Abstract

Although miniaturisation of vibrational spectrometers began approximately a decade ago, only within the last couple of years have real hand-held Raman, infrared and near infrared (NIR) scanning spectrometers became commercially available. On the customer end the development of portable instrumentation was driven by the request for more flexibility of on-site measurements and on the manufacturer side it was supported by the potential and advantages of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) production and the implementation of new technologies. With reference to NIR spectroscopy the expectations for a real hand-held system (<100 g) have been recently realised by a pocket-sized spectrometer with a linear variable filter technology (LVF) as monochromator principle and the additional benefit of significantly reduced costs compared to other portable systems. For a real breakthrough and impact of this instrument, however, it had to be demonstrated that competitive analytical results can be achieved. In this respect, the present communication has put to test the performance of this micro-NIR system with reference to selected qualitative and quantitative pharmaceutical applications.

© 2013 IM Publications LLP

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  1. E.W. Ciurczak, and J.K. Drennen, , Pharmaceutical and Medical Applications of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA (2002).
  2. J. Luypaert and D.L. Massart, and Vander Y. Heyden, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy applications in pharmaceutical analysis”, Talanta  72(3), 865 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2006.12.023
  3. Y. Roggo, P. Chalus, L. Maurer, C. Lema-Martinez, and A. Edmond, and N. Jent, , “A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies”, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal.  44, 683 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2007.03.023
  4. J. Mantanus, , New Pharmaceutical Applications Involving Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a PAT Compliant Process Analyzer.  PhD Thesis, University of Liege, Faculty of Medicine, Belgium (2012).
  5. M.J. Lysaght and J.A. Van Zee, and J.B. Callis, , “Laptop chemistry: A fiber-optic, field-portable, near-infrared spectrometer”, Rev. Sci. Instrum.  62, 507 (1991). doi: 10.1063/1.1142095
  6. T. Mackey, and B. Liang, , “The global counterfeit drug trade: Patient safety and public health risks”, J. Pharm. Sci.  100(11), 4571 (2011). doi: 10.1002/jps.22679
  7. H. Wright, and J. Nicholson, , “Combating counterfeit medicines”, Pharm. J.  282, 193 (2009).
  8. S.H.F. Scafi, and C. Pasquini, , Analyst  126, 2218 (2001). doi: 10.1039/b106744n
  9. M.J. Vredenbregt, D. Mooibroek, and D. de Kaste, and R. Hoogerbrugge, , in Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference , Ed by A.M.C. Davies, and A. Garrido-Varo, NIR Publications, Chichester, UK, p. 1073 (2004).
  10. M.J. Vredenbregt and D. Mooibroek, and R. Hoogerbrugge, , “Your Viagras—genuine, imitation, or counterfeit?”, in Handbook of Near-infrared Analysis , Ed by D.A. Burns, and E.W. Ciurczak, CRC, Boca Raton, USA, p. 631 (2008).
  11. W.L. Yoon, R.D. Jee, G. Lee, and A. Charvill, and A.C. Moffat, , “A non-destructive method to detect counterfeit medicines using near-infrared spectroscopy”, AAPS Pharm. Sci.  3, Supplement, Abstract 428 (2001).
  12. S. Assi and R.A. Watt, and A.C. Moffat, , “Identification of counterfeit tablets and authentication of medicines in the international wholesaling supply chain using near infrared spectroscopy”, in Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference. IM Publications, Chichester, UK, p. 697 (2009).
  13. M. Blanco, and M.A. Romero, , “Near-infrared libraries in the pharmaceutical industry: A solution for identity confirmation”, Analyst  126, 2212 (2001). doi: 10.1039/b105012p
  14. M. Blanco and M. Bautista, and M. Alcalà, , “API determination by NIR spectroscopy across pharmaceutical production process”, AAPS PharmSciTech  9(4), 11305 (2008). doi: 10.1208/s12249-008-9156-3
  15. H.A. Macleod, , Thin-Film Optical Filters. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 302–369, pp. 490–513 (2010).
  16. D. Sorak, L. Herberholz, S. Iwascek, S. Altinpinar, and F. Pfeifer, and H.W. Siesler, , “New developments and application of handheld Raman, mid-infrared and near-infrared spectrometers”, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev.  47, 83 (2012). doi: 10.1080/05704928.2011.625748

2012 (1)

D. Sorak, L. Herberholz, S. Iwascek, S. Altinpinar, and F. Pfeifer, and H.W. Siesler, , “New developments and application of handheld Raman, mid-infrared and near-infrared spectrometers”, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev.  47, 83 (2012). doi: 10.1080/05704928.2011.625748

D. Sorak, L. Herberholz, S. Iwascek, S. Altinpinar, and F. Pfeifer, and H.W. Siesler, , “New developments and application of handheld Raman, mid-infrared and near-infrared spectrometers”, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev.  47, 83 (2012). doi: 10.1080/05704928.2011.625748

2011 (1)

T. Mackey, and B. Liang, , “The global counterfeit drug trade: Patient safety and public health risks”, J. Pharm. Sci.  100(11), 4571 (2011). doi: 10.1002/jps.22679

T. Mackey, and B. Liang, , “The global counterfeit drug trade: Patient safety and public health risks”, J. Pharm. Sci.  100(11), 4571 (2011). doi: 10.1002/jps.22679

2009 (1)

H. Wright, and J. Nicholson, , “Combating counterfeit medicines”, Pharm. J.  282, 193 (2009).

H. Wright, and J. Nicholson, , “Combating counterfeit medicines”, Pharm. J.  282, 193 (2009).

2008 (1)

M. Blanco and M. Bautista, and M. Alcalà, , “API determination by NIR spectroscopy across pharmaceutical production process”, AAPS PharmSciTech  9(4), 11305 (2008). doi: 10.1208/s12249-008-9156-3

M. Blanco and M. Bautista, and M. Alcalà, , “API determination by NIR spectroscopy across pharmaceutical production process”, AAPS PharmSciTech  9(4), 11305 (2008). doi: 10.1208/s12249-008-9156-3

2007 (1)

Y. Roggo, P. Chalus, L. Maurer, C. Lema-Martinez, and A. Edmond, and N. Jent, , “A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies”, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal.  44, 683 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2007.03.023

Y. Roggo, P. Chalus, L. Maurer, C. Lema-Martinez, and A. Edmond, and N. Jent, , “A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies”, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal.  44, 683 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2007.03.023

2006 (1)

J. Luypaert and D.L. Massart, and Vander Y. Heyden, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy applications in pharmaceutical analysis”, Talanta  72(3), 865 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2006.12.023

J. Luypaert and D.L. Massart, and Vander Y. Heyden, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy applications in pharmaceutical analysis”, Talanta  72(3), 865 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2006.12.023

2001 (3)

S.H.F. Scafi, and C. Pasquini, , Analyst  126, 2218 (2001). doi: 10.1039/b106744n

S.H.F. Scafi, and C. Pasquini, , Analyst  126, 2218 (2001). doi: 10.1039/b106744n

W.L. Yoon, R.D. Jee, G. Lee, and A. Charvill, and A.C. Moffat, , “A non-destructive method to detect counterfeit medicines using near-infrared spectroscopy”, AAPS Pharm. Sci.  3, Supplement, Abstract 428 (2001).

W.L. Yoon, R.D. Jee, G. Lee, and A. Charvill, and A.C. Moffat, , “A non-destructive method to detect counterfeit medicines using near-infrared spectroscopy”, AAPS Pharm. Sci.  3, Supplement, Abstract 428 (2001).

M. Blanco, and M.A. Romero, , “Near-infrared libraries in the pharmaceutical industry: A solution for identity confirmation”, Analyst  126, 2212 (2001). doi: 10.1039/b105012p

M. Blanco, and M.A. Romero, , “Near-infrared libraries in the pharmaceutical industry: A solution for identity confirmation”, Analyst  126, 2212 (2001). doi: 10.1039/b105012p

1991 (1)

M.J. Lysaght and J.A. Van Zee, and J.B. Callis, , “Laptop chemistry: A fiber-optic, field-portable, near-infrared spectrometer”, Rev. Sci. Instrum.  62, 507 (1991). doi: 10.1063/1.1142095

M.J. Lysaght and J.A. Van Zee, and J.B. Callis, , “Laptop chemistry: A fiber-optic, field-portable, near-infrared spectrometer”, Rev. Sci. Instrum.  62, 507 (1991). doi: 10.1063/1.1142095

Alcalà, M.

M. Blanco and M. Bautista, and M. Alcalà, , “API determination by NIR spectroscopy across pharmaceutical production process”, AAPS PharmSciTech  9(4), 11305 (2008). doi: 10.1208/s12249-008-9156-3

Altinpinar, S.

D. Sorak, L. Herberholz, S. Iwascek, S. Altinpinar, and F. Pfeifer, and H.W. Siesler, , “New developments and application of handheld Raman, mid-infrared and near-infrared spectrometers”, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev.  47, 83 (2012). doi: 10.1080/05704928.2011.625748

Assi, S.

S. Assi and R.A. Watt, and A.C. Moffat, , “Identification of counterfeit tablets and authentication of medicines in the international wholesaling supply chain using near infrared spectroscopy”, in Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference. IM Publications, Chichester, UK, p. 697 (2009).

Bautista, M.

M. Blanco and M. Bautista, and M. Alcalà, , “API determination by NIR spectroscopy across pharmaceutical production process”, AAPS PharmSciTech  9(4), 11305 (2008). doi: 10.1208/s12249-008-9156-3

Blanco, M.

M. Blanco and M. Bautista, and M. Alcalà, , “API determination by NIR spectroscopy across pharmaceutical production process”, AAPS PharmSciTech  9(4), 11305 (2008). doi: 10.1208/s12249-008-9156-3

M. Blanco, and M.A. Romero, , “Near-infrared libraries in the pharmaceutical industry: A solution for identity confirmation”, Analyst  126, 2212 (2001). doi: 10.1039/b105012p

Callis, J.B.

M.J. Lysaght and J.A. Van Zee, and J.B. Callis, , “Laptop chemistry: A fiber-optic, field-portable, near-infrared spectrometer”, Rev. Sci. Instrum.  62, 507 (1991). doi: 10.1063/1.1142095

Chalus, P.

Y. Roggo, P. Chalus, L. Maurer, C. Lema-Martinez, and A. Edmond, and N. Jent, , “A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies”, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal.  44, 683 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2007.03.023

Charvill, A.

W.L. Yoon, R.D. Jee, G. Lee, and A. Charvill, and A.C. Moffat, , “A non-destructive method to detect counterfeit medicines using near-infrared spectroscopy”, AAPS Pharm. Sci.  3, Supplement, Abstract 428 (2001).

Ciurczak, E.W.

E.W. Ciurczak, and J.K. Drennen, , Pharmaceutical and Medical Applications of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA (2002).

de Kaste, D.

M.J. Vredenbregt, D. Mooibroek, and D. de Kaste, and R. Hoogerbrugge, , in Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference , Ed by A.M.C. Davies, and A. Garrido-Varo, NIR Publications, Chichester, UK, p. 1073 (2004).

Drennen, J.K.

E.W. Ciurczak, and J.K. Drennen, , Pharmaceutical and Medical Applications of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA (2002).

Edmond, A.

Y. Roggo, P. Chalus, L. Maurer, C. Lema-Martinez, and A. Edmond, and N. Jent, , “A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies”, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal.  44, 683 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2007.03.023

Herberholz, L.

D. Sorak, L. Herberholz, S. Iwascek, S. Altinpinar, and F. Pfeifer, and H.W. Siesler, , “New developments and application of handheld Raman, mid-infrared and near-infrared spectrometers”, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev.  47, 83 (2012). doi: 10.1080/05704928.2011.625748

Heyden, Vander Y.

J. Luypaert and D.L. Massart, and Vander Y. Heyden, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy applications in pharmaceutical analysis”, Talanta  72(3), 865 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2006.12.023

Hoogerbrugge, R.

M.J. Vredenbregt, D. Mooibroek, and D. de Kaste, and R. Hoogerbrugge, , in Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference , Ed by A.M.C. Davies, and A. Garrido-Varo, NIR Publications, Chichester, UK, p. 1073 (2004).

M.J. Vredenbregt and D. Mooibroek, and R. Hoogerbrugge, , “Your Viagras—genuine, imitation, or counterfeit?”, in Handbook of Near-infrared Analysis , Ed by D.A. Burns, and E.W. Ciurczak, CRC, Boca Raton, USA, p. 631 (2008).

Iwascek, S.

D. Sorak, L. Herberholz, S. Iwascek, S. Altinpinar, and F. Pfeifer, and H.W. Siesler, , “New developments and application of handheld Raman, mid-infrared and near-infrared spectrometers”, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev.  47, 83 (2012). doi: 10.1080/05704928.2011.625748

Jee, R.D.

W.L. Yoon, R.D. Jee, G. Lee, and A. Charvill, and A.C. Moffat, , “A non-destructive method to detect counterfeit medicines using near-infrared spectroscopy”, AAPS Pharm. Sci.  3, Supplement, Abstract 428 (2001).

Jent, N.

Y. Roggo, P. Chalus, L. Maurer, C. Lema-Martinez, and A. Edmond, and N. Jent, , “A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies”, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal.  44, 683 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2007.03.023

Lee, G.

W.L. Yoon, R.D. Jee, G. Lee, and A. Charvill, and A.C. Moffat, , “A non-destructive method to detect counterfeit medicines using near-infrared spectroscopy”, AAPS Pharm. Sci.  3, Supplement, Abstract 428 (2001).

Lema-Martinez, C.

Y. Roggo, P. Chalus, L. Maurer, C. Lema-Martinez, and A. Edmond, and N. Jent, , “A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies”, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal.  44, 683 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2007.03.023

Liang, B.

T. Mackey, and B. Liang, , “The global counterfeit drug trade: Patient safety and public health risks”, J. Pharm. Sci.  100(11), 4571 (2011). doi: 10.1002/jps.22679

Luypaert, J.

J. Luypaert and D.L. Massart, and Vander Y. Heyden, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy applications in pharmaceutical analysis”, Talanta  72(3), 865 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2006.12.023

Lysaght, M.J.

M.J. Lysaght and J.A. Van Zee, and J.B. Callis, , “Laptop chemistry: A fiber-optic, field-portable, near-infrared spectrometer”, Rev. Sci. Instrum.  62, 507 (1991). doi: 10.1063/1.1142095

Mackey, T.

T. Mackey, and B. Liang, , “The global counterfeit drug trade: Patient safety and public health risks”, J. Pharm. Sci.  100(11), 4571 (2011). doi: 10.1002/jps.22679

Macleod, H.A.

H.A. Macleod, , Thin-Film Optical Filters. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 302–369, pp. 490–513 (2010).

Mantanus, J.

J. Mantanus, , New Pharmaceutical Applications Involving Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a PAT Compliant Process Analyzer.  PhD Thesis, University of Liege, Faculty of Medicine, Belgium (2012).

Massart, D.L.

J. Luypaert and D.L. Massart, and Vander Y. Heyden, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy applications in pharmaceutical analysis”, Talanta  72(3), 865 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2006.12.023

Maurer, L.

Y. Roggo, P. Chalus, L. Maurer, C. Lema-Martinez, and A. Edmond, and N. Jent, , “A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies”, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal.  44, 683 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2007.03.023

Moffat, A.C.

W.L. Yoon, R.D. Jee, G. Lee, and A. Charvill, and A.C. Moffat, , “A non-destructive method to detect counterfeit medicines using near-infrared spectroscopy”, AAPS Pharm. Sci.  3, Supplement, Abstract 428 (2001).

S. Assi and R.A. Watt, and A.C. Moffat, , “Identification of counterfeit tablets and authentication of medicines in the international wholesaling supply chain using near infrared spectroscopy”, in Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference. IM Publications, Chichester, UK, p. 697 (2009).

Mooibroek, D.

M.J. Vredenbregt and D. Mooibroek, and R. Hoogerbrugge, , “Your Viagras—genuine, imitation, or counterfeit?”, in Handbook of Near-infrared Analysis , Ed by D.A. Burns, and E.W. Ciurczak, CRC, Boca Raton, USA, p. 631 (2008).

M.J. Vredenbregt, D. Mooibroek, and D. de Kaste, and R. Hoogerbrugge, , in Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference , Ed by A.M.C. Davies, and A. Garrido-Varo, NIR Publications, Chichester, UK, p. 1073 (2004).

Nicholson, J.

H. Wright, and J. Nicholson, , “Combating counterfeit medicines”, Pharm. J.  282, 193 (2009).

Pasquini, C.

S.H.F. Scafi, and C. Pasquini, , Analyst  126, 2218 (2001). doi: 10.1039/b106744n

Pfeifer, F.

D. Sorak, L. Herberholz, S. Iwascek, S. Altinpinar, and F. Pfeifer, and H.W. Siesler, , “New developments and application of handheld Raman, mid-infrared and near-infrared spectrometers”, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev.  47, 83 (2012). doi: 10.1080/05704928.2011.625748

Roggo, Y.

Y. Roggo, P. Chalus, L. Maurer, C. Lema-Martinez, and A. Edmond, and N. Jent, , “A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies”, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal.  44, 683 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2007.03.023

Romero, M.A.

M. Blanco, and M.A. Romero, , “Near-infrared libraries in the pharmaceutical industry: A solution for identity confirmation”, Analyst  126, 2212 (2001). doi: 10.1039/b105012p

Scafi, S.H.F.

S.H.F. Scafi, and C. Pasquini, , Analyst  126, 2218 (2001). doi: 10.1039/b106744n

Siesler, H.W.

D. Sorak, L. Herberholz, S. Iwascek, S. Altinpinar, and F. Pfeifer, and H.W. Siesler, , “New developments and application of handheld Raman, mid-infrared and near-infrared spectrometers”, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev.  47, 83 (2012). doi: 10.1080/05704928.2011.625748

Sorak, D.

D. Sorak, L. Herberholz, S. Iwascek, S. Altinpinar, and F. Pfeifer, and H.W. Siesler, , “New developments and application of handheld Raman, mid-infrared and near-infrared spectrometers”, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev.  47, 83 (2012). doi: 10.1080/05704928.2011.625748

Van Zee, J.A.

M.J. Lysaght and J.A. Van Zee, and J.B. Callis, , “Laptop chemistry: A fiber-optic, field-portable, near-infrared spectrometer”, Rev. Sci. Instrum.  62, 507 (1991). doi: 10.1063/1.1142095

Vredenbregt, M.J.

M.J. Vredenbregt, D. Mooibroek, and D. de Kaste, and R. Hoogerbrugge, , in Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference , Ed by A.M.C. Davies, and A. Garrido-Varo, NIR Publications, Chichester, UK, p. 1073 (2004).

M.J. Vredenbregt and D. Mooibroek, and R. Hoogerbrugge, , “Your Viagras—genuine, imitation, or counterfeit?”, in Handbook of Near-infrared Analysis , Ed by D.A. Burns, and E.W. Ciurczak, CRC, Boca Raton, USA, p. 631 (2008).

Watt, R.A.

S. Assi and R.A. Watt, and A.C. Moffat, , “Identification of counterfeit tablets and authentication of medicines in the international wholesaling supply chain using near infrared spectroscopy”, in Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference. IM Publications, Chichester, UK, p. 697 (2009).

Wright, H.

H. Wright, and J. Nicholson, , “Combating counterfeit medicines”, Pharm. J.  282, 193 (2009).

Yoon, W.L.

W.L. Yoon, R.D. Jee, G. Lee, and A. Charvill, and A.C. Moffat, , “A non-destructive method to detect counterfeit medicines using near-infrared spectroscopy”, AAPS Pharm. Sci.  3, Supplement, Abstract 428 (2001).

AAPS Pharm. Sci. (1)

W.L. Yoon, R.D. Jee, G. Lee, and A. Charvill, and A.C. Moffat, , “A non-destructive method to detect counterfeit medicines using near-infrared spectroscopy”, AAPS Pharm. Sci.  3, Supplement, Abstract 428 (2001).

AAPS PharmSciTech (1)

M. Blanco and M. Bautista, and M. Alcalà, , “API determination by NIR spectroscopy across pharmaceutical production process”, AAPS PharmSciTech  9(4), 11305 (2008). doi: 10.1208/s12249-008-9156-3

Analyst (2)

M. Blanco, and M.A. Romero, , “Near-infrared libraries in the pharmaceutical industry: A solution for identity confirmation”, Analyst  126, 2212 (2001). doi: 10.1039/b105012p

S.H.F. Scafi, and C. Pasquini, , Analyst  126, 2218 (2001). doi: 10.1039/b106744n

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

D. Sorak, L. Herberholz, S. Iwascek, S. Altinpinar, and F. Pfeifer, and H.W. Siesler, , “New developments and application of handheld Raman, mid-infrared and near-infrared spectrometers”, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev.  47, 83 (2012). doi: 10.1080/05704928.2011.625748

J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. (1)

Y. Roggo, P. Chalus, L. Maurer, C. Lema-Martinez, and A. Edmond, and N. Jent, , “A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies”, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal.  44, 683 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2007.03.023

J. Pharm. Sci. (1)

T. Mackey, and B. Liang, , “The global counterfeit drug trade: Patient safety and public health risks”, J. Pharm. Sci.  100(11), 4571 (2011). doi: 10.1002/jps.22679

Pharm. J. (1)

H. Wright, and J. Nicholson, , “Combating counterfeit medicines”, Pharm. J.  282, 193 (2009).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M.J. Lysaght and J.A. Van Zee, and J.B. Callis, , “Laptop chemistry: A fiber-optic, field-portable, near-infrared spectrometer”, Rev. Sci. Instrum.  62, 507 (1991). doi: 10.1063/1.1142095

Talanta (1)

J. Luypaert and D.L. Massart, and Vander Y. Heyden, , “Near-infrared spectroscopy applications in pharmaceutical analysis”, Talanta  72(3), 865 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2006.12.023

Other (6)

E.W. Ciurczak, and J.K. Drennen, , Pharmaceutical and Medical Applications of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA (2002).

J. Mantanus, , New Pharmaceutical Applications Involving Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a PAT Compliant Process Analyzer.  PhD Thesis, University of Liege, Faculty of Medicine, Belgium (2012).

M.J. Vredenbregt, D. Mooibroek, and D. de Kaste, and R. Hoogerbrugge, , in Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference , Ed by A.M.C. Davies, and A. Garrido-Varo, NIR Publications, Chichester, UK, p. 1073 (2004).

M.J. Vredenbregt and D. Mooibroek, and R. Hoogerbrugge, , “Your Viagras—genuine, imitation, or counterfeit?”, in Handbook of Near-infrared Analysis , Ed by D.A. Burns, and E.W. Ciurczak, CRC, Boca Raton, USA, p. 631 (2008).

S. Assi and R.A. Watt, and A.C. Moffat, , “Identification of counterfeit tablets and authentication of medicines in the international wholesaling supply chain using near infrared spectroscopy”, in Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference. IM Publications, Chichester, UK, p. 697 (2009).

H.A. Macleod, , Thin-Film Optical Filters. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 302–369, pp. 490–513 (2010).

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