Abstract

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is routinely used to determine constituents with organic bonds which absorb electromagnetic radiation in the region 1100 to 2500 nm. The nitrogen fertilizer requirements of cereal crops are determined from the analysis of vegetative samples by NIR spectroscopy. Simultaneous determination of other plant-essential elements would enhance the value of the analysis. Compared to nitrogen, other essential elements are either present at a lower concentration in the tissue or present largely in an inorganic form which is not detectable by NIR spectroscopy. In this paper we report NIR spectroscopic calibrations for potassium in grape petioles, grape leaves, rice shoots and orange leaves. When tested against a set of verification samples the NIR spectroscopic calibrations accounted for 96, 89, 93 and 85% of the concentration of K with standard errors of performance of 0.16, 0.12, 0.18 and 0.17%K respectively.

© 1998 NIR Publications

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  1. H. Marschner, , Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press, London (1986).
  2. K. Mengel, and E.A. Kirkby, , Advances in Agronomy  33, 59 (1980).
  3. K. Mengel, and E.A. Kirkby, , Principles of Plant Nutrition , 3rd Edn.International Potash Institute, Bern (1982).
  4. P. Williams, and K. Norris, , Eds, Near- Infrared Technology in the Agricultural and Food Industries. American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., St. Paul, Minnesota, (1987).
  5. G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, M.G. Glennie-Holmes, R.J. Henry, A.C. McCaffery, and P.E. Bacon, and D.P. Heenan, , J. Sci. Fd. Agric.  54, 191 (1991).
  6. G.D. Batten and A.B. Blakeney, , in Near Infra-red Spectroscopy: Bridging the Gap between Data Analysis and NIR Applications , Ed by K.I. Hildrum, T. Isaksson, and T. Naes, and A. Tandberg, Ellis Horwood, New York, p.185 (1992).
  7. G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, and V.B. McGrath, and S. Ciavarella, , Plant and Soil  155/156, 243 (1993).
  8. G.D. Batten and A.B. Blakeney, and S. Ciavarella, , in Temperate Rice – achievements and potential , Ed by E. Humphreys, E.A. Murray, and W.S. Clampett, and L.G. Lewin, NSW Agriculture, Griffith, p. 473 (1994).
  9. A.B. Blakeney and G.D. Batten, and S. Ciavarella, , in Temperate Rice – achievements and potential , Ed by E. Humphreys, E.A. Murray, and W.S. Clampett, and L.G. Lewin, NSW Agriculture, Griffith, p. 477 (1994).
  10. G.D. Batten, V.B. McGrath, O.W. Boland, and A.B. Blakeney, and S. Ciavarella, , in Leaping Ahead with Near Infrared Spectroscopy , Ed by G.D. Batten, P.C. Flinn, and L.A. Welsh, and A.B. Blakeney, Near Infrared Spectroscopy Group, RACI, North Melbourne, p. 252 (1995).
  11. R.J. Hutton, P.J. Sinclair, and A.B. Blakeney, and G.D. Batten, , in Leaping Ahead with Near Infrared Spectroscopy , Ed by G.D. Batten, P.C. Flinn, and L.A. Welsh, and A.B. Blakeney, Near Infrared Spectroscopy Group, RACI, North Melbourne, p. 256 (1995).
  12. G.D. Batten and A.B. Blakeney, and C.R. Blatt, , in Near Infrared spectroscopy: The future waves , Ed by A.M.C. Davies, and P. Williams, NIR Publications, Chichester p. 107 (1996).
  13. G.D. Batten, and A.B. Blakeney, , NIR news  7(2), 14 (1996).
  14. D.H. Clark and H.F. Mayland, and R.C. Lamb, , Agron. J.  79, 485 (1987).
  15. J.S. Shenk, I. Landa, and M.R. Hoover, and M.O. Westerhaus, , Crop Sci.  21, 353 (1981).
  16. W.F. McClure, , in NIR-84 , Ed by D. Miskelly and D.P. Law, and T. Clucas, Cereal Chemistry Division, RACI, North Melbourne, p. 127 (1985).
  17. B.A. Zarcinas and B. Cartwright, and L.R. Spouncer, , Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal.  18, 131 (1987).
  18. I. Murray, and P.C. Williams, , in Near- Infrared Technology in the Agricultural and Food Industries , Ed by P. Williams, and K. Norris, American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., St. Paul, Minnesota, p. 17 (1987).
  19. B.G. Osborne and T. Fearn, and P.H. Hindle, , Practical NIR Spectroscopy with Applications in Food and Beverage Analysis. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow (1993).

1996 (1)

G.D. Batten, and A.B. Blakeney, , NIR news  7(2), 14 (1996).

G.D. Batten, and A.B. Blakeney, , NIR news  7(2), 14 (1996).

1993 (1)

G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, and V.B. McGrath, and S. Ciavarella, , Plant and Soil  155/156, 243 (1993).

G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, and V.B. McGrath, and S. Ciavarella, , Plant and Soil  155/156, 243 (1993).

1991 (1)

G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, M.G. Glennie-Holmes, R.J. Henry, A.C. McCaffery, and P.E. Bacon, and D.P. Heenan, , J. Sci. Fd. Agric.  54, 191 (1991).

G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, M.G. Glennie-Holmes, R.J. Henry, A.C. McCaffery, and P.E. Bacon, and D.P. Heenan, , J. Sci. Fd. Agric.  54, 191 (1991).

1987 (2)

D.H. Clark and H.F. Mayland, and R.C. Lamb, , Agron. J.  79, 485 (1987).

D.H. Clark and H.F. Mayland, and R.C. Lamb, , Agron. J.  79, 485 (1987).

B.A. Zarcinas and B. Cartwright, and L.R. Spouncer, , Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal.  18, 131 (1987).

B.A. Zarcinas and B. Cartwright, and L.R. Spouncer, , Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal.  18, 131 (1987).

1981 (1)

J.S. Shenk, I. Landa, and M.R. Hoover, and M.O. Westerhaus, , Crop Sci.  21, 353 (1981).

J.S. Shenk, I. Landa, and M.R. Hoover, and M.O. Westerhaus, , Crop Sci.  21, 353 (1981).

1980 (1)

K. Mengel, and E.A. Kirkby, , Advances in Agronomy  33, 59 (1980).

K. Mengel, and E.A. Kirkby, , Advances in Agronomy  33, 59 (1980).

Bacon, P.E.

G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, M.G. Glennie-Holmes, R.J. Henry, A.C. McCaffery, and P.E. Bacon, and D.P. Heenan, , J. Sci. Fd. Agric.  54, 191 (1991).

Batten, G.D.

G.D. Batten, and A.B. Blakeney, , NIR news  7(2), 14 (1996).

G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, and V.B. McGrath, and S. Ciavarella, , Plant and Soil  155/156, 243 (1993).

G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, M.G. Glennie-Holmes, R.J. Henry, A.C. McCaffery, and P.E. Bacon, and D.P. Heenan, , J. Sci. Fd. Agric.  54, 191 (1991).

G.D. Batten and A.B. Blakeney, , in Near Infra-red Spectroscopy: Bridging the Gap between Data Analysis and NIR Applications , Ed by K.I. Hildrum, T. Isaksson, and T. Naes, and A. Tandberg, Ellis Horwood, New York, p.185 (1992).

G.D. Batten and A.B. Blakeney, and S. Ciavarella, , in Temperate Rice – achievements and potential , Ed by E. Humphreys, E.A. Murray, and W.S. Clampett, and L.G. Lewin, NSW Agriculture, Griffith, p. 473 (1994).

A.B. Blakeney and G.D. Batten, and S. Ciavarella, , in Temperate Rice – achievements and potential , Ed by E. Humphreys, E.A. Murray, and W.S. Clampett, and L.G. Lewin, NSW Agriculture, Griffith, p. 477 (1994).

G.D. Batten, V.B. McGrath, O.W. Boland, and A.B. Blakeney, and S. Ciavarella, , in Leaping Ahead with Near Infrared Spectroscopy , Ed by G.D. Batten, P.C. Flinn, and L.A. Welsh, and A.B. Blakeney, Near Infrared Spectroscopy Group, RACI, North Melbourne, p. 252 (1995).

R.J. Hutton, P.J. Sinclair, and A.B. Blakeney, and G.D. Batten, , in Leaping Ahead with Near Infrared Spectroscopy , Ed by G.D. Batten, P.C. Flinn, and L.A. Welsh, and A.B. Blakeney, Near Infrared Spectroscopy Group, RACI, North Melbourne, p. 256 (1995).

G.D. Batten and A.B. Blakeney, and C.R. Blatt, , in Near Infrared spectroscopy: The future waves , Ed by A.M.C. Davies, and P. Williams, NIR Publications, Chichester p. 107 (1996).

Blakeney, A.B.

G.D. Batten, and A.B. Blakeney, , NIR news  7(2), 14 (1996).

G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, and V.B. McGrath, and S. Ciavarella, , Plant and Soil  155/156, 243 (1993).

G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, M.G. Glennie-Holmes, R.J. Henry, A.C. McCaffery, and P.E. Bacon, and D.P. Heenan, , J. Sci. Fd. Agric.  54, 191 (1991).

G.D. Batten and A.B. Blakeney, , in Near Infra-red Spectroscopy: Bridging the Gap between Data Analysis and NIR Applications , Ed by K.I. Hildrum, T. Isaksson, and T. Naes, and A. Tandberg, Ellis Horwood, New York, p.185 (1992).

G.D. Batten and A.B. Blakeney, and C.R. Blatt, , in Near Infrared spectroscopy: The future waves , Ed by A.M.C. Davies, and P. Williams, NIR Publications, Chichester p. 107 (1996).

G.D. Batten, V.B. McGrath, O.W. Boland, and A.B. Blakeney, and S. Ciavarella, , in Leaping Ahead with Near Infrared Spectroscopy , Ed by G.D. Batten, P.C. Flinn, and L.A. Welsh, and A.B. Blakeney, Near Infrared Spectroscopy Group, RACI, North Melbourne, p. 252 (1995).

A.B. Blakeney and G.D. Batten, and S. Ciavarella, , in Temperate Rice – achievements and potential , Ed by E. Humphreys, E.A. Murray, and W.S. Clampett, and L.G. Lewin, NSW Agriculture, Griffith, p. 477 (1994).

G.D. Batten and A.B. Blakeney, and S. Ciavarella, , in Temperate Rice – achievements and potential , Ed by E. Humphreys, E.A. Murray, and W.S. Clampett, and L.G. Lewin, NSW Agriculture, Griffith, p. 473 (1994).

R.J. Hutton, P.J. Sinclair, and A.B. Blakeney, and G.D. Batten, , in Leaping Ahead with Near Infrared Spectroscopy , Ed by G.D. Batten, P.C. Flinn, and L.A. Welsh, and A.B. Blakeney, Near Infrared Spectroscopy Group, RACI, North Melbourne, p. 256 (1995).

Blatt, C.R.

G.D. Batten and A.B. Blakeney, and C.R. Blatt, , in Near Infrared spectroscopy: The future waves , Ed by A.M.C. Davies, and P. Williams, NIR Publications, Chichester p. 107 (1996).

Boland, O.W.

G.D. Batten, V.B. McGrath, O.W. Boland, and A.B. Blakeney, and S. Ciavarella, , in Leaping Ahead with Near Infrared Spectroscopy , Ed by G.D. Batten, P.C. Flinn, and L.A. Welsh, and A.B. Blakeney, Near Infrared Spectroscopy Group, RACI, North Melbourne, p. 252 (1995).

Cartwright, B.

B.A. Zarcinas and B. Cartwright, and L.R. Spouncer, , Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal.  18, 131 (1987).

Ciavarella, S.

G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, and V.B. McGrath, and S. Ciavarella, , Plant and Soil  155/156, 243 (1993).

G.D. Batten and A.B. Blakeney, and S. Ciavarella, , in Temperate Rice – achievements and potential , Ed by E. Humphreys, E.A. Murray, and W.S. Clampett, and L.G. Lewin, NSW Agriculture, Griffith, p. 473 (1994).

A.B. Blakeney and G.D. Batten, and S. Ciavarella, , in Temperate Rice – achievements and potential , Ed by E. Humphreys, E.A. Murray, and W.S. Clampett, and L.G. Lewin, NSW Agriculture, Griffith, p. 477 (1994).

G.D. Batten, V.B. McGrath, O.W. Boland, and A.B. Blakeney, and S. Ciavarella, , in Leaping Ahead with Near Infrared Spectroscopy , Ed by G.D. Batten, P.C. Flinn, and L.A. Welsh, and A.B. Blakeney, Near Infrared Spectroscopy Group, RACI, North Melbourne, p. 252 (1995).

Clark, D.H.

D.H. Clark and H.F. Mayland, and R.C. Lamb, , Agron. J.  79, 485 (1987).

Fearn, T.

B.G. Osborne and T. Fearn, and P.H. Hindle, , Practical NIR Spectroscopy with Applications in Food and Beverage Analysis. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow (1993).

Glennie-Holmes, M.G.

G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, M.G. Glennie-Holmes, R.J. Henry, A.C. McCaffery, and P.E. Bacon, and D.P. Heenan, , J. Sci. Fd. Agric.  54, 191 (1991).

Heenan, D.P.

G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, M.G. Glennie-Holmes, R.J. Henry, A.C. McCaffery, and P.E. Bacon, and D.P. Heenan, , J. Sci. Fd. Agric.  54, 191 (1991).

Henry, R.J.

G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, M.G. Glennie-Holmes, R.J. Henry, A.C. McCaffery, and P.E. Bacon, and D.P. Heenan, , J. Sci. Fd. Agric.  54, 191 (1991).

Hindle, P.H.

B.G. Osborne and T. Fearn, and P.H. Hindle, , Practical NIR Spectroscopy with Applications in Food and Beverage Analysis. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow (1993).

Hoover, M.R.

J.S. Shenk, I. Landa, and M.R. Hoover, and M.O. Westerhaus, , Crop Sci.  21, 353 (1981).

Hutton, R.J.

R.J. Hutton, P.J. Sinclair, and A.B. Blakeney, and G.D. Batten, , in Leaping Ahead with Near Infrared Spectroscopy , Ed by G.D. Batten, P.C. Flinn, and L.A. Welsh, and A.B. Blakeney, Near Infrared Spectroscopy Group, RACI, North Melbourne, p. 256 (1995).

Kirkby, E.A.

K. Mengel, and E.A. Kirkby, , Advances in Agronomy  33, 59 (1980).

K. Mengel, and E.A. Kirkby, , Principles of Plant Nutrition , 3rd Edn.International Potash Institute, Bern (1982).

Lamb, R.C.

D.H. Clark and H.F. Mayland, and R.C. Lamb, , Agron. J.  79, 485 (1987).

Landa, I.

J.S. Shenk, I. Landa, and M.R. Hoover, and M.O. Westerhaus, , Crop Sci.  21, 353 (1981).

Marschner, H.

H. Marschner, , Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press, London (1986).

Mayland, H.F.

D.H. Clark and H.F. Mayland, and R.C. Lamb, , Agron. J.  79, 485 (1987).

McCaffery, A.C.

G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, M.G. Glennie-Holmes, R.J. Henry, A.C. McCaffery, and P.E. Bacon, and D.P. Heenan, , J. Sci. Fd. Agric.  54, 191 (1991).

McClure, W.F.

W.F. McClure, , in NIR-84 , Ed by D. Miskelly and D.P. Law, and T. Clucas, Cereal Chemistry Division, RACI, North Melbourne, p. 127 (1985).

McGrath, V.B.

G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, and V.B. McGrath, and S. Ciavarella, , Plant and Soil  155/156, 243 (1993).

G.D. Batten, V.B. McGrath, O.W. Boland, and A.B. Blakeney, and S. Ciavarella, , in Leaping Ahead with Near Infrared Spectroscopy , Ed by G.D. Batten, P.C. Flinn, and L.A. Welsh, and A.B. Blakeney, Near Infrared Spectroscopy Group, RACI, North Melbourne, p. 252 (1995).

Mengel, K.

K. Mengel, and E.A. Kirkby, , Advances in Agronomy  33, 59 (1980).

K. Mengel, and E.A. Kirkby, , Principles of Plant Nutrition , 3rd Edn.International Potash Institute, Bern (1982).

Murray, I.

I. Murray, and P.C. Williams, , in Near- Infrared Technology in the Agricultural and Food Industries , Ed by P. Williams, and K. Norris, American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., St. Paul, Minnesota, p. 17 (1987).

Osborne, B.G.

B.G. Osborne and T. Fearn, and P.H. Hindle, , Practical NIR Spectroscopy with Applications in Food and Beverage Analysis. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow (1993).

Shenk, J.S.

J.S. Shenk, I. Landa, and M.R. Hoover, and M.O. Westerhaus, , Crop Sci.  21, 353 (1981).

Sinclair, P.J.

R.J. Hutton, P.J. Sinclair, and A.B. Blakeney, and G.D. Batten, , in Leaping Ahead with Near Infrared Spectroscopy , Ed by G.D. Batten, P.C. Flinn, and L.A. Welsh, and A.B. Blakeney, Near Infrared Spectroscopy Group, RACI, North Melbourne, p. 256 (1995).

Spouncer, L.R.

B.A. Zarcinas and B. Cartwright, and L.R. Spouncer, , Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal.  18, 131 (1987).

Westerhaus, M.O.

J.S. Shenk, I. Landa, and M.R. Hoover, and M.O. Westerhaus, , Crop Sci.  21, 353 (1981).

Williams, P.C.

I. Murray, and P.C. Williams, , in Near- Infrared Technology in the Agricultural and Food Industries , Ed by P. Williams, and K. Norris, American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., St. Paul, Minnesota, p. 17 (1987).

Zarcinas, B.A.

B.A. Zarcinas and B. Cartwright, and L.R. Spouncer, , Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal.  18, 131 (1987).

Advances in Agronomy (1)

K. Mengel, and E.A. Kirkby, , Advances in Agronomy  33, 59 (1980).

Agron. J. (1)

D.H. Clark and H.F. Mayland, and R.C. Lamb, , Agron. J.  79, 485 (1987).

Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. (1)

B.A. Zarcinas and B. Cartwright, and L.R. Spouncer, , Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal.  18, 131 (1987).

Crop Sci. (1)

J.S. Shenk, I. Landa, and M.R. Hoover, and M.O. Westerhaus, , Crop Sci.  21, 353 (1981).

J. Sci. Fd. Agric. (1)

G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, M.G. Glennie-Holmes, R.J. Henry, A.C. McCaffery, and P.E. Bacon, and D.P. Heenan, , J. Sci. Fd. Agric.  54, 191 (1991).

NIR news (1)

G.D. Batten, and A.B. Blakeney, , NIR news  7(2), 14 (1996).

Plant and Soil (1)

G.D. Batten, A.B. Blakeney, and V.B. McGrath, and S. Ciavarella, , Plant and Soil  155/156, 243 (1993).

Other (12)

G.D. Batten and A.B. Blakeney, and S. Ciavarella, , in Temperate Rice – achievements and potential , Ed by E. Humphreys, E.A. Murray, and W.S. Clampett, and L.G. Lewin, NSW Agriculture, Griffith, p. 473 (1994).

A.B. Blakeney and G.D. Batten, and S. Ciavarella, , in Temperate Rice – achievements and potential , Ed by E. Humphreys, E.A. Murray, and W.S. Clampett, and L.G. Lewin, NSW Agriculture, Griffith, p. 477 (1994).

G.D. Batten, V.B. McGrath, O.W. Boland, and A.B. Blakeney, and S. Ciavarella, , in Leaping Ahead with Near Infrared Spectroscopy , Ed by G.D. Batten, P.C. Flinn, and L.A. Welsh, and A.B. Blakeney, Near Infrared Spectroscopy Group, RACI, North Melbourne, p. 252 (1995).

R.J. Hutton, P.J. Sinclair, and A.B. Blakeney, and G.D. Batten, , in Leaping Ahead with Near Infrared Spectroscopy , Ed by G.D. Batten, P.C. Flinn, and L.A. Welsh, and A.B. Blakeney, Near Infrared Spectroscopy Group, RACI, North Melbourne, p. 256 (1995).

G.D. Batten and A.B. Blakeney, and C.R. Blatt, , in Near Infrared spectroscopy: The future waves , Ed by A.M.C. Davies, and P. Williams, NIR Publications, Chichester p. 107 (1996).

G.D. Batten and A.B. Blakeney, , in Near Infra-red Spectroscopy: Bridging the Gap between Data Analysis and NIR Applications , Ed by K.I. Hildrum, T. Isaksson, and T. Naes, and A. Tandberg, Ellis Horwood, New York, p.185 (1992).

K. Mengel, and E.A. Kirkby, , Principles of Plant Nutrition , 3rd Edn.International Potash Institute, Bern (1982).

P. Williams, and K. Norris, , Eds, Near- Infrared Technology in the Agricultural and Food Industries. American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., St. Paul, Minnesota, (1987).

H. Marschner, , Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press, London (1986).

W.F. McClure, , in NIR-84 , Ed by D. Miskelly and D.P. Law, and T. Clucas, Cereal Chemistry Division, RACI, North Melbourne, p. 127 (1985).

I. Murray, and P.C. Williams, , in Near- Infrared Technology in the Agricultural and Food Industries , Ed by P. Williams, and K. Norris, American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., St. Paul, Minnesota, p. 17 (1987).

B.G. Osborne and T. Fearn, and P.H. Hindle, , Practical NIR Spectroscopy with Applications in Food and Beverage Analysis. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow (1993).

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