrics  117, 333 (2006). doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-0987

Phys Med. Biol. (1)

T.S. Leung and C.E. Elwell, and D.T. Delpy, , “Estimation of cerebral oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin concentration changes in a layered adult head model using near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis”, Phys Med. Biol.  50, 5783 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/24/002

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D.M. Hueber, M.A. Franceschini, H.Y. Ma, Q. Zhang, J.R. Ballesteros, S. Fantini, D. Wallace, and V. Ntziachristos, and B. Chance, , “Non-invasive and quantitative near-infrared haemoglobin spectrometry in the piglet brain during hypoxic stress, using a Frequency-domain multi-distance instrument”, Phys. Med. Biol.  46, 41 (2001). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/46/1/304

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X. Hou, H. Ding, Y. Teng, C. Zhou, and X. Tang, and S. Li, , “Research on the relationship between brain anoxia at different regional oxygen saturations and brain damage using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Physiol. Meas.  28, 1251 (2007). doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/28/10/010

G. Pichler, M. Pocivalnik, R. Riedl, E. Pichler-Stachl, N. Morris, H. Zotter, and W. Muller, and B. Urlesberger, , “Multi-associations: Predisposed to misinterpretation of peripheral tissue oxygenation and circulation in neonates”, Physiol. Meas.  32, 1025 (2011). doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/32/8/003

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

D.A. Boas, M.A. O'Leary, and B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, , “Scattering of diffuse photon density waves by spherical inhomogeneities within turbid media: Analytic solution and applications”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA  91, 4887 (1994). doi: 10.1073/pnas.91.11.4887

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J. Teller, K. Schwendener, M. Wolf, M. Keel, H.U. Bucher, and S. Fanconi, and O. Baenziger, , “Continuous monitoring of liver oxygenation with near infrared spectroscopy during naso-gastric tube feeding in neonates”, Schweiz. Med. Wochenschr.  130, 652 (2000).

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G. Greisen, , “Is near-infrared spectroscopy living up to its promises?”, Semin. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.  11, 498 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2006.07.010

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D.A. Goff, E.M. Buckley, T. Durduran, and J. Wang, and D.J. Licht, , “Noninvasive cerebral perfusion imaging in high-risk neonates”, Semin. Perinatol.  34, 46 (2010). doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2009.10.005

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J.E. Varela, S.M. Cohn, I. Diaz, and G.D. Giannotti, and K.G. Proctor, , “Splanchnic perfusion during delayed, hypotensive, or aggressive fluid resuscitation from uncontrolled hemorrhage”, Shock  20, 476 (2003). doi: 10.1097/01.SHK.0000094036.09886.9b

B.R. Soller, N. Cingo, J.C. Puyana, T. Khan, C. Hsi, H. Kim, and J. Favreau, and S.O. Heard, , “Simultaneous measurement of hepatic tissue pH, venous oxygen saturation and hemoglobin by near infrared spectroscopy”, Shock  15, 106 (2001). doi: 10.1097/00024382-200115020-00005

G.J. Beilman, K.E. Groehler, and V. Lazaron, and J.P. Ortner, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of regional tissue oxyhemoglobin saturation during hemorrhagic shock”, Shock  12, 196 (1999). doi: 10.1097/00024382-199909000-00005

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K.M. Brady, J.O. Mytar, J.K. Lee, D.E. Cameron, L.A. Vricella, W.R. Thompson, and C.W. Hogue, and R.B. Easley, , “Monitoring cerebral blood flow pressure autoregulation in pediatric patients during cardiac surgery”, Stroke  41, 1957 (2010). doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.575167

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T. Kitai, T. Nishio, and M. Miwa, and Y. Yamaoka, , “Optical analysis of the cirrhotic liver by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy”, Surg. Today  34, 424 (2004). doi: 10.1007/s00595-003-2721-1

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T. Kitai, A. Tanaka, A. Tokuka, B. Sato, S. Mori, N. Yanabu, T. Inomoto, S. Uemoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Yamaoka, K. Ozawa, H. Someda, M. Fujimoto, and F. Moriyasu, and K. Hirao, , “Intraoperative measurement of the graft oxygenation state in living related liver transplantation by near infrared spectroscopy”, Transpl. Int.  8, 111 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.1995.tb01485.x

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T. Kitai, H. Shinohara, E. Hatano, S. Sato, A. Kanazawa, S. Tsunekawa, M. Yamamoto, Y. Yamaoka, S. Uemoto, Y. Inomata, and K. Tanaka, and A. Tanaka, , “Postoperative monitoring of the oxygenation state of the graft liver in cases with hepatopulmonary syndrome”, Transplantation  62, 1676 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199612150-00026

T. Kitai and B. Beauvoit, and B. Chance, , “Optical determination of fatty change of the graft liver with near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy”, Transplantation  62, 642 (1996). doi: 10.1097/00007890-199609150-00018

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