Abstract

The use of near infrared (NIR) analysis in the on-line process control of beer production (brewing) is exemplary reviewed. The real-time monitoring of both the mashing and fermentation processes appears to be an interesting but still unsolved problem, mainly due to the high and varying content of solid particles in the respective fluids. Intrinsic sensors, based on the effect of Attenuated Total Reflection, offer a possibility for even in-line measurements in such cases. U-shaped intrinsic sensors were fabricated of fused silica rods with a diameter of 3 mm and coupled to a NIR spectrometer via two fibre bundles. The sensor spectra turned out to be similar to transmission spectra of an optical pathlength of about twenty micrometers, confirming theoretical values obtained by an extended raytracing calculation. Spectra of brewing fluids were taken during the mashing and fermentation process, respectively, and evaluated by PLS. The sensor performance allows to monitor the progress of both processes in terms of the sugar and the ethanol production, respectively. However, further work is necessary to realise a proper industrial sensor.

© 1998 NIR Publications

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1996 (2)

J. Wilke and B. Parthey, , Monatsschrift für Brauwiss.  49(3/4), 115 (1996).

R. Eberl, and J. Wilke, , Sensors and Actuators  B32, 203 (1996).

R. Eberl, and J. Wilke, , Sensors and Actuators  B32, 203 (1996).

1994 (1)

J. Tenhunen, K. Sjöholm, and K. Pietilä, and S. Home, , J. Inst. Brew.  100, 11 (1994).

J. Tenhunen, K. Sjöholm, and K. Pietilä, and S. Home, , J. Inst. Brew.  100, 11 (1994).

1993 (1)

P. Chandley, , J. Near lnfrared Spectrosc.  1, 133 (1993).

1992 (2)

L.P. McDermott, , MBAA Technical Quart.  29, 96 (1992).

C.H. Stokes, and J.K. Blazier, , in Europ. Brew. Conv. Monography  XX, S.73 (1992).

C.H. Stokes, and J.K. Blazier, , in Europ. Brew. Conv. Monography  XX, S.73 (1992).

1990 (1)

A.G. Cavinato, D.M. Mayes, and Z. Ge, and J.B. Callis, , Ana1. Chem.  62, 1977 (1990).

A.G. Cavinato, D.M. Mayes, and Z. Ge, and J.B. Callis, , Ana1. Chem.  62, 1977 (1990).

1988 (1)

P. Reeve, and H. White, , Food Sci. & Technol. Today  2(2), 131 (1988).

P. Reeve, and H. White, , Food Sci. & Technol. Today  2(2), 131 (1988).

1986 (1)

S.A. Halsey, , J. Inst. Brew.  92, 387 (1986).

1985 (1)

S.A. Halsey, , J. Inst. Brew.  91, 306 (1985).

1983 (2)

S. Donhauser, E. Geiger, and O. Linsenmann, and E. Faltermeier, , Monatsschrift für Brauwiss. 474 (1983).

S. Donhauser, E. Geiger, and O. Linsenmann, and E. Faltermeier, , Monatsschrift für Brauwiss. 474 (1983).

W. Haubenreißer, J. Lehmann, and R. Perthel, and R. Willsch, , Exp. Techn. Physik  32, 519 (1983).

W. Haubenreißer, J. Lehmann, and R. Perthel, and R. Willsch, , Exp. Techn. Physik  32, 519 (1983).

1946 (1)

Andersen, J.K.

P.B. Petersen, J.K. Andersen, and J.T. Johansen, and E.H. Roge, in Europ. Brew. Conv. Monography XX , S.56 (1992).

Blazier, J.K.

C.H. Stokes, and J.K. Blazier, , in Europ. Brew. Conv. Monography  XX, S.73 (1992).

Byrnes, J.

Bud H.A. Teass and J. Byrnes, and A. Valentine, Brauwelt  Nr. 8. 391 (1995).

Callis, J.B.

A.G. Cavinato, D.M. Mayes, and Z. Ge, and J.B. Callis, , Ana1. Chem.  62, 1977 (1990).

Cavinato, A.G.

A.G. Cavinato, D.M. Mayes, and Z. Ge, and J.B. Callis, , Ana1. Chem.  62, 1977 (1990).

Chandley, P.

P. Chandley, , J. Near lnfrared Spectrosc.  1, 133 (1993).

Donhauser, S.

S. Donhauser, E. Geiger, and O. Linsenmann, and E. Faltermeier, , Monatsschrift für Brauwiss. 474 (1983).

Eberl, R.

R. Eberl, and J. Wilke, , Sensors and Actuators  B32, 203 (1996).

B. Parthey, R. Eberl, and A. Stein, and J. Wilke, , in “Heiligenstädter Kolloquium “Technische Systeme für die Biotechnologie und Umwelt”. Institut für Bioprozeß- und Analysenmeßtechnik e.V. Heilbad Heiligenstadt (1994).

Faltermeier, E.

S. Donhauser, E. Geiger, and O. Linsenmann, and E. Faltermeier, , Monatsschrift für Brauwiss. 474 (1983).

Fellows, T.G.

T.G. Fellows, , Recent Success in the in-line measurement of ABV and OG (Product intormation Liquidata In-Line Beer Analyser) , Infrared Engineering Ltd., Maldon. England, (1996).

Ge, Z.

A.G. Cavinato, D.M. Mayes, and Z. Ge, and J.B. Callis, , Ana1. Chem.  62, 1977 (1990).

Geiger, E.

S. Donhauser, E. Geiger, and O. Linsenmann, and E. Faltermeier, , Monatsschrift für Brauwiss. 474 (1983).

Halsey, S.A.

S.A. Halsey, , J. Inst. Brew.  92, 387 (1986).

S.A. Halsey, , J. Inst. Brew.  91, 306 (1985).

Harrick:, N.J.

N.J. Harrick:, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy. J. Wiley & Sons Interscience Publ., New York, (1967).

Haubenreißer, W.

W. Haubenreißer, J. Lehmann, and R. Perthel, and R. Willsch, , Exp. Techn. Physik  32, 519 (1983).

Home, S.

J. Tenhunen, K. Sjöholm, and K. Pietilä, and S. Home, , J. Inst. Brew.  100, 11 (1994).

K. Sjöholm, J. Tenhunen, and S. Home, and K. Pietilä, , in 24. Int. Congr. Europ. Brew. Conv. Oslo (1993).

Johansen, J.T.

P.B. Petersen, J.K. Andersen, and J.T. Johansen, and E.H. Roge, in Europ. Brew. Conv. Monography XX , S.56 (1992).

Karrer, E.

Lehmann, J.

W. Haubenreißer, J. Lehmann, and R. Perthel, and R. Willsch, , Exp. Techn. Physik  32, 519 (1983).

Linsenmann, O.

S. Donhauser, E. Geiger, and O. Linsenmann, and E. Faltermeier, , Monatsschrift für Brauwiss. 474 (1983).

Mayes, D.M.

A.G. Cavinato, D.M. Mayes, and Z. Ge, and J.B. Callis, , Ana1. Chem.  62, 1977 (1990).

McDermott, L.P.

L.P. McDermott, , MBAA Technical Quart.  29, 96 (1992).

Nilsen, M.

M. Nilsen, and J.F. Panozzo, , in Leaping Ahead with Near Infrared Spectroscopy , Ed. by G.D. Batten, P.C. Flinn, and L.A. Welsh, and A.B. Blakeney, NIR Spectroscopy Group, Melourne, p. 174 (1995).

Orr, R.S.

Panozzo, J.F.

M. Nilsen, and J.F. Panozzo, , in Leaping Ahead with Near Infrared Spectroscopy , Ed. by G.D. Batten, P.C. Flinn, and L.A. Welsh, and A.B. Blakeney, NIR Spectroscopy Group, Melourne, p. 174 (1995).

Parthey, B.

J. Wilke and B. Parthey, , Monatsschrift für Brauwiss.  49(3/4), 115 (1996).

B. Parthey, R. Eberl, and A. Stein, and J. Wilke, , in “Heiligenstädter Kolloquium “Technische Systeme für die Biotechnologie und Umwelt”. Institut für Bioprozeß- und Analysenmeßtechnik e.V. Heilbad Heiligenstadt (1994).

Perthel, R.

W. Haubenreißer, J. Lehmann, and R. Perthel, and R. Willsch, , Exp. Techn. Physik  32, 519 (1983).

Petersen, P.B.

P.B. Petersen, J.K. Andersen, and J.T. Johansen, and E.H. Roge, in Europ. Brew. Conv. Monography XX , S.56 (1992).

Pietilä, K.

J. Tenhunen, K. Sjöholm, and K. Pietilä, and S. Home, , J. Inst. Brew.  100, 11 (1994).

K. Sjöholm, J. Tenhunen, and S. Home, and K. Pietilä, , in 24. Int. Congr. Europ. Brew. Conv. Oslo (1993).

Reeve, P.

P. Reeve, and H. White, , Food Sci. & Technol. Today  2(2), 131 (1988).

Roge, E.H.

P.B. Petersen, J.K. Andersen, and J.T. Johansen, and E.H. Roge, in Europ. Brew. Conv. Monography XX , S.56 (1992).

Sjöholm, K.

J. Tenhunen, K. Sjöholm, and K. Pietilä, and S. Home, , J. Inst. Brew.  100, 11 (1994).

K. Sjöholm, J. Tenhunen, and S. Home, and K. Pietilä, , in 24. Int. Congr. Europ. Brew. Conv. Oslo (1993).

Stein, A.

B. Parthey, R. Eberl, and A. Stein, and J. Wilke, , in “Heiligenstädter Kolloquium “Technische Systeme für die Biotechnologie und Umwelt”. Institut für Bioprozeß- und Analysenmeßtechnik e.V. Heilbad Heiligenstadt (1994).

Stokes, C.H.

C.H. Stokes, and J.K. Blazier, , in Europ. Brew. Conv. Monography  XX, S.73 (1992).

Teass, Bud H.A.

Bud H.A. Teass and J. Byrnes, and A. Valentine, Brauwelt  Nr. 8. 391 (1995).

Tenhunen, J.

J. Tenhunen, K. Sjöholm, and K. Pietilä, and S. Home, , J. Inst. Brew.  100, 11 (1994).

K. Sjöholm, J. Tenhunen, and S. Home, and K. Pietilä, , in 24. Int. Congr. Europ. Brew. Conv. Oslo (1993).

Valentine, A.

Bud H.A. Teass and J. Byrnes, and A. Valentine, Brauwelt  Nr. 8. 391 (1995).

White, H.

P. Reeve, and H. White, , Food Sci. & Technol. Today  2(2), 131 (1988).

Wilke, J.

J. Wilke and B. Parthey, , Monatsschrift für Brauwiss.  49(3/4), 115 (1996).

R. Eberl, and J. Wilke, , Sensors and Actuators  B32, 203 (1996).

B. Parthey, R. Eberl, and A. Stein, and J. Wilke, , in “Heiligenstädter Kolloquium “Technische Systeme für die Biotechnologie und Umwelt”. Institut für Bioprozeß- und Analysenmeßtechnik e.V. Heilbad Heiligenstadt (1994).

Willsch, R.

W. Haubenreißer, J. Lehmann, and R. Perthel, and R. Willsch, , Exp. Techn. Physik  32, 519 (1983).

Ana1. Chem. (1)

A.G. Cavinato, D.M. Mayes, and Z. Ge, and J.B. Callis, , Ana1. Chem.  62, 1977 (1990).

Europ. Brew. Conv. Monography (1)

C.H. Stokes, and J.K. Blazier, , in Europ. Brew. Conv. Monography  XX, S.73 (1992).

Exp. Techn. Physik (1)

W. Haubenreißer, J. Lehmann, and R. Perthel, and R. Willsch, , Exp. Techn. Physik  32, 519 (1983).

Food Sci. & Technol. Today (1)

P. Reeve, and H. White, , Food Sci. & Technol. Today  2(2), 131 (1988).

J. Inst. Brew. (3)

J. Tenhunen, K. Sjöholm, and K. Pietilä, and S. Home, , J. Inst. Brew.  100, 11 (1994).

S.A. Halsey, , J. Inst. Brew.  91, 306 (1985).

S.A. Halsey, , J. Inst. Brew.  92, 387 (1986).

J. Near lnfrared Spectrosc. (1)

P. Chandley, , J. Near lnfrared Spectrosc.  1, 133 (1993).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

MBAA Technical Quart. (1)

L.P. McDermott, , MBAA Technical Quart.  29, 96 (1992).

Monatsschrift für Brauwiss. (2)

J. Wilke and B. Parthey, , Monatsschrift für Brauwiss.  49(3/4), 115 (1996).

S. Donhauser, E. Geiger, and O. Linsenmann, and E. Faltermeier, , Monatsschrift für Brauwiss. 474 (1983).

Sensors and Actuators (1)

R. Eberl, and J. Wilke, , Sensors and Actuators  B32, 203 (1996).

Other (7)

N.J. Harrick:, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy. J. Wiley & Sons Interscience Publ., New York, (1967).

P.B. Petersen, J.K. Andersen, and J.T. Johansen, and E.H. Roge, in Europ. Brew. Conv. Monography XX , S.56 (1992).

Bud H.A. Teass and J. Byrnes, and A. Valentine, Brauwelt  Nr. 8. 391 (1995).

T.G. Fellows, , Recent Success in the in-line measurement of ABV and OG (Product intormation Liquidata In-Line Beer Analyser) , Infrared Engineering Ltd., Maldon. England, (1996).

M. Nilsen, and J.F. Panozzo, , in Leaping Ahead with Near Infrared Spectroscopy , Ed. by G.D. Batten, P.C. Flinn, and L.A. Welsh, and A.B. Blakeney, NIR Spectroscopy Group, Melourne, p. 174 (1995).

K. Sjöholm, J. Tenhunen, and S. Home, and K. Pietilä, , in 24. Int. Congr. Europ. Brew. Conv. Oslo (1993).

B. Parthey, R. Eberl, and A. Stein, and J. Wilke, , in “Heiligenstädter Kolloquium “Technische Systeme für die Biotechnologie und Umwelt”. Institut für Bioprozeß- und Analysenmeßtechnik e.V. Heilbad Heiligenstadt (1994).

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