Abstract

Due to its spectral and binding properties, the well-tolerated near-infrared absorbing and fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) has found various applications in diffuse optical imaging of diseases in humans. Here, we review applications of this dye for the detection of breast cancer, for perfusion monitoring of the brain in ischaemic stroke and during cardiac surgery, and for the detection of rheumatoid arthritis in finger joints. We give a short overview of the properties of ICG which are relevant for diffuse optical imaging and summarise clinical applications of the dye. Then we describe the experimental methods used for contrast-enhanced imaging of breast cancer with ICG, and we discuss the results of studies on patients with breast lesions. Generally, after intravenous application an increased concentration of ICG in breast carcinomas was observed. In part, differences in ICG pharmacokinetics between malignant lesions, benign lesions and healthy tissue were reported. In a recent study, fluorescence measurements revealed significant differences in extra-vasation of ICG between malignant and benign breast lesions. In brain imaging, ICG has been used as a tracer to assess perfusion of the cortex. Measurements on stroke patients have been performed by comparing the arrival times of a bolus in the affected and in the healthy hemisphere of the brain. Furthermore, ICG boluses have been applied to monitor cerebral blood flow during cardiac surgery. We review the results of the available studies based on either continuous wave light sources, frequency domain techniques, or time domain techniques, and we discuss the depth selectivity of these methods. In one of the studies, fluorescence detection of ICG was investigated and compared to absorption detection used so far. When employed for the detection of rheumatoid arthritis in finger joints, the time course of the ICG distribution in the tissue after intravenous bolus injection was recorded by measuring ICG fluorescence in reflection geometry. We describe the features of the experimental technique and discuss the results of clinical studies performed so far. Finally, we summarise the properties of ICG exploited as contrast mechanisms in diffuse optical imaging.

© 2012 IM Publications LLP

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  84. E. Keller, J. Froehlich, C. Muroi, and C. Sikorski, and M. Muser, , “Neuromonitoring in intensive care: A new brain tissue probe for combined monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygenation”, Acta Neurochir. Suppl. 110 (Pt. 2), 217 (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-3-7091-0356-2 39
  85. A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, , “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain”, NeuroImage  31, 600 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.12.046
  86. A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and N. Zolek, and R. Macdonald, , “Monte Carlo algorithm for efficient simulation of time-resolved fluorescence in layered turbid media”, Opt. Expr.  16, 13188 (2008).doi: 10.1364/OE.16.013188
  87. J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, and U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, , “Towards noninvasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain”, Neurodegener. Dis.  5, 296 (2008). doi: 10.1159/000135614
  88. B. Ebert, J. Berger, J. Voigt, R. Macdonald, T. Fischer, K.-G. Hermann, and K. Licha, and M. Schirner, , “Early detection of rheumatoid arthritis in humans by fluorescence imaging”, in Biomedical Optics  (CD-ROM). The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA, BTuF19 (2008).
  89. T. Fischer, B. Ebert, J. Voigt, R. Macdonald, U. Schneider, A. Thomas, and B. Hamm, , and K.-G.A. Hermann, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis using non-specific contrast enhanced fluorescence imaging”, Acad. Radiol.  17, 375 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2009.09.016
  90. S. Merkesdal, J. Ruof, O. Schoffski, K. Bernitt, and H. Zeidler, and W. Mau, , “Indirect medical costs in early rheumatoid arthritis: Composition of and changes in indirect costs within the first three years of disease”, Arthritis Rheum.  44, 528 (2001). doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(200103)44:3<528::AID-ANR100>3.0.CO:2-U
  91. M. Østergaard and S.J. Pedersen, and U.M. Døhn, , “Imaging in rheumatoid arthrtitis: Status and recent advances for magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, computed tomography and conventional radiography”, Best Pract. Res. Clin. Rheumatol.  22, 1019 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2008.09.014
  92. M. Backhaus, T. Kamradt, D. Sandrock, D. Loreck, J. Fritz, K.J. Wolf, J.H. Raber, B. Hamm, and G.-R. Burmester, and M. Bollow, , “Arthritis of the finger joints: A comprehensive approach comparing conventional radiography, scintigraphy, ultrasound, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging”, Arthritis Rheum.  42, 1232 (1999). doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(199906)42:6<1232::AID-ANR21>3.0.CO;2-3
  93. T. De Zordo, S.P. Mlekusch, G.M. Feuchtner, E. Mur, and M. Schirmer, and A.S. Klauser, , “Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rheumatoid arthritis”, Eur. J. Radiol.  64, 222 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2007.07.011
  94. M. Backhaus, , “Ultrasound and structural changes in inflammatory arthritis: Synovitis and tenosynovitis”, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.  1154, 139 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04388.x
  95. A. Wunder, R.H. Straub, S. Gay, and J. Funk, and U. Muller-Ladner, , “Molecular imaging: Novel tools in visualizing rheumatoid arthritis”, Rheumatology (Oxford)  44, 1341 (2005). doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keh709
  96. T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. von Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.G.A. Herrmann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. Macdonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, and T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, , “Assessment of unspecific near-infrared dyes in laser-induced fluorescence imaging of experimental arthritis”, Acad. Radiol.  13, 4 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2005.07.010
  97. C. Bremer and S. Werner, and H.-E. Langer, , “Assessing activity of rheumatic arthritis with fluorescence optical imaging”, Eur. Musculoskelet. Rev.  4, 96 (2009).
  98. T. Dziekan, C. Weissbach, J. Voigt, B. Ebert, R. Macdonald, M.L. Bahner, M. Mahler, M. Schirner, M. Berliner, B. Berliner, and J. Osel, and I. Osel, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis by evaluation of normalized variances of fluorescence time correlation functions”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 076015 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3599958
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2011 (10)

A. Poellinger, T. Persigehl, M. Mahler, M. Bahner, S.L. Ponder, F. Diekmann, and C. Bremer, and T. Moesta, , “Near-infrared imaging of the breast using omocianine as a fluorescent dye: Results of a placebo-controlled, clinical, multicenter trial”, Invest. Radiol.  46, 697 (2011). doi: 10.1097/RLI.0b013e318229ff25

A. Poellinger, T. Persigehl, M. Mahler, M. Bahner, S.L. Ponder, F. Diekmann, and C. Bremer, and T. Moesta, , “Near-infrared imaging of the breast using omocianine as a fluorescent dye: Results of a placebo-controlled, clinical, multicenter trial”, Invest. Radiol.  46, 697 (2011). doi: 10.1097/RLI.0b013e318229ff25

A. Gerega, N. Zolek, T. Soltysinski, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, and B. Toczylowska, and A. Liebert, , “Wavelength-resolved measurements of fluorescence lifetime of indocyanine green”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 067010 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3593386

A. Gerega, N. Zolek, T. Soltysinski, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, and B. Toczylowska, and A. Liebert, , “Wavelength-resolved measurements of fluorescence lifetime of indocyanine green”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 067010 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3593386

B.E. Schaafsma, J.S. Mieog, M. Hutteman, J.R. van der Vorst, P.J. Kuppen, C.W. Löwik, J.V. Frangioni, and C.J. van de Velde, and A.L. Vahrmeijer, , “The clinical use of indocyanine green as a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent for image-guided oncologic surgery”, J. Surg. Oncol.  104, 323 (2011). doi: 10.1002/jso.21943

B.E. Schaafsma, J.S. Mieog, M. Hutteman, J.R. van der Vorst, P.J. Kuppen, C.W. Löwik, J.V. Frangioni, and C.J. van de Velde, and A.L. Vahrmeijer, , “The clinical use of indocyanine green as a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent for image-guided oncologic surgery”, J. Surg. Oncol.  104, 323 (2011). doi: 10.1002/jso.21943

K. Polom, D. Murawa, Y.S. Rho, P. Nowaczyk, and M. Hünerbein, and P. Murawa, , “Current trends and emerging future of indocyanine green usage in surgery and oncology: A literature review”, Cancer  117, 4812 (2011). doi: 10.1002/cncr.26087

K. Polom, D. Murawa, Y.S. Rho, P. Nowaczyk, and M. Hünerbein, and P. Murawa, , “Current trends and emerging future of indocyanine green usage in surgery and oncology: A literature review”, Cancer  117, 4812 (2011). doi: 10.1002/cncr.26087

A. Poellinger, S. Burock, D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, L. Lüdemann, F. Diekmann, F. Engelken, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, and P.M. Schlag, , “Breast cancer: Early- and late-fluorescence near-infrared imaging with indocyanine green—A preliminary study”, Radiology  258, 409 (2011). doi: 10.1148/radiol.10100258

A. Poellinger, S. Burock, D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, L. Lüdemann, F. Diekmann, F. Engelken, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, and P.M. Schlag, , “Breast cancer: Early- and late-fluorescence near-infrared imaging with indocyanine green—A preliminary study”, Radiology  258, 409 (2011). doi: 10.1148/radiol.10100258

D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, O. Steinkellner, A. Poellinger, S. Burock, P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, and R. Macdonald, , “A multichannel time-domain scanning fluorescence mammograph: Performance assessment and first in vivo results”, Rev. Sci. Instrum.  82, 024302 (2011). doi: 10.1063/1.3543820

D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, O. Steinkellner, A. Poellinger, S. Burock, P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, and R. Macdonald, , “A multichannel time-domain scanning fluorescence mammograph: Performance assessment and first in vivo results”, Rev. Sci. Instrum.  82, 024302 (2011). doi: 10.1063/1.3543820

M. Diop, K. Verdecchia, and T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, , “Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a time-resolved near-infrared technique to yield absolute cerebral blood flow measurements”, Biomed. Opt. Expr.  2, 2068 (2011). doi: 10.1364/BOE.2.002068

M. Diop, K. Verdecchia, and T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, , “Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a time-resolved near-infrared technique to yield absolute cerebral blood flow measurements”, Biomed. Opt. Expr.  2, 2068 (2011). doi: 10.1364/BOE.2.002068

E. Keller, J. Froehlich, C. Muroi, and C. Sikorski, and M. Muser, , “Neuromonitoring in intensive care: A new brain tissue probe for combined monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygenation”, Acta Neurochir. Suppl. 110 (Pt. 2), 217 (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-3-7091-0356-2 39

E. Keller, J. Froehlich, C. Muroi, and C. Sikorski, and M. Muser, , “Neuromonitoring in intensive care: A new brain tissue probe for combined monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygenation”, Acta Neurochir. Suppl. 110 (Pt. 2), 217 (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-3-7091-0356-2 39

T. Dziekan, C. Weissbach, J. Voigt, B. Ebert, R. Macdonald, M.L. Bahner, M. Mahler, M. Schirner, M. Berliner, B. Berliner, and J. Osel, and I. Osel, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis by evaluation of normalized variances of fluorescence time correlation functions”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 076015 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3599958

T. Dziekan, C. Weissbach, J. Voigt, B. Ebert, R. Macdonald, M.L. Bahner, M. Mahler, M. Schirner, M. Berliner, B. Berliner, and J. Osel, and I. Osel, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis by evaluation of normalized variances of fluorescence time correlation functions”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 076015 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3599958

S.G. Werner and H.-E. Langer, and G. Horneff, , “Fluorescence optical imaging of juvenile arthritis”, J. Rheumatol.  38, 1447 (2011). doi: 10.3899/jrheum.101351

S.G. Werner and H.-E. Langer, and G. Horneff, , “Fluorescence optical imaging of juvenile arthritis”, J. Rheumatol.  38, 1447 (2011). doi: 10.3899/jrheum.101351

2010 (5)

T. Fischer, B. Ebert, J. Voigt, R. Macdonald, U. Schneider, A. Thomas, and B. Hamm, , and K.-G.A. Hermann, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis using non-specific contrast enhanced fluorescence imaging”, Acad. Radiol.  17, 375 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2009.09.016

T. Fischer, B. Ebert, J. Voigt, R. Macdonald, U. Schneider, A. Thomas, and B. Hamm, , and K.-G.A. Hermann, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis using non-specific contrast enhanced fluorescence imaging”, Acad. Radiol.  17, 375 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2009.09.016

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, and J.B. Fiebach, and R. Macdonald, , “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: Technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke”, J. Biomed. Opt.  15, 061708 (2010). doi: 10.1117/1.3505009

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, and J.B. Fiebach, and R. Macdonald, , “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: Technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke”, J. Biomed. Opt.  15, 061708 (2010). doi: 10.1117/1.3505009

S. Kukreti, A.E. Cerussi, W. Tanamai, D. Hsiang, and B.J. Tromberg, and E. Gratton, , “Characterization of metabolic differences between benign and malignant tumors: High-spectral-resolution diffuse optical spectroscopy”, Radiology  254, 277 (2010). doi: 10.1148/radiol.09082134

S. Kukreti, A.E. Cerussi, W. Tanamai, D. Hsiang, and B.J. Tromberg, and E. Gratton, , “Characterization of metabolic differences between benign and malignant tumors: High-spectral-resolution diffuse optical spectroscopy”, Radiology  254, 277 (2010). doi: 10.1148/radiol.09082134

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. Van Der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van Der Mark, M. van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, and P. Luijten, and W. Mali, , “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: First clinical experience in patients”, Mol. Imaging Biol.  12, 343 (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11307-009-0269-1

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. Van Der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van Der Mark, M. van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, and P. Luijten, and W. Mali, , “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: First clinical experience in patients”, Mol. Imaging Biol.  12, 343 (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11307-009-0269-1

S. Lloyd-Fox and A. Blasi, and C.E. Elwell, “Illuminating the developing brain: The past, present and future of functional near infrared spectroscopy”, Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev.  34, 269 (2010).

S. Lloyd-Fox and A. Blasi, and C.E. Elwell, “Illuminating the developing brain: The past, present and future of functional near infrared spectroscopy”, Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev.  34, 269 (2010).

2009 (9)

R. Choe, S.D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D.R. Busch, S. Pathak, B.J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D.L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S.A. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J.P. Culver, M.D. Schnall, M.E. Putt, and M.A. Rosen, and A.G. Yodh, , “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 024020 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3103325

R. Choe, S.D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D.R. Busch, S. Pathak, B.J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D.L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S.A. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J.P. Culver, M.D. Schnall, M.E. Putt, and M.A. Rosen, and A.G. Yodh, , “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 024020 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3103325

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B.L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M.N. Kim, B.L. Cucchiara, M.E. Putt, Q. Shah, S.E. Kasner, J.H. Greenberg, and A.G. Yodh, and J.A. Detre, , “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients”, Opt. Expr.  17, 3884 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.003884

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B.L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M.N. Kim, B.L. Cucchiara, M.E. Putt, Q. Shah, S.E. Kasner, J.H. Greenberg, and A.G. Yodh, and J.A. Detre, , “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients”, Opt. Expr.  17, 3884 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.003884

R. Alford, H.M. Simpson, J. Duberman, G.C. Hill, M. Ogawa, C. Regino, and H. Kobayashi, and P.L. Choyke, , “Toxicity of organic fluorophores used in molecular imaging: Literature review”, Mol. Imaging  8, 341 (2009). doi: 10.2310/7290.2009.00031

R. Alford, H.M. Simpson, J. Duberman, G.C. Hill, M. Ogawa, C. Regino, and H. Kobayashi, and P.L. Choyke, , “Toxicity of organic fluorophores used in molecular imaging: Literature review”, Mol. Imaging  8, 341 (2009). doi: 10.2310/7290.2009.00031

R. Ziegler, B. Brendel, and H. Rinneberg, and T. Nielsen, , “Investigation of detection limits for diffuse optical tomography systems: II. Analysis of slab and cup geometry for breast imaging”, Phys. Med. Biol.  54, 413 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/54/2/016

R. Ziegler, B. Brendel, and H. Rinneberg, and T. Nielsen, , “Investigation of detection limits for diffuse optical tomography systems: II. Analysis of slab and cup geometry for breast imaging”, Phys. Med. Biol.  54, 413 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/54/2/016

A. Hagen, D. Grosenick, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, S. Burock, P. Warnick, and A. Poellinger, and P.M. Schlag, , “Late-fluorescence mammography assesses tumor capillary permeability and differentiates malignant from benign lesions”, Opt. Expr.  17, 17016 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.017016

A. Hagen, D. Grosenick, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, S. Burock, P. Warnick, and A. Poellinger, and P.M. Schlag, , “Late-fluorescence mammography assesses tumor capillary permeability and differentiates malignant from benign lesions”, Opt. Expr.  17, 17016 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.017016

C. Terborg, K. Gröschel, A. Petrovitch, T. Ringer, S. Schnaudigel, and O.W. Witte, and A. Kastrup, , “Noninvasive assessment of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in acute ischemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy”, Eur. Neurol.  62, 338 (2009). doi: 10.1159/000239794

C. Terborg, K. Gröschel, A. Petrovitch, T. Ringer, S. Schnaudigel, and O.W. Witte, and A. Kastrup, , “Noninvasive assessment of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in acute ischemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy”, Eur. Neurol.  62, 338 (2009). doi: 10.1159/000239794

H.W. Schytz, T. Wienecke, L.T. Jensen, J. Selb, and D.A. Boas, and M. Ashina, , “Changes in cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide: An experimental study comparing near-infrared spectroscopy and SPECT”, Eur. J. Neurol.  16, 461 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2008.02398.x

H.W. Schytz, T. Wienecke, L.T. Jensen, J. Selb, and D.A. Boas, and M. Ashina, , “Changes in cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide: An experimental study comparing near-infrared spectroscopy and SPECT”, Eur. J. Neurol.  16, 461 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2008.02398.x

M. Backhaus, , “Ultrasound and structural changes in inflammatory arthritis: Synovitis and tenosynovitis”, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.  1154, 139 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04388.x

C. Bremer and S. Werner, and H.-E. Langer, , “Assessing activity of rheumatic arthritis with fluorescence optical imaging”, Eur. Musculoskelet. Rev.  4, 96 (2009).

C. Bremer and S. Werner, and H.-E. Langer, , “Assessing activity of rheumatic arthritis with fluorescence optical imaging”, Eur. Musculoskelet. Rev.  4, 96 (2009).

2008 (6)

M. Østergaard and S.J. Pedersen, and U.M. Døhn, , “Imaging in rheumatoid arthrtitis: Status and recent advances for magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, computed tomography and conventional radiography”, Best Pract. Res. Clin. Rheumatol.  22, 1019 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2008.09.014

M. Østergaard and S.J. Pedersen, and U.M. Døhn, , “Imaging in rheumatoid arthrtitis: Status and recent advances for magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, computed tomography and conventional radiography”, Best Pract. Res. Clin. Rheumatol.  22, 1019 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2008.09.014

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and N. Zolek, and R. Macdonald, , “Monte Carlo algorithm for efficient simulation of time-resolved fluorescence in layered turbid media”, Opt. Expr.  16, 13188 (2008).doi: 10.1364/OE.16.013188

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and N. Zolek, and R. Macdonald, , “Monte Carlo algorithm for efficient simulation of time-resolved fluorescence in layered turbid media”, Opt. Expr.  16, 13188 (2008).doi: 10.1364/OE.16.013188

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, and U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, , “Towards noninvasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain”, Neurodegener. Dis.  5, 296 (2008). doi: 10.1159/000135614

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, and U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, , “Towards noninvasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain”, Neurodegener. Dis.  5, 296 (2008). doi: 10.1159/000135614

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wübbeler, and R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, , “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography”, Opto-Electron. Rev.  16, 147 (2008). doi: 10.2478/s11772-008-0004-5

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wübbeler, and R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, , “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography”, Opto-Electron. Rev.  16, 147 (2008). doi: 10.2478/s11772-008-0004-5

W.J. Akers, M.Y. Berezin, and H. Lee, and S. Achilefu, , “Predicting in vivo fluorescence lifetime behavior of near-infrared fluorescent contrast agents using in vitro measurements”, J. Biomed. Opt.  13, 054042 (2008). doi: 10.1117/1.2982535

W.J. Akers, M.Y. Berezin, and H. Lee, and S. Achilefu, , “Predicting in vivo fluorescence lifetime behavior of near-infrared fluorescent contrast agents using in vitro measurements”, J. Biomed. Opt.  13, 054042 (2008). doi: 10.1117/1.2982535

D. Hargroves, R. Tallis, and V. Pomeroy, and A. Bhalla, , “The influence of positioning upon cerebral oxygenation after acute stroke: A pilot study,”Age Ageing  37, 581 (2008). doi: 10.1093/ageing/afn143

D. Hargroves, R. Tallis, and V. Pomeroy, and A. Bhalla, , “The influence of positioning upon cerebral oxygenation after acute stroke: A pilot study,”Age Ageing  37, 581 (2008). doi: 10.1093/ageing/afn143

2007 (7)

M.S. Damian, and R. Schlosser, , “Bilateral near infrared spectroscopy in space-occupying middle cerebral artery stroke,”Neurocritical Care  6, 165 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s12028-007-0010-3

M.S. Damian, and R. Schlosser, , “Bilateral near infrared spectroscopy in space-occupying middle cerebral artery stroke,”Neurocritical Care  6, 165 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s12028-007-0010-3

A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, M.A. Rosen, M. Schweiger, S.R. Arridge, and M.D. Schnall, and A.G. Yodh, , “Three-dimensional in vivo fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer in humans”, Opt. Expr.  15, 6696 (2007). doi: 10.1364/OE.15.006696

A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, M.A. Rosen, M. Schweiger, S.R. Arridge, and M.D. Schnall, and A.G. Yodh, , “Three-dimensional in vivo fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer in humans”, Opt. Expr.  15, 6696 (2007). doi: 10.1364/OE.15.006696

C. Kuhl, , “The current status of breast MR imaging. Part I. Choice of technique, image interpretation, diagnostic accuracy, and transfer to clinical practice”, Radiology  244, 356 (2007). doi: 10.1148/radiol.2442051620

S.G. Sakka, , “Assessing liver function”, Curr. Opin. Crit. Care.  13, 207 (2007). doi: 10.1097/MCC0b013e328012b268

J.A. Chalela, C.S. Kidwell, L.M. Nentwich, M. Luby, J.A. Butman, A.M. Demchuk, M.D. Hill, N. Patronas, and L. Latour, and S. Warach, , “Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in emergency assessment of patients with suspected acute stroke: A prospective comparison”, Lancet  369, 293 (2007). doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60151-2

J.A. Chalela, C.S. Kidwell, L.M. Nentwich, M. Luby, J.A. Butman, A.M. Demchuk, M.D. Hill, N. Patronas, and L. Latour, and S. Warach, , “Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in emergency assessment of patients with suspected acute stroke: A prospective comparison”, Lancet  369, 293 (2007). doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60151-2

W.L. Wright, , “Multimodal monitoring in the ICU: When could it be useful?”, J. Neurol. Sci.  261, 10 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2007.04.027

T. De Zordo, S.P. Mlekusch, G.M. Feuchtner, E. Mur, and M. Schirmer, and A.S. Klauser, , “Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rheumatoid arthritis”, Eur. J. Radiol.  64, 222 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2007.07.011

T. De Zordo, S.P. Mlekusch, G.M. Feuchtner, E. Mur, and M. Schirmer, and A.S. Klauser, , “Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rheumatoid arthritis”, Eur. J. Radiol.  64, 222 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2007.07.011

2006 (7)

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. von Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.G.A. Herrmann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. Macdonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, and T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, , “Assessment of unspecific near-infrared dyes in laser-induced fluorescence imaging of experimental arthritis”, Acad. Radiol.  13, 4 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2005.07.010

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. von Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.G.A. Herrmann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. Macdonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, and T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, , “Assessment of unspecific near-infrared dyes in laser-induced fluorescence imaging of experimental arthritis”, Acad. Radiol.  13, 4 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2005.07.010

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, , “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain”, NeuroImage  31, 600 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.12.046

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, , “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain”, NeuroImage  31, 600 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.12.046

J. Steinbrink, T. Fischer, H. Kuppe, R. Hetzer, K. Uludag, and H. Obrig, and W.M. Kuebler, , “Relevance of depth resolution for cerebral blood flow monitoring by near-infrared spectroscopic bolus tracking during cardiopulmonary bypass”, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  132, 1172 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2006.05.065

J. Steinbrink, T. Fischer, H. Kuppe, R. Hetzer, K. Uludag, and H. Obrig, and W.M. Kuebler, , “Relevance of depth resolution for cerebral blood flow monitoring by near-infrared spectroscopic bolus tracking during cardiopulmonary bypass”, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  132, 1172 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2006.05.065

M.R. Dreher, W. Liu, C.R. Michelich, M.W. Dewhirst, and F. Yuan, and A. Chilkoti, , “Tumor vascular permeability, accumulation, and penetration of macromolecular drug carriers”, J. Natl. Cancer Inst.  98, 335 (2006). doi: 10.1093/jnci/djj070

M.R. Dreher, W. Liu, C.R. Michelich, M.W. Dewhirst, and F. Yuan, and A. Chilkoti, , “Tumor vascular permeability, accumulation, and penetration of macromolecular drug carriers”, J. Natl. Cancer Inst.  98, 335 (2006). doi: 10.1093/jnci/djj070

M.R. Dreher, W. Liu, C.R. Michelich, M.W. Dewhirst, and F. Yuan, and A. Chilkoti, , “Tumor vascular permeability, accumulation and penetration of macromolecular drug carriers”, J. Natl. Cancer Inst.  98, 335 (2006). doi: 10.1093/jnci/djj070

M.R. Dreher, W. Liu, C.R. Michelich, M.W. Dewhirst, and F. Yuan, and A. Chilkoti, , “Tumor vascular permeability, accumulation and penetration of macromolecular drug carriers”, J. Natl. Cancer Inst.  98, 335 (2006). doi: 10.1093/jnci/djj070

R.D. Rosenberg, B.C. Yankaskas, L.A. Abraham, E.A. Sickles, C.D. Lehman, B.M. Geller, P.A. Carney, K. Kerlikowske, D.S.M. Buist, D.L. Weaver, and W.E. Barlow, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Performance benchmarks for screening mammography”, Radiology  241, 55 (2006). doi: 10.1148/radiol.2411051504

R.D. Rosenberg, B.C. Yankaskas, L.A. Abraham, E.A. Sickles, C.D. Lehman, B.M. Geller, P.A. Carney, K. Kerlikowske, D.S.M. Buist, D.L. Weaver, and W.E. Barlow, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Performance benchmarks for screening mammography”, Radiology  241, 55 (2006). doi: 10.1148/radiol.2411051504

A. Thomas, S. Kümmel, F. Fritzsche, M. Warm, B. Ebert, and B. Hamm, and T. Fischer, , “Real-time sonoelastography performed in addition to B-mode ultrasound and mammography: Improved differentiation of breast lesions?”, Acad. Radiol.  13, 1496 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2006.08.012

A. Thomas, S. Kümmel, F. Fritzsche, M. Warm, B. Ebert, and B. Hamm, and T. Fischer, , “Real-time sonoelastography performed in addition to B-mode ultrasound and mammography: Improved differentiation of breast lesions?”, Acad. Radiol.  13, 1496 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2006.08.012

2005 (9)

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, J. Mucke, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, and B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, , “Scanning time-domain optical mammography: Detection and characterization of breast tumours in vivo”, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.  4, 483 (2005).

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, J. Mucke, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, and B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, , “Scanning time-domain optical mammography: Detection and characterization of breast tumours in vivo”, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.  4, 483 (2005).

A.P. Gibson and J.C. Hebden, and S.R. Arridge, , “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, R1 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/4/R01

A.P. Gibson and J.C. Hebden, and S.R. Arridge, , “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, R1 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/4/R01

P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, F. Arpaia, and G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, , “Time-resolved optical mammography between 637 and 985 nm: Clinical study on the detection and identification of breast lesions”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2469 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/003

P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, F. Arpaia, and G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, , “Time-resolved optical mammography between 637 and 985 nm: Clinical study on the detection and identification of breast lesions”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2469 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/003

D. Grosenick, K. Th. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, Ch. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2429 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/001

D. Grosenick, K. Th. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, Ch. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2429 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/001

D. Floery, T.H. Helbich, C.C. Riedl, S. Jaromi, M. Weber, and S. Leodolter, and M.H. Fuchsjaeger, , “Characterization of benign and malignant breast lesions with computed tomography laser mammography (CTLM): Initial experience”, Invest. Radiol.  40, 328 (2005). doi: 10.1097/01.rli.0000164487.60548.28

D. Floery, T.H. Helbich, C.C. Riedl, S. Jaromi, M. Weber, and S. Leodolter, and M.H. Fuchsjaeger, , “Characterization of benign and malignant breast lesions with computed tomography laser mammography (CTLM): Initial experience”, Invest. Radiol.  40, 328 (2005). doi: 10.1097/01.rli.0000164487.60548.28

A.K. Scheel, M. Backhaus, A.D. Klose, B. Moa-Anderson, U.J. Netz, K.G. Hermann, J. Beuthan, G.A. Müller, and G.R. Burmester, and A.H. Hielscher, , “First clinical evaluation of sagittal laser optical tomography for detection of synovitis in arthritic finger joints”, Ann. Rheum. Dis.  64, 239 (2005). doi: 10.1136/ard.2004.024224

A.K. Scheel, M. Backhaus, A.D. Klose, B. Moa-Anderson, U.J. Netz, K.G. Hermann, J. Beuthan, G.A. Müller, and G.R. Burmester, and A.H. Hielscher, , “First clinical evaluation of sagittal laser optical tomography for detection of synovitis in arthritic finger joints”, Ann. Rheum. Dis.  64, 239 (2005). doi: 10.1136/ard.2004.024224

C. Perlitz, K. Licha, F.D. Scholle, B. Ebert, M. Bahner, P. Hauff, and K.T. Moesta, and M. Schirner, , “Comparison of two tricarbocyanine-based dyes for fluorescence optical imaging”, J. Fluoresc.  15, 443 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s10895-005-2636-x

C. Perlitz, K. Licha, F.D. Scholle, B. Ebert, M. Bahner, P. Hauff, and K.T. Moesta, and M. Schirner, , “Comparison of two tricarbocyanine-based dyes for fluorescence optical imaging”, J. Fluoresc.  15, 443 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s10895-005-2636-x

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, , “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,”NeuroImage  24, 426 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.08.046

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, , “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,”NeuroImage  24, 426 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.08.046

A. Wunder, R.H. Straub, S. Gay, and J. Funk, and U. Muller-Ladner, , “Molecular imaging: Novel tools in visualizing rheumatoid arthritis”, Rheumatology (Oxford)  44, 1341 (2005). doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keh709

A. Wunder, R.H. Straub, S. Gay, and J. Funk, and U. Muller-Ladner, , “Molecular imaging: Novel tools in visualizing rheumatoid arthritis”, Rheumatology (Oxford)  44, 1341 (2005). doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keh709

2004 (4)

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, and A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons”, Appl. Opt.  43, 3037 (2004). doi: 10.1364/AO.43.003037

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, and A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons”, Appl. Opt.  43, 3037 (2004). doi: 10.1364/AO.43.003037

C. Terborg, S. Bramer, S. Harscher, and M. Simon, and O.W. Witte, , “Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion reductions in patients with acute ischaemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green”, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry  75, 38 (2004).

C. Terborg, S. Bramer, S. Harscher, and M. Simon, and O.W. Witte, , “Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion reductions in patients with acute ischaemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green”, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry  75, 38 (2004).

M. Ferrari and L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, , “Principles, techniques and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy”, Can. J. Appl. Physiol.  29, 463 (2004). doi: 10.1139/h04-031

M. Ferrari and L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, , “Principles, techniques and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy”, Can. J. Appl. Physiol.  29, 463 (2004). doi: 10.1139/h04-031

E.E. Konofagou, , “Quo vadis elasticity imaging?”, Ultrasonics  42, 331 (2004). doi: 10.1016/j.ultras.2003.11.010

2003 (11)

P.A. Carney, D.L. Miglioretti, B.C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C.M. Rutter, B.M. Geller, L.A. Abraham, S.H. Taplin, M. Dignan, and G. Cutter, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography”, Ann. Intern. Med.  138, 168 (2003).

P.A. Carney, D.L. Miglioretti, B.C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C.M. Rutter, B.M. Geller, L.A. Abraham, S.H. Taplin, M. Dignan, and G. Cutter, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography”, Ann. Intern. Med.  138, 168 (2003).

B. Boné, M.K. Wiberg, B.K. Szabó, and A. Szakos, and R. Danielsson, , “Comparison of 99mTc-sestamibi scintimam-mography and dynamic MR imaging as adjuncts to mammography in the diagnosis of breast cancer”, Acta Radiol.  44, 28 (2003). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0455.2003.00012.x

B. Boné, M.K. Wiberg, B.K. Szabó, and A. Szakos, and R. Danielsson, , “Comparison of 99mTc-sestamibi scintimam-mography and dynamic MR imaging as adjuncts to mammography in the diagnosis of breast cancer”, Acta Radiol.  44, 28 (2003). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0455.2003.00012.x

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, and A.G. Yodh, and B. Chance, , “In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with indocyanine green”, Med. Phys.  30, 1039 (2003). doi: 10.1118/1.1573791

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, and A.G. Yodh, and B. Chance, , “In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with indocyanine green”, Med. Phys.  30, 1039 (2003). doi: 10.1118/1.1573791

H.E. Daldrup-Link, and R.C. Brasch, , “Macromolecular contrast agents for MR mammography: Current status”, Eur. Radiol.  13, 354 (2003). doi: 10.1007/s00330-002-1719-1

H.E. Daldrup-Link, and R.C. Brasch, , “Macromolecular contrast agents for MR mammography: Current status”, Eur. Radiol.  13, 354 (2003). doi: 10.1007/s00330-002-1719-1

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S.S. Kollias, and Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, , “Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution”, NeuroImage  20, 828 (2003). doi: 10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00315-X

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S.S. Kollias, and Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, , “Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution”, NeuroImage  20, 828 (2003). doi: 10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00315-X

J.M. Canvin, S. Bernatsky, C.A. Hitchon, M. Jackson, M.G. Sowa, J.R. Mansfield, H.H. Eysel, and H.H. Mantsch, and H.S. El-Gabalawy, , “Infrared spectroscopy: Shedding light on synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis”, Rheumatology (Oxford)  42, 76 (2003). doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keg034

J.M. Canvin, S. Bernatsky, C.A. Hitchon, M. Jackson, M.G. Sowa, J.R. Mansfield, H.H. Eysel, and H.H. Mantsch, and H.S. El-Gabalawy, , “Infrared spectroscopy: Shedding light on synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis”, Rheumatology (Oxford)  42, 76 (2003). doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keg034

C. Bremer and V. Ntziachristos, and R. Weissleder, , “Optical-based molecular imaging: Contrast agents and potential medical applications”, Eur. Radiol.  13, 231 (2003). doi: 10.1007/s00330-002-1610-0

C. Bremer and V. Ntziachristos, and R. Weissleder, , “Optical-based molecular imaging: Contrast agents and potential medical applications”, Eur. Radiol.  13, 231 (2003). doi: 10.1007/s00330-002-1610-0

R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, , “Shedding light onto live molecular targets”, Nat. Med.  9, 123 (2003). doi: 10.1038/nm0103-123

R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, , “Shedding light onto live molecular targets”, Nat. Med.  9, 123 (2003). doi: 10.1038/nm0103-123

H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, , “Beyond the visible—imaging the human brain with light”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.  23, 1 (2003). doi: 10.1097/00004647-200301000-00001

H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, , “Beyond the visible—imaging the human brain with light”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.  23, 1 (2003). doi: 10.1097/00004647-200301000-00001

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and C.D. Geddes, and J.R. Lakowicz, , “Metal-enhanced emission from indocyanine green: A new approach to in vivo imaging”, J. Biomed. Opt.  8, 472 (2003). doi: 10.1117/1.1578643

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and C.D. Geddes, and J.R. Lakowicz, , “Metal-enhanced emission from indocyanine green: A new approach to in vivo imaging”, J. Biomed. Opt.  8, 472 (2003). doi: 10.1117/1.1578643

G. Settakis, C. Molnar, L. Kerenyi, J. Kollar, D. Legemate, and L. Csiba, and B. Fülesdi, , “Acetazolamide as a vasodilatory stimulus in cerebrovascular diseases and in conditions affecting the cerebral vasculature”, Eur. J. Neurol.  10, 609 (2003). doi: 10.1046/j.1468-1331.2003.00675.x

G. Settakis, C. Molnar, L. Kerenyi, J. Kollar, D. Legemate, and L. Csiba, and B. Fülesdi, , “Acetazolamide as a vasodilatory stimulus in cerebrovascular diseases and in conditions affecting the cerebral vasculature”, Eur. J. Neurol.  10, 609 (2003). doi: 10.1046/j.1468-1331.2003.00675.x

2002 (2)

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, and K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, , “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: Separation of brain from skin and skull signals”, J. Biomed. Opt.  7, 464 (2002). doi: 10.1117/1.1482719

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, and K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, , “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: Separation of brain from skin and skull signals”, J. Biomed. Opt.  7, 464 (2002). doi: 10.1117/1.1482719

F. Gora, S. Shinde, C.E. Elwell, J.C. Goldstone, M. Cope, and D.T. Delpy, and M. Smith, , “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow in adults using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green: A pilot study”, J. Neurosurg. Anesthesiol.  14, 218 (2002). doi: 10.1097/00008506-200207000-00008

F. Gora, S. Shinde, C.E. Elwell, J.C. Goldstone, M. Cope, and D.T. Delpy, and M. Smith, , “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow in adults using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green: A pilot study”, J. Neurosurg. Anesthesiol.  14, 218 (2002). doi: 10.1097/00008506-200207000-00008

2001 (2)

S. Merkesdal, J. Ruof, O. Schoffski, K. Bernitt, and H. Zeidler, and W. Mau, , “Indirect medical costs in early rheumatoid arthritis: Composition of and changes in indirect costs within the first three years of disease”, Arthritis Rheum.  44, 528 (2001). doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(200103)44:3<528::AID-ANR100>3.0.CO:2-U

S. Merkesdal, J. Ruof, O. Schoffski, K. Bernitt, and H. Zeidler, and W. Mau, , “Indirect medical costs in early rheumatoid arthritis: Composition of and changes in indirect costs within the first three years of disease”, Arthritis Rheum.  44, 528 (2001). doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(200103)44:3<528::AID-ANR100>3.0.CO:2-U

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, , “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head”, Phys. Med. Biol.  46, 879 (2001). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/46/3/320

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, , “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head”, Phys. Med. Biol.  46, 879 (2001). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/46/3/320

2000 (3)

V. Ntziachristos, A.G. Yodh, and M. Schnall, and B. Chance, , “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA  97, 2767 (2000). doi: 10.1073/pnas.040570597

V. Ntziachristos, A.G. Yodh, and M. Schnall, and B. Chance, , “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA  97, 2767 (2000). doi: 10.1073/pnas.040570597

T. Desmettre and J.M. Devoisselle, and S. Mordon, , “Fluorescence properties and metabolic features of indocyanine green (ICG) as related to angiography”, Surv. Ophthalmol.  45, 15 (2000). doi: 10.1016/S0039-6257(00)00123-5

T. Desmettre and J.M. Devoisselle, and S. Mordon, , “Fluorescence properties and metabolic features of indocyanine green (ICG) as related to angiography”, Surv. Ophthalmol.  45, 15 (2000). doi: 10.1016/S0039-6257(00)00123-5

K. Licha, B. Riefke, V. Ntziachristos, A. Becker, and B. Chance, and W. Semmler, , “Hydrophilic cyanine dyes as contrast agents for near-infrared tumor imaging: Synthesis, photophysical properties and spectroscopic in vivo characterization”, Photochem. Photobiol.  72, 392 (2000). doi: 10.1562/0031-8655(2000)072<0392:HCDACA>2.0.CO;2

K. Licha, B. Riefke, V. Ntziachristos, A. Becker, and B. Chance, and W. Semmler, , “Hydrophilic cyanine dyes as contrast agents for near-infrared tumor imaging: Synthesis, photophysical properties and spectroscopic in vivo characterization”, Photochem. Photobiol.  72, 392 (2000). doi: 10.1562/0031-8655(2000)072<0392:HCDACA>2.0.CO;2

1999 (2)

P.S. Tofts, G. Brix, D.L. Buckley, J.L. Evelhoch, E. Henderson, M.V. Knopp, H.B.W. Larsson, T.-Y. Lee, N.A. Mayr, G.J.M. Parker, R.E. Port, and J. Taylor, and R.M. Weisskoff, , “Estimating kinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI of a diffusible tracer: Standardized quantities and symbols”, J. Magn. Reson. Imaging  10, 223 (1999). doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1522-2586(199909)10:3<223::AID-JMRI2>3.0.C0:2-S

P.S. Tofts, G. Brix, D.L. Buckley, J.L. Evelhoch, E. Henderson, M.V. Knopp, H.B.W. Larsson, T.-Y. Lee, N.A. Mayr, G.J.M. Parker, R.E. Port, and J. Taylor, and R.M. Weisskoff, , “Estimating kinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI of a diffusible tracer: Standardized quantities and symbols”, J. Magn. Reson. Imaging  10, 223 (1999). doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1522-2586(199909)10:3<223::AID-JMRI2>3.0.C0:2-S

M. Backhaus, T. Kamradt, D. Sandrock, D. Loreck, J. Fritz, K.J. Wolf, J.H. Raber, B. Hamm, and G.-R. Burmester, and M. Bollow, , “Arthritis of the finger joints: A comprehensive approach comparing conventional radiography, scintigraphy, ultrasound, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging”, Arthritis Rheum.  42, 1232 (1999). doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(199906)42:6<1232::AID-ANR21>3.0.CO;2-3

M. Backhaus, T. Kamradt, D. Sandrock, D. Loreck, J. Fritz, K.J. Wolf, J.H. Raber, B. Hamm, and G.-R. Burmester, and M. Bollow, , “Arthritis of the finger joints: A comprehensive approach comparing conventional radiography, scintigraphy, ultrasound, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging”, Arthritis Rheum.  42, 1232 (1999). doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(199906)42:6<1232::AID-ANR21>3.0.CO;2-3

1998 (5)

I.G. Roberts, P. Fallon, F.J. Kirkham, P.M. Kirshbom, C.E. Cooper, and M.J. Elliott, and A.D. Edwards, , “Measurement of cerebral blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass with near-infrared spectroscopy,”J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  115, 94 (1998). doi: 10.1016/S0022-5223(98)70447-7

I.G. Roberts, P. Fallon, F.J. Kirkham, P.M. Kirshbom, C.E. Cooper, and M.J. Elliott, and A.D. Edwards, , “Measurement of cerebral blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass with near-infrared spectroscopy,”J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  115, 94 (1998). doi: 10.1016/S0022-5223(98)70447-7

W.M. Kuebler, A. Sckell, O. Habler, M. Kleen, G.E.H. Kuhnle, M. Welte, and K. Messmer, and A.E. Goetz, , “Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.  18, 445 (1998). doi: 10.1097/00004647-199804000-00013

W.M. Kuebler, A. Sckell, O. Habler, M. Kleen, G.E.H. Kuhnle, M. Welte, and K. Messmer, and A.E. Goetz, , “Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.  18, 445 (1998). doi: 10.1097/00004647-199804000-00013

A.A. Chang and L.S. Morse, and J.T. Handa, , “Histologic localization of indocyanine green dye in aging primate and human ocular tissues with clinical angiographic correlation”, Ophthalmology  105, 1060 (1998). doi: 10.1016/S0161-6420(98)96008-0

A.A. Chang and L.S. Morse, and J.T. Handa, , “Histologic localization of indocyanine green dye in aging primate and human ocular tissues with clinical angiographic correlation”, Ophthalmology  105, 1060 (1998). doi: 10.1016/S0161-6420(98)96008-0

S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, and K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, , “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood”, Invest. Ophthal. Visual Sci.  39, 1286 (1998).

S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, and K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, , “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood”, Invest. Ophthal. Visual Sci.  39, 1286 (1998).

S. Mordon, J.M. Devoisselle, and S. Soulie-Begu, and T. Desmettre, , “Indocyanine green: Physicochemical factors affecting its fluorescence in vivo”, Microvasc. Res.  55, 146 (1998). doi: 10.1006/mvre.1998.2068

S. Mordon, J.M. Devoisselle, and S. Soulie-Begu, and T. Desmettre, , “Indocyanine green: Physicochemical factors affecting its fluorescence in vivo”, Microvasc. Res.  55, 146 (1998). doi: 10.1006/mvre.1998.2068

1997 (1)

C.W. Piccoli, , “Contrast-enhanced breast MRI: Factors affecting sensitivity and specificity”, Eur. Radiol.  7(Suppl.5), S281 (1997). doi: 10.1007/PL00006909

1994 (1)

P. Ott, S. Keiding, and A.H. Johnsen, and L. Bass, , “Hepatic removal of two fractions of indocyanine green after bolus injection in anesthetized pigs”, Am. J. Physiol.  266, 1108 (1994).

P. Ott, S. Keiding, and A.H. Johnsen, and L. Bass, , “Hepatic removal of two fractions of indocyanine green after bolus injection in anesthetized pigs”, Am. J. Physiol.  266, 1108 (1994).

1993 (1)

I. Roberts, P. Fallon, F.J. Kirkham, A. Lloyd-Thomas, C. Cooper, R. Maynard, and M. Elliot, and A.D. Edwards, , “Estimation of cerebral blood flow with near infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green”, Lancet  342, 1425 (1993). doi: 10.1016/0140-6736(93)92786-S

I. Roberts, P. Fallon, F.J. Kirkham, A. Lloyd-Thomas, C. Cooper, R. Maynard, and M. Elliot, and A.D. Edwards, , “Estimation of cerebral blood flow with near infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green”, Lancet  342, 1425 (1993). doi: 10.1016/0140-6736(93)92786-S

1992 (1)

M. Ferrari, D.A. Wilson, and D.F. Hanley, and R.J. Traystman, , “Effects of graded hypotension on cerebral blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time in dogs”, Am. J. Physiol.  262, H1908 (1992).

M. Ferrari, D.A. Wilson, and D.F. Hanley, and R.J. Traystman, , “Effects of graded hypotension on cerebral blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time in dogs”, Am. J. Physiol.  262, H1908 (1992).

1988 (1)

D.K.F. Meijer and B. Weert, and G.A. Vermeer, , “Pharmacokinetics of biliary excretion in man. VI. Indocyanine green”, Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.  35, 295 (1988). doi: 10.1007/BF00558268

D.K.F. Meijer and B. Weert, and G.A. Vermeer, , “Pharmacokinetics of biliary excretion in man. VI. Indocyanine green”, Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.  35, 295 (1988). doi: 10.1007/BF00558268

1987 (1)

B. Hollins and B. Noe, and J.M. Henderson, , “Fluorometric determination of indocyanine green in plasma”, Clin. Chem.  33, 765 (1987).

B. Hollins and B. Noe, and J.M. Henderson, , “Fluorometric determination of indocyanine green in plasma”, Clin. Chem.  33, 765 (1987).

1981 (1)

J.M. Colacino and B. Grubb, and F.F. Jöbsis, , “Infra-red technique for cerebral blood flow: Comparison with 133Xenon clearance”, Neurol. Res.  3, 17 (1981).

J.M. Colacino and B. Grubb, and F.F. Jöbsis, , “Infra-red technique for cerebral blood flow: Comparison with 133Xenon clearance”, Neurol. Res.  3, 17 (1981).

1978 (1)

R.C. Benson, and H.A. Kues, , “Fluorescence properties of indocyanine green as related to angiography”, Phys. Med. Biol.  23, 159 (1978). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/23/1/017

R.C. Benson, and H.A. Kues, , “Fluorescence properties of indocyanine green as related to angiography”, Phys. Med. Biol.  23, 159 (1978). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/23/1/017

1976 (2)

M.L. Landsman, G. Kwant, and G.A. Mook, and W.G. Zijlstra, , “Light-absorbing properties, stability and spectral stabilization of indocyanine green”, J. Appl. Physiol.  40, 575 (1976).

M.L. Landsman, G. Kwant, and G.A. Mook, and W.G. Zijlstra, , “Light-absorbing properties, stability and spectral stabilization of indocyanine green”, J. Appl. Physiol.  40, 575 (1976).

T.J. Muckle, , “Plasma protein binding of indocyanine green”, Biochem. Med.  15, 17 (1976). doi: 10.1016/0006-2944(76)90069-7

1974 (1)

K. Kamisaka, Y. Yatsuji, and H. Yamada, and H. Kameda, , “The binding of indocyanine green and other organic anions to serum proteins in liver diseases”, Clin. Chim. Acta  53, 255 (1974). doi: 10.1016/0009-8981(74)90107-7

K. Kamisaka, Y. Yatsuji, and H. Yamada, and H. Kameda, , “The binding of indocyanine green and other organic anions to serum proteins in liver diseases”, Clin. Chim. Acta  53, 255 (1974). doi: 10.1016/0009-8981(74)90107-7

1971 (1)

J. Olesen and O.B. Paulson, and N.A. Lassen, , “Regional cerebral blood flow in man determined by the initial slope of the clearance of intraarterially injected 133Xe”, Stroke  2, 519 (1971). doi: 10.1161/01.STR.2.6.519

J. Olesen and O.B. Paulson, and N.A. Lassen, , “Regional cerebral blood flow in man determined by the initial slope of the clearance of intraarterially injected 133Xe”, Stroke  2, 519 (1971). doi: 10.1161/01.STR.2.6.519

1968 (1)

E.C. Bradley, and J.W. Barr, , “Determination of blood volume using indocyanine green (cardio-green) dye”, Life Sci.  7, 1001 (1968). doi: 10.1016/0024-3205(68)90108-2

E.C. Bradley, and J.W. Barr, , “Determination of blood volume using indocyanine green (cardio-green) dye”, Life Sci.  7, 1001 (1968). doi: 10.1016/0024-3205(68)90108-2

1960 (1)

G.R. Cherrick, S.W. Stem, and C.M. Leevy, and C.S. Davidson, , “Indocyanine green: Observations on its physical properties, plasma decay and hepatic extraction”, J. Clin. Invest.  39, 592 (1960). doi: 10.1172/JCI104072

G.R. Cherrick, S.W. Stem, and C.M. Leevy, and C.S. Davidson, , “Indocyanine green: Observations on its physical properties, plasma decay and hepatic extraction”, J. Clin. Invest.  39, 592 (1960). doi: 10.1172/JCI104072

1956 (1)

I.J. Fox, L.G.S. Brooker, and D.W. Heseltime, and E.H. Wood, , “A new dye for continuous recording of dilution curves in whole blood independent of variations in blood oxygen saturation”, Circulation  14, 937 (1956).

I.J. Fox, L.G.S. Brooker, and D.W. Heseltime, and E.H. Wood, , “A new dye for continuous recording of dilution curves in whole blood independent of variations in blood oxygen saturation”, Circulation  14, 937 (1956).

Abraham, L.A.

R.D. Rosenberg, B.C. Yankaskas, L.A. Abraham, E.A. Sickles, C.D. Lehman, B.M. Geller, P.A. Carney, K. Kerlikowske, D.S.M. Buist, D.L. Weaver, and W.E. Barlow, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Performance benchmarks for screening mammography”, Radiology  241, 55 (2006). doi: 10.1148/radiol.2411051504

P.A. Carney, D.L. Miglioretti, B.C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C.M. Rutter, B.M. Geller, L.A. Abraham, S.H. Taplin, M. Dignan, and G. Cutter, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography”, Ann. Intern. Med.  138, 168 (2003).

Achilefu, S.

W.J. Akers, M.Y. Berezin, and H. Lee, and S. Achilefu, , “Predicting in vivo fluorescence lifetime behavior of near-infrared fluorescent contrast agents using in vitro measurements”, J. Biomed. Opt.  13, 054042 (2008). doi: 10.1117/1.2982535

Akers, W.J.

W.J. Akers, M.Y. Berezin, and H. Lee, and S. Achilefu, , “Predicting in vivo fluorescence lifetime behavior of near-infrared fluorescent contrast agents using in vitro measurements”, J. Biomed. Opt.  13, 054042 (2008). doi: 10.1117/1.2982535

Alford, R.

R. Alford, H.M. Simpson, J. Duberman, G.C. Hill, M. Ogawa, C. Regino, and H. Kobayashi, and P.L. Choyke, , “Toxicity of organic fluorophores used in molecular imaging: Literature review”, Mol. Imaging  8, 341 (2009). doi: 10.2310/7290.2009.00031

Alkadhi, H.

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S.S. Kollias, and Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, , “Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution”, NeuroImage  20, 828 (2003). doi: 10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00315-X

Arpaia, F.

P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, F. Arpaia, and G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, , “Time-resolved optical mammography between 637 and 985 nm: Clinical study on the detection and identification of breast lesions”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2469 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/003

Arridge, S.A.

R. Choe, S.D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D.R. Busch, S. Pathak, B.J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D.L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S.A. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J.P. Culver, M.D. Schnall, M.E. Putt, and M.A. Rosen, and A.G. Yodh, , “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 024020 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3103325

Arridge, S.R.

A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, M.A. Rosen, M. Schweiger, S.R. Arridge, and M.D. Schnall, and A.G. Yodh, , “Three-dimensional in vivo fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer in humans”, Opt. Expr.  15, 6696 (2007). doi: 10.1364/OE.15.006696

A.P. Gibson and J.C. Hebden, and S.R. Arridge, , “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, R1 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/4/R01

Ashina, M.

H.W. Schytz, T. Wienecke, L.T. Jensen, J. Selb, and D.A. Boas, and M. Ashina, , “Changes in cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide: An experimental study comparing near-infrared spectroscopy and SPECT”, Eur. J. Neurol.  16, 461 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2008.02398.x

Backhaus, M.

M. Backhaus, , “Ultrasound and structural changes in inflammatory arthritis: Synovitis and tenosynovitis”, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.  1154, 139 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04388.x

A.K. Scheel, M. Backhaus, A.D. Klose, B. Moa-Anderson, U.J. Netz, K.G. Hermann, J. Beuthan, G.A. Müller, and G.R. Burmester, and A.H. Hielscher, , “First clinical evaluation of sagittal laser optical tomography for detection of synovitis in arthritic finger joints”, Ann. Rheum. Dis.  64, 239 (2005). doi: 10.1136/ard.2004.024224

M. Backhaus, T. Kamradt, D. Sandrock, D. Loreck, J. Fritz, K.J. Wolf, J.H. Raber, B. Hamm, and G.-R. Burmester, and M. Bollow, , “Arthritis of the finger joints: A comprehensive approach comparing conventional radiography, scintigraphy, ultrasound, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging”, Arthritis Rheum.  42, 1232 (1999). doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(199906)42:6<1232::AID-ANR21>3.0.CO;2-3

Bahner, M.

A. Poellinger, T. Persigehl, M. Mahler, M. Bahner, S.L. Ponder, F. Diekmann, and C. Bremer, and T. Moesta, , “Near-infrared imaging of the breast using omocianine as a fluorescent dye: Results of a placebo-controlled, clinical, multicenter trial”, Invest. Radiol.  46, 697 (2011). doi: 10.1097/RLI.0b013e318229ff25

C. Perlitz, K. Licha, F.D. Scholle, B. Ebert, M. Bahner, P. Hauff, and K.T. Moesta, and M. Schirner, , “Comparison of two tricarbocyanine-based dyes for fluorescence optical imaging”, J. Fluoresc.  15, 443 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s10895-005-2636-x

Bahner, M.L.

T. Dziekan, C. Weissbach, J. Voigt, B. Ebert, R. Macdonald, M.L. Bahner, M. Mahler, M. Schirner, M. Berliner, B. Berliner, and J. Osel, and I. Osel, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis by evaluation of normalized variances of fluorescence time correlation functions”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 076015 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3599958

Bakker, L.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. Van Der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van Der Mark, M. van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, and P. Luijten, and W. Mali, , “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: First clinical experience in patients”, Mol. Imaging Biol.  12, 343 (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11307-009-0269-1

Ballard-Barbash, R.

R.D. Rosenberg, B.C. Yankaskas, L.A. Abraham, E.A. Sickles, C.D. Lehman, B.M. Geller, P.A. Carney, K. Kerlikowske, D.S.M. Buist, D.L. Weaver, and W.E. Barlow, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Performance benchmarks for screening mammography”, Radiology  241, 55 (2006). doi: 10.1148/radiol.2411051504

P.A. Carney, D.L. Miglioretti, B.C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C.M. Rutter, B.M. Geller, L.A. Abraham, S.H. Taplin, M. Dignan, and G. Cutter, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography”, Ann. Intern. Med.  138, 168 (2003).

Barlow, W.E.

R.D. Rosenberg, B.C. Yankaskas, L.A. Abraham, E.A. Sickles, C.D. Lehman, B.M. Geller, P.A. Carney, K. Kerlikowske, D.S.M. Buist, D.L. Weaver, and W.E. Barlow, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Performance benchmarks for screening mammography”, Radiology  241, 55 (2006). doi: 10.1148/radiol.2411051504

Barr, J.W.

E.C. Bradley, and J.W. Barr, , “Determination of blood volume using indocyanine green (cardio-green) dye”, Life Sci.  7, 1001 (1968). doi: 10.1016/0024-3205(68)90108-2

Bass, L.

P. Ott, S. Keiding, and A.H. Johnsen, and L. Bass, , “Hepatic removal of two fractions of indocyanine green after bolus injection in anesthetized pigs”, Am. J. Physiol.  266, 1108 (1994).

Becker, A.

K. Licha, B. Riefke, V. Ntziachristos, A. Becker, and B. Chance, and W. Semmler, , “Hydrophilic cyanine dyes as contrast agents for near-infrared tumor imaging: Synthesis, photophysical properties and spectroscopic in vivo characterization”, Photochem. Photobiol.  72, 392 (2000). doi: 10.1562/0031-8655(2000)072<0392:HCDACA>2.0.CO;2

Benson, R.C.

R.C. Benson, and H.A. Kues, , “Fluorescence properties of indocyanine green as related to angiography”, Phys. Med. Biol.  23, 159 (1978). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/23/1/017

Berezin, M.Y.

W.J. Akers, M.Y. Berezin, and H. Lee, and S. Achilefu, , “Predicting in vivo fluorescence lifetime behavior of near-infrared fluorescent contrast agents using in vitro measurements”, J. Biomed. Opt.  13, 054042 (2008). doi: 10.1117/1.2982535

Berger, J.

B. Ebert, J. Berger, J. Voigt, R. Macdonald, T. Fischer, K.-G. Hermann, and K. Licha, and M. Schirner, , “Early detection of rheumatoid arthritis in humans by fluorescence imaging”, in Biomedical Optics  (CD-ROM). The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA, BTuF19 (2008).

Berliner, B.

T. Dziekan, C. Weissbach, J. Voigt, B. Ebert, R. Macdonald, M.L. Bahner, M. Mahler, M. Schirner, M. Berliner, B. Berliner, and J. Osel, and I. Osel, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis by evaluation of normalized variances of fluorescence time correlation functions”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 076015 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3599958

Berliner, M.

T. Dziekan, C. Weissbach, J. Voigt, B. Ebert, R. Macdonald, M.L. Bahner, M. Mahler, M. Schirner, M. Berliner, B. Berliner, and J. Osel, and I. Osel, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis by evaluation of normalized variances of fluorescence time correlation functions”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 076015 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3599958

Bernatsky, S.

J.M. Canvin, S. Bernatsky, C.A. Hitchon, M. Jackson, M.G. Sowa, J.R. Mansfield, H.H. Eysel, and H.H. Mantsch, and H.S. El-Gabalawy, , “Infrared spectroscopy: Shedding light on synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis”, Rheumatology (Oxford)  42, 76 (2003). doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keg034

Bernitt, K.

S. Merkesdal, J. Ruof, O. Schoffski, K. Bernitt, and H. Zeidler, and W. Mau, , “Indirect medical costs in early rheumatoid arthritis: Composition of and changes in indirect costs within the first three years of disease”, Arthritis Rheum.  44, 528 (2001). doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(200103)44:3<528::AID-ANR100>3.0.CO:2-U

Betz, T.

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, and U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, , “Towards noninvasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain”, Neurodegener. Dis.  5, 296 (2008). doi: 10.1159/000135614

Beuthan, J.

A.K. Scheel, M. Backhaus, A.D. Klose, B. Moa-Anderson, U.J. Netz, K.G. Hermann, J. Beuthan, G.A. Müller, and G.R. Burmester, and A.H. Hielscher, , “First clinical evaluation of sagittal laser optical tomography for detection of synovitis in arthritic finger joints”, Ann. Rheum. Dis.  64, 239 (2005). doi: 10.1136/ard.2004.024224

Bhalla, A.

D. Hargroves, R. Tallis, and V. Pomeroy, and A. Bhalla, , “The influence of positioning upon cerebral oxygenation after acute stroke: A pilot study,”Age Ageing  37, 581 (2008). doi: 10.1093/ageing/afn143

Blasi, A.

S. Lloyd-Fox and A. Blasi, and C.E. Elwell, “Illuminating the developing brain: The past, present and future of functional near infrared spectroscopy”, Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev.  34, 269 (2010).

Boas, D.A.

H.W. Schytz, T. Wienecke, L.T. Jensen, J. Selb, and D.A. Boas, and M. Ashina, , “Changes in cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide: An experimental study comparing near-infrared spectroscopy and SPECT”, Eur. J. Neurol.  16, 461 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2008.02398.x

Bollow, M.

M. Backhaus, T. Kamradt, D. Sandrock, D. Loreck, J. Fritz, K.J. Wolf, J.H. Raber, B. Hamm, and G.-R. Burmester, and M. Bollow, , “Arthritis of the finger joints: A comprehensive approach comparing conventional radiography, scintigraphy, ultrasound, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging”, Arthritis Rheum.  42, 1232 (1999). doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(199906)42:6<1232::AID-ANR21>3.0.CO;2-3

Boné, B.

B. Boné, M.K. Wiberg, B.K. Szabó, and A. Szakos, and R. Danielsson, , “Comparison of 99mTc-sestamibi scintimam-mography and dynamic MR imaging as adjuncts to mammography in the diagnosis of breast cancer”, Acta Radiol.  44, 28 (2003). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0455.2003.00012.x

Bourayou, R.

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, and U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, , “Towards noninvasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain”, Neurodegener. Dis.  5, 296 (2008). doi: 10.1159/000135614

Bradley, E.C.

E.C. Bradley, and J.W. Barr, , “Determination of blood volume using indocyanine green (cardio-green) dye”, Life Sci.  7, 1001 (1968). doi: 10.1016/0024-3205(68)90108-2

Bramer, S.

C. Terborg, S. Bramer, S. Harscher, and M. Simon, and O.W. Witte, , “Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion reductions in patients with acute ischaemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green”, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry  75, 38 (2004).

Brasch, R.C.

H.E. Daldrup-Link, and R.C. Brasch, , “Macromolecular contrast agents for MR mammography: Current status”, Eur. Radiol.  13, 354 (2003). doi: 10.1007/s00330-002-1719-1

Bremer, C.

A. Poellinger, T. Persigehl, M. Mahler, M. Bahner, S.L. Ponder, F. Diekmann, and C. Bremer, and T. Moesta, , “Near-infrared imaging of the breast using omocianine as a fluorescent dye: Results of a placebo-controlled, clinical, multicenter trial”, Invest. Radiol.  46, 697 (2011). doi: 10.1097/RLI.0b013e318229ff25

C. Bremer and S. Werner, and H.-E. Langer, , “Assessing activity of rheumatic arthritis with fluorescence optical imaging”, Eur. Musculoskelet. Rev.  4, 96 (2009).

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S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. Van Der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van Der Mark, M. van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, and P. Luijten, and W. Mali, , “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: First clinical experience in patients”, Mol. Imaging Biol.  12, 343 (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11307-009-0269-1

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P.S. Tofts, G. Brix, D.L. Buckley, J.L. Evelhoch, E. Henderson, M.V. Knopp, H.B.W. Larsson, T.-Y. Lee, N.A. Mayr, G.J.M. Parker, R.E. Port, and J. Taylor, and R.M. Weisskoff, , “Estimating kinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI of a diffusible tracer: Standardized quantities and symbols”, J. Magn. Reson. Imaging  10, 223 (1999). doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1522-2586(199909)10:3<223::AID-JMRI2>3.0.C0:2-S

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I.J. Fox, L.G.S. Brooker, and D.W. Heseltime, and E.H. Wood, , “A new dye for continuous recording of dilution curves in whole blood independent of variations in blood oxygen saturation”, Circulation  14, 937 (1956).

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P.S. Tofts, G. Brix, D.L. Buckley, J.L. Evelhoch, E. Henderson, M.V. Knopp, H.B.W. Larsson, T.-Y. Lee, N.A. Mayr, G.J.M. Parker, R.E. Port, and J. Taylor, and R.M. Weisskoff, , “Estimating kinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI of a diffusible tracer: Standardized quantities and symbols”, J. Magn. Reson. Imaging  10, 223 (1999). doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1522-2586(199909)10:3<223::AID-JMRI2>3.0.C0:2-S

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R.D. Rosenberg, B.C. Yankaskas, L.A. Abraham, E.A. Sickles, C.D. Lehman, B.M. Geller, P.A. Carney, K. Kerlikowske, D.S.M. Buist, D.L. Weaver, and W.E. Barlow, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Performance benchmarks for screening mammography”, Radiology  241, 55 (2006). doi: 10.1148/radiol.2411051504

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A.K. Scheel, M. Backhaus, A.D. Klose, B. Moa-Anderson, U.J. Netz, K.G. Hermann, J. Beuthan, G.A. Müller, and G.R. Burmester, and A.H. Hielscher, , “First clinical evaluation of sagittal laser optical tomography for detection of synovitis in arthritic finger joints”, Ann. Rheum. Dis.  64, 239 (2005). doi: 10.1136/ard.2004.024224

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M. Backhaus, T. Kamradt, D. Sandrock, D. Loreck, J. Fritz, K.J. Wolf, J.H. Raber, B. Hamm, and G.-R. Burmester, and M. Bollow, , “Arthritis of the finger joints: A comprehensive approach comparing conventional radiography, scintigraphy, ultrasound, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging”, Arthritis Rheum.  42, 1232 (1999). doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(199906)42:6<1232::AID-ANR21>3.0.CO;2-3

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D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, O. Steinkellner, A. Poellinger, S. Burock, P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, and R. Macdonald, , “A multichannel time-domain scanning fluorescence mammograph: Performance assessment and first in vivo results”, Rev. Sci. Instrum.  82, 024302 (2011). doi: 10.1063/1.3543820

A. Poellinger, S. Burock, D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, L. Lüdemann, F. Diekmann, F. Engelken, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, and P.M. Schlag, , “Breast cancer: Early- and late-fluorescence near-infrared imaging with indocyanine green—A preliminary study”, Radiology  258, 409 (2011). doi: 10.1148/radiol.10100258

A. Hagen, D. Grosenick, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, S. Burock, P. Warnick, and A. Poellinger, and P.M. Schlag, , “Late-fluorescence mammography assesses tumor capillary permeability and differentiates malignant from benign lesions”, Opt. Expr.  17, 17016 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.017016

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R. Choe, S.D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D.R. Busch, S. Pathak, B.J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D.L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S.A. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J.P. Culver, M.D. Schnall, M.E. Putt, and M.A. Rosen, and A.G. Yodh, , “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 024020 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3103325

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J.A. Chalela, C.S. Kidwell, L.M. Nentwich, M. Luby, J.A. Butman, A.M. Demchuk, M.D. Hill, N. Patronas, and L. Latour, and S. Warach, , “Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in emergency assessment of patients with suspected acute stroke: A prospective comparison”, Lancet  369, 293 (2007). doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60151-2

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J.M. Canvin, S. Bernatsky, C.A. Hitchon, M. Jackson, M.G. Sowa, J.R. Mansfield, H.H. Eysel, and H.H. Mantsch, and H.S. El-Gabalawy, , “Infrared spectroscopy: Shedding light on synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis”, Rheumatology (Oxford)  42, 76 (2003). doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keg034

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R.D. Rosenberg, B.C. Yankaskas, L.A. Abraham, E.A. Sickles, C.D. Lehman, B.M. Geller, P.A. Carney, K. Kerlikowske, D.S.M. Buist, D.L. Weaver, and W.E. Barlow, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Performance benchmarks for screening mammography”, Radiology  241, 55 (2006). doi: 10.1148/radiol.2411051504

P.A. Carney, D.L. Miglioretti, B.C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C.M. Rutter, B.M. Geller, L.A. Abraham, S.H. Taplin, M. Dignan, and G. Cutter, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography”, Ann. Intern. Med.  138, 168 (2003).

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S. Kukreti, A.E. Cerussi, W. Tanamai, D. Hsiang, and B.J. Tromberg, and E. Gratton, , “Characterization of metabolic differences between benign and malignant tumors: High-spectral-resolution diffuse optical spectroscopy”, Radiology  254, 277 (2010). doi: 10.1148/radiol.09082134

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J.A. Chalela, C.S. Kidwell, L.M. Nentwich, M. Luby, J.A. Butman, A.M. Demchuk, M.D. Hill, N. Patronas, and L. Latour, and S. Warach, , “Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in emergency assessment of patients with suspected acute stroke: A prospective comparison”, Lancet  369, 293 (2007). doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60151-2

Chance, B.

R. Choe, S.D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D.R. Busch, S. Pathak, B.J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D.L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S.A. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J.P. Culver, M.D. Schnall, M.E. Putt, and M.A. Rosen, and A.G. Yodh, , “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 024020 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3103325

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, and A.G. Yodh, and B. Chance, , “In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with indocyanine green”, Med. Phys.  30, 1039 (2003). doi: 10.1118/1.1573791

K. Licha, B. Riefke, V. Ntziachristos, A. Becker, and B. Chance, and W. Semmler, , “Hydrophilic cyanine dyes as contrast agents for near-infrared tumor imaging: Synthesis, photophysical properties and spectroscopic in vivo characterization”, Photochem. Photobiol.  72, 392 (2000). doi: 10.1562/0031-8655(2000)072<0392:HCDACA>2.0.CO;2

V. Ntziachristos, A.G. Yodh, and M. Schnall, and B. Chance, , “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA  97, 2767 (2000). doi: 10.1073/pnas.040570597

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Chen, Y.

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, and A.G. Yodh, and B. Chance, , “In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with indocyanine green”, Med. Phys.  30, 1039 (2003). doi: 10.1118/1.1573791

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M.R. Dreher, W. Liu, C.R. Michelich, M.W. Dewhirst, and F. Yuan, and A. Chilkoti, , “Tumor vascular permeability, accumulation, and penetration of macromolecular drug carriers”, J. Natl. Cancer Inst.  98, 335 (2006). doi: 10.1093/jnci/djj070

M.R. Dreher, W. Liu, C.R. Michelich, M.W. Dewhirst, and F. Yuan, and A. Chilkoti, , “Tumor vascular permeability, accumulation and penetration of macromolecular drug carriers”, J. Natl. Cancer Inst.  98, 335 (2006). doi: 10.1093/jnci/djj070

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T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B.L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M.N. Kim, B.L. Cucchiara, M.E. Putt, Q. Shah, S.E. Kasner, J.H. Greenberg, and A.G. Yodh, and J.A. Detre, , “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients”, Opt. Expr.  17, 3884 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.003884

R. Choe, S.D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D.R. Busch, S. Pathak, B.J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D.L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S.A. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J.P. Culver, M.D. Schnall, M.E. Putt, and M.A. Rosen, and A.G. Yodh, , “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 024020 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3103325

A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, M.A. Rosen, M. Schweiger, S.R. Arridge, and M.D. Schnall, and A.G. Yodh, , “Three-dimensional in vivo fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer in humans”, Opt. Expr.  15, 6696 (2007). doi: 10.1364/OE.15.006696

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I.G. Roberts, P. Fallon, F.J. Kirkham, P.M. Kirshbom, C.E. Cooper, and M.J. Elliott, and A.D. Edwards, , “Measurement of cerebral blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass with near-infrared spectroscopy,”J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  115, 94 (1998). doi: 10.1016/S0022-5223(98)70447-7

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F. Gora, S. Shinde, C.E. Elwell, J.C. Goldstone, M. Cope, and D.T. Delpy, and M. Smith, , “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow in adults using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green: A pilot study”, J. Neurosurg. Anesthesiol.  14, 218 (2002). doi: 10.1097/00008506-200207000-00008

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R. Choe, S.D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D.R. Busch, S. Pathak, B.J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D.L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S.A. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J.P. Culver, M.D. Schnall, M.E. Putt, and M.A. Rosen, and A.G. Yodh, , “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 024020 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3103325

A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, M.A. Rosen, M. Schweiger, S.R. Arridge, and M.D. Schnall, and A.G. Yodh, , “Three-dimensional in vivo fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer in humans”, Opt. Expr.  15, 6696 (2007). doi: 10.1364/OE.15.006696

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G. Settakis, C. Molnar, L. Kerenyi, J. Kollar, D. Legemate, and L. Csiba, and B. Fülesdi, , “Acetazolamide as a vasodilatory stimulus in cerebrovascular diseases and in conditions affecting the cerebral vasculature”, Eur. J. Neurol.  10, 609 (2003). doi: 10.1046/j.1468-1331.2003.00675.x

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P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, F. Arpaia, and G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, , “Time-resolved optical mammography between 637 and 985 nm: Clinical study on the detection and identification of breast lesions”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2469 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/003

Cucchiara, B.L.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B.L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M.N. Kim, B.L. Cucchiara, M.E. Putt, Q. Shah, S.E. Kasner, J.H. Greenberg, and A.G. Yodh, and J.A. Detre, , “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients”, Opt. Expr.  17, 3884 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.003884

Culver, J.P.

R. Choe, S.D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D.R. Busch, S. Pathak, B.J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D.L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S.A. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J.P. Culver, M.D. Schnall, M.E. Putt, and M.A. Rosen, and A.G. Yodh, , “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 024020 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3103325

Cutter, G.

P.A. Carney, D.L. Miglioretti, B.C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C.M. Rutter, B.M. Geller, L.A. Abraham, S.H. Taplin, M. Dignan, and G. Cutter, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography”, Ann. Intern. Med.  138, 168 (2003).

Czerniecki, B.J.

R. Choe, S.D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D.R. Busch, S. Pathak, B.J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D.L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S.A. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J.P. Culver, M.D. Schnall, M.E. Putt, and M.A. Rosen, and A.G. Yodh, , “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 024020 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3103325

Daldrup-Link, H.E.

H.E. Daldrup-Link, and R.C. Brasch, , “Macromolecular contrast agents for MR mammography: Current status”, Eur. Radiol.  13, 354 (2003). doi: 10.1007/s00330-002-1719-1

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M.S. Damian, and R. Schlosser, , “Bilateral near infrared spectroscopy in space-occupying middle cerebral artery stroke,”Neurocritical Care  6, 165 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s12028-007-0010-3

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P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, F. Arpaia, and G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, , “Time-resolved optical mammography between 637 and 985 nm: Clinical study on the detection and identification of breast lesions”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2469 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/003

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B. Boné, M.K. Wiberg, B.K. Szabó, and A. Szakos, and R. Danielsson, , “Comparison of 99mTc-sestamibi scintimam-mography and dynamic MR imaging as adjuncts to mammography in the diagnosis of breast cancer”, Acta Radiol.  44, 28 (2003). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0455.2003.00012.x

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G.R. Cherrick, S.W. Stem, and C.M. Leevy, and C.S. Davidson, , “Indocyanine green: Observations on its physical properties, plasma decay and hepatic extraction”, J. Clin. Invest.  39, 592 (1960). doi: 10.1172/JCI104072

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T. De Zordo, S.P. Mlekusch, G.M. Feuchtner, E. Mur, and M. Schirmer, and A.S. Klauser, , “Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rheumatoid arthritis”, Eur. J. Radiol.  64, 222 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2007.07.011

Delpy, D.T.

F. Gora, S. Shinde, C.E. Elwell, J.C. Goldstone, M. Cope, and D.T. Delpy, and M. Smith, , “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow in adults using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green: A pilot study”, J. Neurosurg. Anesthesiol.  14, 218 (2002). doi: 10.1097/00008506-200207000-00008

I. Tachtsidis, T.S. Leung, M. Tisdall, D.T. Delpy, and M. Smith, and C.E. Elwell, , “Cerebral blood flow assessment with indocyanine green bolus transit detection by near-infrared spectroscopy before and after acetazolamide provocation in humans”, in Biomedical Optics 2006 Technical Digest. Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA, ME67 (2006).

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J.A. Chalela, C.S. Kidwell, L.M. Nentwich, M. Luby, J.A. Butman, A.M. Demchuk, M.D. Hill, N. Patronas, and L. Latour, and S. Warach, , “Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in emergency assessment of patients with suspected acute stroke: A prospective comparison”, Lancet  369, 293 (2007). doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60151-2

Demichele, A.

R. Choe, S.D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D.R. Busch, S. Pathak, B.J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D.L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S.A. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J.P. Culver, M.D. Schnall, M.E. Putt, and M.A. Rosen, and A.G. Yodh, , “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 024020 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3103325

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T. Desmettre and J.M. Devoisselle, and S. Mordon, , “Fluorescence properties and metabolic features of indocyanine green (ICG) as related to angiography”, Surv. Ophthalmol.  45, 15 (2000). doi: 10.1016/S0039-6257(00)00123-5

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T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B.L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M.N. Kim, B.L. Cucchiara, M.E. Putt, Q. Shah, S.E. Kasner, J.H. Greenberg, and A.G. Yodh, and J.A. Detre, , “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients”, Opt. Expr.  17, 3884 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.003884

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T. Desmettre and J.M. Devoisselle, and S. Mordon, , “Fluorescence properties and metabolic features of indocyanine green (ICG) as related to angiography”, Surv. Ophthalmol.  45, 15 (2000). doi: 10.1016/S0039-6257(00)00123-5

S. Mordon, J.M. Devoisselle, and S. Soulie-Begu, and T. Desmettre, , “Indocyanine green: Physicochemical factors affecting its fluorescence in vivo”, Microvasc. Res.  55, 146 (1998). doi: 10.1006/mvre.1998.2068

Dewhirst, M.W.

M.R. Dreher, W. Liu, C.R. Michelich, M.W. Dewhirst, and F. Yuan, and A. Chilkoti, , “Tumor vascular permeability, accumulation, and penetration of macromolecular drug carriers”, J. Natl. Cancer Inst.  98, 335 (2006). doi: 10.1093/jnci/djj070

M.R. Dreher, W. Liu, C.R. Michelich, M.W. Dewhirst, and F. Yuan, and A. Chilkoti, , “Tumor vascular permeability, accumulation and penetration of macromolecular drug carriers”, J. Natl. Cancer Inst.  98, 335 (2006). doi: 10.1093/jnci/djj070

Diekmann, F.

A. Poellinger, S. Burock, D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, L. Lüdemann, F. Diekmann, F. Engelken, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, and P.M. Schlag, , “Breast cancer: Early- and late-fluorescence near-infrared imaging with indocyanine green—A preliminary study”, Radiology  258, 409 (2011). doi: 10.1148/radiol.10100258

A. Poellinger, T. Persigehl, M. Mahler, M. Bahner, S.L. Ponder, F. Diekmann, and C. Bremer, and T. Moesta, , “Near-infrared imaging of the breast using omocianine as a fluorescent dye: Results of a placebo-controlled, clinical, multicenter trial”, Invest. Radiol.  46, 697 (2011). doi: 10.1097/RLI.0b013e318229ff25

Dignan, M.

P.A. Carney, D.L. Miglioretti, B.C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C.M. Rutter, B.M. Geller, L.A. Abraham, S.H. Taplin, M. Dignan, and G. Cutter, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography”, Ann. Intern. Med.  138, 168 (2003).

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M. Diop, K. Verdecchia, and T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, , “Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a time-resolved near-infrared technique to yield absolute cerebral blood flow measurements”, Biomed. Opt. Expr.  2, 2068 (2011). doi: 10.1364/BOE.2.002068

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J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, and U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, , “Towards noninvasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain”, Neurodegener. Dis.  5, 296 (2008). doi: 10.1159/000135614

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M. Østergaard and S.J. Pedersen, and U.M. Døhn, , “Imaging in rheumatoid arthrtitis: Status and recent advances for magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, computed tomography and conventional radiography”, Best Pract. Res. Clin. Rheumatol.  22, 1019 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2008.09.014

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M.R. Dreher, W. Liu, C.R. Michelich, M.W. Dewhirst, and F. Yuan, and A. Chilkoti, , “Tumor vascular permeability, accumulation and penetration of macromolecular drug carriers”, J. Natl. Cancer Inst.  98, 335 (2006). doi: 10.1093/jnci/djj070

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R. Alford, H.M. Simpson, J. Duberman, G.C. Hill, M. Ogawa, C. Regino, and H. Kobayashi, and P.L. Choyke, , “Toxicity of organic fluorophores used in molecular imaging: Literature review”, Mol. Imaging  8, 341 (2009). doi: 10.2310/7290.2009.00031

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T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B.L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M.N. Kim, B.L. Cucchiara, M.E. Putt, Q. Shah, S.E. Kasner, J.H. Greenberg, and A.G. Yodh, and J.A. Detre, , “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients”, Opt. Expr.  17, 3884 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.003884

R. Choe, S.D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D.R. Busch, S. Pathak, B.J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D.L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S.A. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J.P. Culver, M.D. Schnall, M.E. Putt, and M.A. Rosen, and A.G. Yodh, , “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 024020 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3103325

A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, M.A. Rosen, M. Schweiger, S.R. Arridge, and M.D. Schnall, and A.G. Yodh, , “Three-dimensional in vivo fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer in humans”, Opt. Expr.  15, 6696 (2007). doi: 10.1364/OE.15.006696

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T. Dziekan, C. Weissbach, J. Voigt, B. Ebert, R. Macdonald, M.L. Bahner, M. Mahler, M. Schirner, M. Berliner, B. Berliner, and J. Osel, and I. Osel, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis by evaluation of normalized variances of fluorescence time correlation functions”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 076015 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3599958

T. Fischer, B. Ebert, J. Voigt, R. Macdonald, U. Schneider, A. Thomas, and B. Hamm, , and K.-G.A. Hermann, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis using non-specific contrast enhanced fluorescence imaging”, Acad. Radiol.  17, 375 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2009.09.016

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. von Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.G.A. Herrmann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. Macdonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, and T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, , “Assessment of unspecific near-infrared dyes in laser-induced fluorescence imaging of experimental arthritis”, Acad. Radiol.  13, 4 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2005.07.010

A. Thomas, S. Kümmel, F. Fritzsche, M. Warm, B. Ebert, and B. Hamm, and T. Fischer, , “Real-time sonoelastography performed in addition to B-mode ultrasound and mammography: Improved differentiation of breast lesions?”, Acad. Radiol.  13, 1496 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2006.08.012

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T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B.L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M.N. Kim, B.L. Cucchiara, M.E. Putt, Q. Shah, S.E. Kasner, J.H. Greenberg, and A.G. Yodh, and J.A. Detre, , “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients”, Opt. Expr.  17, 3884 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.003884

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I.G. Roberts, P. Fallon, F.J. Kirkham, P.M. Kirshbom, C.E. Cooper, and M.J. Elliott, and A.D. Edwards, , “Measurement of cerebral blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass with near-infrared spectroscopy,”J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  115, 94 (1998). doi: 10.1016/S0022-5223(98)70447-7

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J.M. Canvin, S. Bernatsky, C.A. Hitchon, M. Jackson, M.G. Sowa, J.R. Mansfield, H.H. Eysel, and H.H. Mantsch, and H.S. El-Gabalawy, , “Infrared spectroscopy: Shedding light on synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis”, Rheumatology (Oxford)  42, 76 (2003). doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keg034

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I.G. Roberts, P. Fallon, F.J. Kirkham, P.M. Kirshbom, C.E. Cooper, and M.J. Elliott, and A.D. Edwards, , “Measurement of cerebral blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass with near-infrared spectroscopy,”J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  115, 94 (1998). doi: 10.1016/S0022-5223(98)70447-7

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S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. Van Der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van Der Mark, M. van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, and P. Luijten, and W. Mali, , “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: First clinical experience in patients”, Mol. Imaging Biol.  12, 343 (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11307-009-0269-1

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T. Fischer, B. Ebert, J. Voigt, R. Macdonald, U. Schneider, A. Thomas, and B. Hamm, , and K.-G.A. Hermann, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis using non-specific contrast enhanced fluorescence imaging”, Acad. Radiol.  17, 375 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2009.09.016

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. von Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.G.A. Herrmann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. Macdonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, and T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, , “Assessment of unspecific near-infrared dyes in laser-induced fluorescence imaging of experimental arthritis”, Acad. Radiol.  13, 4 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2005.07.010

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B. Ebert, J. Berger, J. Voigt, R. Macdonald, T. Fischer, K.-G. Hermann, and K. Licha, and M. Schirner, , “Early detection of rheumatoid arthritis in humans by fluorescence imaging”, in Biomedical Optics  (CD-ROM). The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA, BTuF19 (2008).

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D. Floery, T.H. Helbich, C.C. Riedl, S. Jaromi, M. Weber, and S. Leodolter, and M.H. Fuchsjaeger, , “Characterization of benign and malignant breast lesions with computed tomography laser mammography (CTLM): Initial experience”, Invest. Radiol.  40, 328 (2005). doi: 10.1097/01.rli.0000164487.60548.28

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G. Settakis, C. Molnar, L. Kerenyi, J. Kollar, D. Legemate, and L. Csiba, and B. Fülesdi, , “Acetazolamide as a vasodilatory stimulus in cerebrovascular diseases and in conditions affecting the cerebral vasculature”, Eur. J. Neurol.  10, 609 (2003). doi: 10.1046/j.1468-1331.2003.00675.x

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A. Wunder, R.H. Straub, S. Gay, and J. Funk, and U. Muller-Ladner, , “Molecular imaging: Novel tools in visualizing rheumatoid arthritis”, Rheumatology (Oxford)  44, 1341 (2005). doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keh709

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D. Grosenick, K. Th. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, Ch. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2429 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/001

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, J. Mucke, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, and B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, , “Scanning time-domain optical mammography: Detection and characterization of breast tumours in vivo”, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.  4, 483 (2005).

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J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and C.D. Geddes, and J.R. Lakowicz, , “Metal-enhanced emission from indocyanine green: A new approach to in vivo imaging”, J. Biomed. Opt.  8, 472 (2003). doi: 10.1117/1.1578643

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R.D. Rosenberg, B.C. Yankaskas, L.A. Abraham, E.A. Sickles, C.D. Lehman, B.M. Geller, P.A. Carney, K. Kerlikowske, D.S.M. Buist, D.L. Weaver, and W.E. Barlow, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Performance benchmarks for screening mammography”, Radiology  241, 55 (2006). doi: 10.1148/radiol.2411051504

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T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. von Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.G.A. Herrmann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. Macdonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, and T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, , “Assessment of unspecific near-infrared dyes in laser-induced fluorescence imaging of experimental arthritis”, Acad. Radiol.  13, 4 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2005.07.010

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F. Gora, S. Shinde, C.E. Elwell, J.C. Goldstone, M. Cope, and D.T. Delpy, and M. Smith, , “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow in adults using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green: A pilot study”, J. Neurosurg. Anesthesiol.  14, 218 (2002). doi: 10.1097/00008506-200207000-00008

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S. Kukreti, A.E. Cerussi, W. Tanamai, D. Hsiang, and B.J. Tromberg, and E. Gratton, , “Characterization of metabolic differences between benign and malignant tumors: High-spectral-resolution diffuse optical spectroscopy”, Radiology  254, 277 (2010). doi: 10.1148/radiol.09082134

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T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B.L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M.N. Kim, B.L. Cucchiara, M.E. Putt, Q. Shah, S.E. Kasner, J.H. Greenberg, and A.G. Yodh, and J.A. Detre, , “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients”, Opt. Expr.  17, 3884 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.003884

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C. Terborg, K. Gröschel, A. Petrovitch, T. Ringer, S. Schnaudigel, and O.W. Witte, and A. Kastrup, , “Noninvasive assessment of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in acute ischemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy”, Eur. Neurol.  62, 338 (2009). doi: 10.1159/000239794

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D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, O. Steinkellner, A. Poellinger, S. Burock, P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, and R. Macdonald, , “A multichannel time-domain scanning fluorescence mammograph: Performance assessment and first in vivo results”, Rev. Sci. Instrum.  82, 024302 (2011). doi: 10.1063/1.3543820

A. Poellinger, S. Burock, D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, L. Lüdemann, F. Diekmann, F. Engelken, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, and P.M. Schlag, , “Breast cancer: Early- and late-fluorescence near-infrared imaging with indocyanine green—A preliminary study”, Radiology  258, 409 (2011). doi: 10.1148/radiol.10100258

A. Hagen, D. Grosenick, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, S. Burock, P. Warnick, and A. Poellinger, and P.M. Schlag, , “Late-fluorescence mammography assesses tumor capillary permeability and differentiates malignant from benign lesions”, Opt. Expr.  17, 17016 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.017016

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wübbeler, and R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, , “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography”, Opto-Electron. Rev.  16, 147 (2008). doi: 10.2478/s11772-008-0004-5

D. Grosenick, K. Th. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, Ch. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2429 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/001

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, J. Mucke, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, and B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, , “Scanning time-domain optical mammography: Detection and characterization of breast tumours in vivo”, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.  4, 483 (2005).

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E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S.S. Kollias, and Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, , “Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution”, NeuroImage  20, 828 (2003). doi: 10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00315-X

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J. Steinbrink, T. Fischer, H. Kuppe, R. Hetzer, K. Uludag, and H. Obrig, and W.M. Kuebler, , “Relevance of depth resolution for cerebral blood flow monitoring by near-infrared spectroscopic bolus tracking during cardiopulmonary bypass”, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  132, 1172 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2006.05.065

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S.G. Werner and H.-E. Langer, and G. Horneff, , “Fluorescence optical imaging of juvenile arthritis”, J. Rheumatol.  38, 1447 (2011). doi: 10.3899/jrheum.101351

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W.J. Akers, M.Y. Berezin, and H. Lee, and S. Achilefu, , “Predicting in vivo fluorescence lifetime behavior of near-infrared fluorescent contrast agents using in vitro measurements”, J. Biomed. Opt.  13, 054042 (2008). doi: 10.1117/1.2982535

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R. Choe, S.D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D.R. Busch, S. Pathak, B.J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D.L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S.A. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J.P. Culver, M.D. Schnall, M.E. Putt, and M.A. Rosen, and A.G. Yodh, , “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 024020 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3103325

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G. Settakis, C. Molnar, L. Kerenyi, J. Kollar, D. Legemate, and L. Csiba, and B. Fülesdi, , “Acetazolamide as a vasodilatory stimulus in cerebrovascular diseases and in conditions affecting the cerebral vasculature”, Eur. J. Neurol.  10, 609 (2003). doi: 10.1046/j.1468-1331.2003.00675.x

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R.D. Rosenberg, B.C. Yankaskas, L.A. Abraham, E.A. Sickles, C.D. Lehman, B.M. Geller, P.A. Carney, K. Kerlikowske, D.S.M. Buist, D.L. Weaver, and W.E. Barlow, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Performance benchmarks for screening mammography”, Radiology  241, 55 (2006). doi: 10.1148/radiol.2411051504

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D. Floery, T.H. Helbich, C.C. Riedl, S. Jaromi, M. Weber, and S. Leodolter, and M.H. Fuchsjaeger, , “Characterization of benign and malignant breast lesions with computed tomography laser mammography (CTLM): Initial experience”, Invest. Radiol.  40, 328 (2005). doi: 10.1097/01.rli.0000164487.60548.28

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I. Tachtsidis, T.S. Leung, M. Tisdall, D.T. Delpy, and M. Smith, and C.E. Elwell, , “Cerebral blood flow assessment with indocyanine green bolus transit detection by near-infrared spectroscopy before and after acetazolamide provocation in humans”, in Biomedical Optics 2006 Technical Digest. Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA, ME67 (2006).

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T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. von Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.G.A. Herrmann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. Macdonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, and T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, , “Assessment of unspecific near-infrared dyes in laser-induced fluorescence imaging of experimental arthritis”, Acad. Radiol.  13, 4 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2005.07.010

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B. Ebert, J. Berger, J. Voigt, R. Macdonald, T. Fischer, K.-G. Hermann, and K. Licha, and M. Schirner, , “Early detection of rheumatoid arthritis in humans by fluorescence imaging”, in Biomedical Optics  (CD-ROM). The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA, BTuF19 (2008).

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A. Gerega, N. Zolek, T. Soltysinski, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, and B. Toczylowska, and A. Liebert, , “Wavelength-resolved measurements of fluorescence lifetime of indocyanine green”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 067010 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3593386

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and N. Zolek, and R. Macdonald, , “Monte Carlo algorithm for efficient simulation of time-resolved fluorescence in layered turbid media”, Opt. Expr.  16, 13188 (2008).doi: 10.1364/OE.16.013188

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, and U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, , “Towards noninvasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain”, Neurodegener. Dis.  5, 296 (2008). doi: 10.1159/000135614

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, , “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain”, NeuroImage  31, 600 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.12.046

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, , “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,”NeuroImage  24, 426 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.08.046

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, and A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons”, Appl. Opt.  43, 3037 (2004). doi: 10.1364/AO.43.003037

Lindauer, U.

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, and U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, , “Towards noninvasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain”, Neurodegener. Dis.  5, 296 (2008). doi: 10.1159/000135614

Liu, W.

M.R. Dreher, W. Liu, C.R. Michelich, M.W. Dewhirst, and F. Yuan, and A. Chilkoti, , “Tumor vascular permeability, accumulation, and penetration of macromolecular drug carriers”, J. Natl. Cancer Inst.  98, 335 (2006). doi: 10.1093/jnci/djj070

M.R. Dreher, W. Liu, C.R. Michelich, M.W. Dewhirst, and F. Yuan, and A. Chilkoti, , “Tumor vascular permeability, accumulation and penetration of macromolecular drug carriers”, J. Natl. Cancer Inst.  98, 335 (2006). doi: 10.1093/jnci/djj070

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I. Roberts, P. Fallon, F.J. Kirkham, A. Lloyd-Thomas, C. Cooper, R. Maynard, and M. Elliot, and A.D. Edwards, , “Estimation of cerebral blood flow with near infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green”, Lancet  342, 1425 (1993). doi: 10.1016/0140-6736(93)92786-S

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M. Backhaus, T. Kamradt, D. Sandrock, D. Loreck, J. Fritz, K.J. Wolf, J.H. Raber, B. Hamm, and G.-R. Burmester, and M. Bollow, , “Arthritis of the finger joints: A comprehensive approach comparing conventional radiography, scintigraphy, ultrasound, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging”, Arthritis Rheum.  42, 1232 (1999). doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(199906)42:6<1232::AID-ANR21>3.0.CO;2-3

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B.E. Schaafsma, J.S. Mieog, M. Hutteman, J.R. van der Vorst, P.J. Kuppen, C.W. Löwik, J.V. Frangioni, and C.J. van de Velde, and A.L. Vahrmeijer, , “The clinical use of indocyanine green as a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent for image-guided oncologic surgery”, J. Surg. Oncol.  104, 323 (2011). doi: 10.1002/jso.21943

Luby, M.

J.A. Chalela, C.S. Kidwell, L.M. Nentwich, M. Luby, J.A. Butman, A.M. Demchuk, M.D. Hill, N. Patronas, and L. Latour, and S. Warach, , “Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in emergency assessment of patients with suspected acute stroke: A prospective comparison”, Lancet  369, 293 (2007). doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60151-2

Lüdemann, L.

A. Poellinger, S. Burock, D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, L. Lüdemann, F. Diekmann, F. Engelken, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, and P.M. Schlag, , “Breast cancer: Early- and late-fluorescence near-infrared imaging with indocyanine green—A preliminary study”, Radiology  258, 409 (2011). doi: 10.1148/radiol.10100258

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S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. Van Der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van Der Mark, M. van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, and P. Luijten, and W. Mali, , “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: First clinical experience in patients”, Mol. Imaging Biol.  12, 343 (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11307-009-0269-1

Macdonald, R.

A. Poellinger, S. Burock, D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, L. Lüdemann, F. Diekmann, F. Engelken, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, and P.M. Schlag, , “Breast cancer: Early- and late-fluorescence near-infrared imaging with indocyanine green—A preliminary study”, Radiology  258, 409 (2011). doi: 10.1148/radiol.10100258

D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, O. Steinkellner, A. Poellinger, S. Burock, P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, and R. Macdonald, , “A multichannel time-domain scanning fluorescence mammograph: Performance assessment and first in vivo results”, Rev. Sci. Instrum.  82, 024302 (2011). doi: 10.1063/1.3543820

T. Dziekan, C. Weissbach, J. Voigt, B. Ebert, R. Macdonald, M.L. Bahner, M. Mahler, M. Schirner, M. Berliner, B. Berliner, and J. Osel, and I. Osel, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis by evaluation of normalized variances of fluorescence time correlation functions”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 076015 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3599958

T. Fischer, B. Ebert, J. Voigt, R. Macdonald, U. Schneider, A. Thomas, and B. Hamm, , and K.-G.A. Hermann, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis using non-specific contrast enhanced fluorescence imaging”, Acad. Radiol.  17, 375 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2009.09.016

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, and J.B. Fiebach, and R. Macdonald, , “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: Technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke”, J. Biomed. Opt.  15, 061708 (2010). doi: 10.1117/1.3505009

A. Hagen, D. Grosenick, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, S. Burock, P. Warnick, and A. Poellinger, and P.M. Schlag, , “Late-fluorescence mammography assesses tumor capillary permeability and differentiates malignant from benign lesions”, Opt. Expr.  17, 17016 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.017016

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wübbeler, and R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, , “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography”, Opto-Electron. Rev.  16, 147 (2008). doi: 10.2478/s11772-008-0004-5

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, and U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, , “Towards noninvasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain”, Neurodegener. Dis.  5, 296 (2008). doi: 10.1159/000135614

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and N. Zolek, and R. Macdonald, , “Monte Carlo algorithm for efficient simulation of time-resolved fluorescence in layered turbid media”, Opt. Expr.  16, 13188 (2008).doi: 10.1364/OE.16.013188

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, , “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain”, NeuroImage  31, 600 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.12.046

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. von Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.G.A. Herrmann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. Macdonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, and T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, , “Assessment of unspecific near-infrared dyes in laser-induced fluorescence imaging of experimental arthritis”, Acad. Radiol.  13, 4 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2005.07.010

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, , “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,”NeuroImage  24, 426 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.08.046

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, and A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons”, Appl. Opt.  43, 3037 (2004). doi: 10.1364/AO.43.003037

B. Ebert, J. Berger, J. Voigt, R. Macdonald, T. Fischer, K.-G. Hermann, and K. Licha, and M. Schirner, , “Early detection of rheumatoid arthritis in humans by fluorescence imaging”, in Biomedical Optics  (CD-ROM). The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA, BTuF19 (2008).

Mahler, M.

A. Poellinger, T. Persigehl, M. Mahler, M. Bahner, S.L. Ponder, F. Diekmann, and C. Bremer, and T. Moesta, , “Near-infrared imaging of the breast using omocianine as a fluorescent dye: Results of a placebo-controlled, clinical, multicenter trial”, Invest. Radiol.  46, 697 (2011). doi: 10.1097/RLI.0b013e318229ff25

T. Dziekan, C. Weissbach, J. Voigt, B. Ebert, R. Macdonald, M.L. Bahner, M. Mahler, M. Schirner, M. Berliner, B. Berliner, and J. Osel, and I. Osel, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis by evaluation of normalized variances of fluorescence time correlation functions”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 076015 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3599958

Malak, J.

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, and K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, , “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: Separation of brain from skin and skull signals”, J. Biomed. Opt.  7, 464 (2002). doi: 10.1117/1.1482719

Mali, W.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. Van Der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van Der Mark, M. van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, and P. Luijten, and W. Mali, , “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: First clinical experience in patients”, Mol. Imaging Biol.  12, 343 (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11307-009-0269-1

Malicka, J.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and C.D. Geddes, and J.R. Lakowicz, , “Metal-enhanced emission from indocyanine green: A new approach to in vivo imaging”, J. Biomed. Opt.  8, 472 (2003). doi: 10.1117/1.1578643

Mansfield, J.R.

J.M. Canvin, S. Bernatsky, C.A. Hitchon, M. Jackson, M.G. Sowa, J.R. Mansfield, H.H. Eysel, and H.H. Mantsch, and H.S. El-Gabalawy, , “Infrared spectroscopy: Shedding light on synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis”, Rheumatology (Oxford)  42, 76 (2003). doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keg034

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J.M. Canvin, S. Bernatsky, C.A. Hitchon, M. Jackson, M.G. Sowa, J.R. Mansfield, H.H. Eysel, and H.H. Mantsch, and H.S. El-Gabalawy, , “Infrared spectroscopy: Shedding light on synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis”, Rheumatology (Oxford)  42, 76 (2003). doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keg034

Mau, W.

S. Merkesdal, J. Ruof, O. Schoffski, K. Bernitt, and H. Zeidler, and W. Mau, , “Indirect medical costs in early rheumatoid arthritis: Composition of and changes in indirect costs within the first three years of disease”, Arthritis Rheum.  44, 528 (2001). doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(200103)44:3<528::AID-ANR100>3.0.CO:2-U

Maynard, R.

I. Roberts, P. Fallon, F.J. Kirkham, A. Lloyd-Thomas, C. Cooper, R. Maynard, and M. Elliot, and A.D. Edwards, , “Estimation of cerebral blood flow with near infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green”, Lancet  342, 1425 (1993). doi: 10.1016/0140-6736(93)92786-S

Mayr, N.A.

P.S. Tofts, G. Brix, D.L. Buckley, J.L. Evelhoch, E. Henderson, M.V. Knopp, H.B.W. Larsson, T.-Y. Lee, N.A. Mayr, G.J.M. Parker, R.E. Port, and J. Taylor, and R.M. Weisskoff, , “Estimating kinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI of a diffusible tracer: Standardized quantities and symbols”, J. Magn. Reson. Imaging  10, 223 (1999). doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1522-2586(199909)10:3<223::AID-JMRI2>3.0.C0:2-S

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D.K.F. Meijer and B. Weert, and G.A. Vermeer, , “Pharmacokinetics of biliary excretion in man. VI. Indocyanine green”, Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.  35, 295 (1988). doi: 10.1007/BF00558268

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S. Merkesdal, J. Ruof, O. Schoffski, K. Bernitt, and H. Zeidler, and W. Mau, , “Indirect medical costs in early rheumatoid arthritis: Composition of and changes in indirect costs within the first three years of disease”, Arthritis Rheum.  44, 528 (2001). doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(200103)44:3<528::AID-ANR100>3.0.CO:2-U

Messmer, K.

W.M. Kuebler, A. Sckell, O. Habler, M. Kleen, G.E.H. Kuhnle, M. Welte, and K. Messmer, and A.E. Goetz, , “Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.  18, 445 (1998). doi: 10.1097/00004647-199804000-00013

Michelich, C.R.

M.R. Dreher, W. Liu, C.R. Michelich, M.W. Dewhirst, and F. Yuan, and A. Chilkoti, , “Tumor vascular permeability, accumulation and penetration of macromolecular drug carriers”, J. Natl. Cancer Inst.  98, 335 (2006). doi: 10.1093/jnci/djj070

M.R. Dreher, W. Liu, C.R. Michelich, M.W. Dewhirst, and F. Yuan, and A. Chilkoti, , “Tumor vascular permeability, accumulation, and penetration of macromolecular drug carriers”, J. Natl. Cancer Inst.  98, 335 (2006). doi: 10.1093/jnci/djj070

Mieog, J.S.

B.E. Schaafsma, J.S. Mieog, M. Hutteman, J.R. van der Vorst, P.J. Kuppen, C.W. Löwik, J.V. Frangioni, and C.J. van de Velde, and A.L. Vahrmeijer, , “The clinical use of indocyanine green as a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent for image-guided oncologic surgery”, J. Surg. Oncol.  104, 323 (2011). doi: 10.1002/jso.21943

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A.K. Scheel, M. Backhaus, A.D. Klose, B. Moa-Anderson, U.J. Netz, K.G. Hermann, J. Beuthan, G.A. Müller, and G.R. Burmester, and A.H. Hielscher, , “First clinical evaluation of sagittal laser optical tomography for detection of synovitis in arthritic finger joints”, Ann. Rheum. Dis.  64, 239 (2005). doi: 10.1136/ard.2004.024224

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A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, , “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain”, NeuroImage  31, 600 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.12.046

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, , “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,”NeuroImage  24, 426 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.08.046

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, and A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons”, Appl. Opt.  43, 3037 (2004). doi: 10.1364/AO.43.003037

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D. Grosenick, K. Th. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, Ch. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2429 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/001

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H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wübbeler, and R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, , “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography”, Opto-Electron. Rev.  16, 147 (2008). doi: 10.2478/s11772-008-0004-5

C. Perlitz, K. Licha, F.D. Scholle, B. Ebert, M. Bahner, P. Hauff, and K.T. Moesta, and M. Schirner, , “Comparison of two tricarbocyanine-based dyes for fluorescence optical imaging”, J. Fluoresc.  15, 443 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s10895-005-2636-x

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, J. Mucke, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, and B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, , “Scanning time-domain optical mammography: Detection and characterization of breast tumours in vivo”, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.  4, 483 (2005).

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A. Poellinger, T. Persigehl, M. Mahler, M. Bahner, S.L. Ponder, F. Diekmann, and C. Bremer, and T. Moesta, , “Near-infrared imaging of the breast using omocianine as a fluorescent dye: Results of a placebo-controlled, clinical, multicenter trial”, Invest. Radiol.  46, 697 (2011). doi: 10.1097/RLI.0b013e318229ff25

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D. Grosenick, K. Th. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, Ch. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2429 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/001

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, J. Mucke, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, and B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, , “Scanning time-domain optical mammography: Detection and characterization of breast tumours in vivo”, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.  4, 483 (2005).

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H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wübbeler, and R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, , “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography”, Opto-Electron. Rev.  16, 147 (2008). doi: 10.2478/s11772-008-0004-5

D. Grosenick, K. Th. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, Ch. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2429 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/001

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, J. Mucke, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, and B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, , “Scanning time-domain optical mammography: Detection and characterization of breast tumours in vivo”, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.  4, 483 (2005).

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A. Wunder, R.H. Straub, S. Gay, and J. Funk, and U. Muller-Ladner, , “Molecular imaging: Novel tools in visualizing rheumatoid arthritis”, Rheumatology (Oxford)  44, 1341 (2005). doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keh709

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T. De Zordo, S.P. Mlekusch, G.M. Feuchtner, E. Mur, and M. Schirmer, and A.S. Klauser, , “Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rheumatoid arthritis”, Eur. J. Radiol.  64, 222 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2007.07.011

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K. Polom, D. Murawa, Y.S. Rho, P. Nowaczyk, and M. Hünerbein, and P. Murawa, , “Current trends and emerging future of indocyanine green usage in surgery and oncology: A literature review”, Cancer  117, 4812 (2011). doi: 10.1002/cncr.26087

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A.K. Scheel, M. Backhaus, A.D. Klose, B. Moa-Anderson, U.J. Netz, K.G. Hermann, J. Beuthan, G.A. Müller, and G.R. Burmester, and A.H. Hielscher, , “First clinical evaluation of sagittal laser optical tomography for detection of synovitis in arthritic finger joints”, Ann. Rheum. Dis.  64, 239 (2005). doi: 10.1136/ard.2004.024224

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E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S.S. Kollias, and Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, , “Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution”, NeuroImage  20, 828 (2003). doi: 10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00315-X

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K. Polom, D. Murawa, Y.S. Rho, P. Nowaczyk, and M. Hünerbein, and P. Murawa, , “Current trends and emerging future of indocyanine green usage in surgery and oncology: A literature review”, Cancer  117, 4812 (2011). doi: 10.1002/cncr.26087

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A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, , “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain”, NeuroImage  31, 600 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.12.046

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A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, and A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons”, Appl. Opt.  43, 3037 (2004). doi: 10.1364/AO.43.003037

H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, , “Beyond the visible—imaging the human brain with light”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.  23, 1 (2003). doi: 10.1097/00004647-200301000-00001

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J.A. Chalela, C.S. Kidwell, L.M. Nentwich, M. Luby, J.A. Butman, A.M. Demchuk, M.D. Hill, N. Patronas, and L. Latour, and S. Warach, , “Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in emergency assessment of patients with suspected acute stroke: A prospective comparison”, Lancet  369, 293 (2007). doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60151-2

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J. Olesen and O.B. Paulson, and N.A. Lassen, , “Regional cerebral blood flow in man determined by the initial slope of the clearance of intraarterially injected 133Xe”, Stroke  2, 519 (1971). doi: 10.1161/01.STR.2.6.519

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M. Østergaard and S.J. Pedersen, and U.M. Døhn, , “Imaging in rheumatoid arthrtitis: Status and recent advances for magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, computed tomography and conventional radiography”, Best Pract. Res. Clin. Rheumatol.  22, 1019 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2008.09.014

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C. Perlitz, K. Licha, F.D. Scholle, B. Ebert, M. Bahner, P. Hauff, and K.T. Moesta, and M. Schirner, , “Comparison of two tricarbocyanine-based dyes for fluorescence optical imaging”, J. Fluoresc.  15, 443 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s10895-005-2636-x

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A. Poellinger, T. Persigehl, M. Mahler, M. Bahner, S.L. Ponder, F. Diekmann, and C. Bremer, and T. Moesta, , “Near-infrared imaging of the breast using omocianine as a fluorescent dye: Results of a placebo-controlled, clinical, multicenter trial”, Invest. Radiol.  46, 697 (2011). doi: 10.1097/RLI.0b013e318229ff25

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A. Poellinger, T. Persigehl, M. Mahler, M. Bahner, S.L. Ponder, F. Diekmann, and C. Bremer, and T. Moesta, , “Near-infrared imaging of the breast using omocianine as a fluorescent dye: Results of a placebo-controlled, clinical, multicenter trial”, Invest. Radiol.  46, 697 (2011). doi: 10.1097/RLI.0b013e318229ff25

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K. Polom, D. Murawa, Y.S. Rho, P. Nowaczyk, and M. Hünerbein, and P. Murawa, , “Current trends and emerging future of indocyanine green usage in surgery and oncology: A literature review”, Cancer  117, 4812 (2011). doi: 10.1002/cncr.26087

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T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B.L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M.N. Kim, B.L. Cucchiara, M.E. Putt, Q. Shah, S.E. Kasner, J.H. Greenberg, and A.G. Yodh, and J.A. Detre, , “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients”, Opt. Expr.  17, 3884 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.003884

R. Choe, S.D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D.R. Busch, S. Pathak, B.J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D.L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S.A. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J.P. Culver, M.D. Schnall, M.E. Putt, and M.A. Rosen, and A.G. Yodh, , “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 024020 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3103325

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M. Backhaus, T. Kamradt, D. Sandrock, D. Loreck, J. Fritz, K.J. Wolf, J.H. Raber, B. Hamm, and G.-R. Burmester, and M. Bollow, , “Arthritis of the finger joints: A comprehensive approach comparing conventional radiography, scintigraphy, ultrasound, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging”, Arthritis Rheum.  42, 1232 (1999). doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(199906)42:6<1232::AID-ANR21>3.0.CO;2-3

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R. Alford, H.M. Simpson, J. Duberman, G.C. Hill, M. Ogawa, C. Regino, and H. Kobayashi, and P.L. Choyke, , “Toxicity of organic fluorophores used in molecular imaging: Literature review”, Mol. Imaging  8, 341 (2009). doi: 10.2310/7290.2009.00031

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K. Polom, D. Murawa, Y.S. Rho, P. Nowaczyk, and M. Hünerbein, and P. Murawa, , “Current trends and emerging future of indocyanine green usage in surgery and oncology: A literature review”, Cancer  117, 4812 (2011). doi: 10.1002/cncr.26087

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D. Floery, T.H. Helbich, C.C. Riedl, S. Jaromi, M. Weber, and S. Leodolter, and M.H. Fuchsjaeger, , “Characterization of benign and malignant breast lesions with computed tomography laser mammography (CTLM): Initial experience”, Invest. Radiol.  40, 328 (2005). doi: 10.1097/01.rli.0000164487.60548.28

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K. Licha, B. Riefke, V. Ntziachristos, A. Becker, and B. Chance, and W. Semmler, , “Hydrophilic cyanine dyes as contrast agents for near-infrared tumor imaging: Synthesis, photophysical properties and spectroscopic in vivo characterization”, Photochem. Photobiol.  72, 392 (2000). doi: 10.1562/0031-8655(2000)072<0392:HCDACA>2.0.CO;2

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C. Terborg, K. Gröschel, A. Petrovitch, T. Ringer, S. Schnaudigel, and O.W. Witte, and A. Kastrup, , “Noninvasive assessment of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in acute ischemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy”, Eur. Neurol.  62, 338 (2009). doi: 10.1159/000239794

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D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, O. Steinkellner, A. Poellinger, S. Burock, P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, and R. Macdonald, , “A multichannel time-domain scanning fluorescence mammograph: Performance assessment and first in vivo results”, Rev. Sci. Instrum.  82, 024302 (2011). doi: 10.1063/1.3543820

A. Poellinger, S. Burock, D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, L. Lüdemann, F. Diekmann, F. Engelken, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, and P.M. Schlag, , “Breast cancer: Early- and late-fluorescence near-infrared imaging with indocyanine green—A preliminary study”, Radiology  258, 409 (2011). doi: 10.1148/radiol.10100258

A. Hagen, D. Grosenick, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, S. Burock, P. Warnick, and A. Poellinger, and P.M. Schlag, , “Late-fluorescence mammography assesses tumor capillary permeability and differentiates malignant from benign lesions”, Opt. Expr.  17, 17016 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.017016

R. Ziegler, B. Brendel, and H. Rinneberg, and T. Nielsen, , “Investigation of detection limits for diffuse optical tomography systems: II. Analysis of slab and cup geometry for breast imaging”, Phys. Med. Biol.  54, 413 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/54/2/016

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wübbeler, and R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, , “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography”, Opto-Electron. Rev.  16, 147 (2008). doi: 10.2478/s11772-008-0004-5

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, , “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain”, NeuroImage  31, 600 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.12.046

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, , “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,”NeuroImage  24, 426 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.08.046

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, J. Mucke, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, and B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, , “Scanning time-domain optical mammography: Detection and characterization of breast tumours in vivo”, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.  4, 483 (2005).

D. Grosenick, K. Th. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, Ch. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2429 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/001

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R. Choe, S.D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D.R. Busch, S. Pathak, B.J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D.L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S.A. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J.P. Culver, M.D. Schnall, M.E. Putt, and M.A. Rosen, and A.G. Yodh, , “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 024020 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3103325

A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, M.A. Rosen, M. Schweiger, S.R. Arridge, and M.D. Schnall, and A.G. Yodh, , “Three-dimensional in vivo fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer in humans”, Opt. Expr.  15, 6696 (2007). doi: 10.1364/OE.15.006696

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P.A. Carney, D.L. Miglioretti, B.C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C.M. Rutter, B.M. Geller, L.A. Abraham, S.H. Taplin, M. Dignan, and G. Cutter, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography”, Ann. Intern. Med.  138, 168 (2003).

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S. Merkesdal, J. Ruof, O. Schoffski, K. Bernitt, and H. Zeidler, and W. Mau, , “Indirect medical costs in early rheumatoid arthritis: Composition of and changes in indirect costs within the first three years of disease”, Arthritis Rheum.  44, 528 (2001). doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(200103)44:3<528::AID-ANR100>3.0.CO:2-U

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P.A. Carney, D.L. Miglioretti, B.C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C.M. Rutter, B.M. Geller, L.A. Abraham, S.H. Taplin, M. Dignan, and G. Cutter, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography”, Ann. Intern. Med.  138, 168 (2003).

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S.G. Sakka, , “Assessing liver function”, Curr. Opin. Crit. Care.  13, 207 (2007). doi: 10.1097/MCC0b013e328012b268

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M. Backhaus, T. Kamradt, D. Sandrock, D. Loreck, J. Fritz, K.J. Wolf, J.H. Raber, B. Hamm, and G.-R. Burmester, and M. Bollow, , “Arthritis of the finger joints: A comprehensive approach comparing conventional radiography, scintigraphy, ultrasound, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging”, Arthritis Rheum.  42, 1232 (1999). doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(199906)42:6<1232::AID-ANR21>3.0.CO;2-3

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A. Gerega, N. Zolek, T. Soltysinski, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, and B. Toczylowska, and A. Liebert, , “Wavelength-resolved measurements of fluorescence lifetime of indocyanine green”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 067010 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3593386

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B.E. Schaafsma, J.S. Mieog, M. Hutteman, J.R. van der Vorst, P.J. Kuppen, C.W. Löwik, J.V. Frangioni, and C.J. van de Velde, and A.L. Vahrmeijer, , “The clinical use of indocyanine green as a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent for image-guided oncologic surgery”, J. Surg. Oncol.  104, 323 (2011). doi: 10.1002/jso.21943

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A.K. Scheel, M. Backhaus, A.D. Klose, B. Moa-Anderson, U.J. Netz, K.G. Hermann, J. Beuthan, G.A. Müller, and G.R. Burmester, and A.H. Hielscher, , “First clinical evaluation of sagittal laser optical tomography for detection of synovitis in arthritic finger joints”, Ann. Rheum. Dis.  64, 239 (2005). doi: 10.1136/ard.2004.024224

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T. De Zordo, S.P. Mlekusch, G.M. Feuchtner, E. Mur, and M. Schirmer, and A.S. Klauser, , “Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rheumatoid arthritis”, Eur. J. Radiol.  64, 222 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2007.07.011

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T. Dziekan, C. Weissbach, J. Voigt, B. Ebert, R. Macdonald, M.L. Bahner, M. Mahler, M. Schirner, M. Berliner, B. Berliner, and J. Osel, and I. Osel, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis by evaluation of normalized variances of fluorescence time correlation functions”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 076015 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3599958

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. von Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.G.A. Herrmann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. Macdonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, and T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, , “Assessment of unspecific near-infrared dyes in laser-induced fluorescence imaging of experimental arthritis”, Acad. Radiol.  13, 4 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2005.07.010

C. Perlitz, K. Licha, F.D. Scholle, B. Ebert, M. Bahner, P. Hauff, and K.T. Moesta, and M. Schirner, , “Comparison of two tricarbocyanine-based dyes for fluorescence optical imaging”, J. Fluoresc.  15, 443 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s10895-005-2636-x

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H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wübbeler, and R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, , “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography”, Opto-Electron. Rev.  16, 147 (2008). doi: 10.2478/s11772-008-0004-5

Schlag, P.M.

A. Poellinger, S. Burock, D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, L. Lüdemann, F. Diekmann, F. Engelken, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, and P.M. Schlag, , “Breast cancer: Early- and late-fluorescence near-infrared imaging with indocyanine green—A preliminary study”, Radiology  258, 409 (2011). doi: 10.1148/radiol.10100258

D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, O. Steinkellner, A. Poellinger, S. Burock, P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, and R. Macdonald, , “A multichannel time-domain scanning fluorescence mammograph: Performance assessment and first in vivo results”, Rev. Sci. Instrum.  82, 024302 (2011). doi: 10.1063/1.3543820

A. Hagen, D. Grosenick, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, S. Burock, P. Warnick, and A. Poellinger, and P.M. Schlag, , “Late-fluorescence mammography assesses tumor capillary permeability and differentiates malignant from benign lesions”, Opt. Expr.  17, 17016 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.017016

D. Grosenick, K. Th. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, Ch. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2429 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/001

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, J. Mucke, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, and B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, , “Scanning time-domain optical mammography: Detection and characterization of breast tumours in vivo”, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.  4, 483 (2005).

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M.S. Damian, and R. Schlosser, , “Bilateral near infrared spectroscopy in space-occupying middle cerebral artery stroke,”Neurocritical Care  6, 165 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s12028-007-0010-3

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V. Ntziachristos, A.G. Yodh, and M. Schnall, and B. Chance, , “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA  97, 2767 (2000). doi: 10.1073/pnas.040570597

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R. Choe, S.D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D.R. Busch, S. Pathak, B.J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D.L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S.A. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J.P. Culver, M.D. Schnall, M.E. Putt, and M.A. Rosen, and A.G. Yodh, , “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 024020 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3103325

A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, M.A. Rosen, M. Schweiger, S.R. Arridge, and M.D. Schnall, and A.G. Yodh, , “Three-dimensional in vivo fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer in humans”, Opt. Expr.  15, 6696 (2007). doi: 10.1364/OE.15.006696

Schnaudigel, S.

C. Terborg, K. Gröschel, A. Petrovitch, T. Ringer, S. Schnaudigel, and O.W. Witte, and A. Kastrup, , “Noninvasive assessment of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in acute ischemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy”, Eur. Neurol.  62, 338 (2009). doi: 10.1159/000239794

Schneider, U.

T. Fischer, B. Ebert, J. Voigt, R. Macdonald, U. Schneider, A. Thomas, and B. Hamm, , and K.-G.A. Hermann, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis using non-specific contrast enhanced fluorescence imaging”, Acad. Radiol.  17, 375 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2009.09.016

Schnorr, J.

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. von Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.G.A. Herrmann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. Macdonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, and T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, , “Assessment of unspecific near-infrared dyes in laser-induced fluorescence imaging of experimental arthritis”, Acad. Radiol.  13, 4 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2005.07.010

Schoffski, O.

S. Merkesdal, J. Ruof, O. Schoffski, K. Bernitt, and H. Zeidler, and W. Mau, , “Indirect medical costs in early rheumatoid arthritis: Composition of and changes in indirect costs within the first three years of disease”, Arthritis Rheum.  44, 528 (2001). doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(200103)44:3<528::AID-ANR100>3.0.CO:2-U

Scholle, F.D.

C. Perlitz, K. Licha, F.D. Scholle, B. Ebert, M. Bahner, P. Hauff, and K.T. Moesta, and M. Schirner, , “Comparison of two tricarbocyanine-based dyes for fluorescence optical imaging”, J. Fluoresc.  15, 443 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s10895-005-2636-x

Schweiger, M.

R. Choe, S.D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D.R. Busch, S. Pathak, B.J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D.L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S.A. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J.P. Culver, M.D. Schnall, M.E. Putt, and M.A. Rosen, and A.G. Yodh, , “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 024020 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3103325

A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, M.A. Rosen, M. Schweiger, S.R. Arridge, and M.D. Schnall, and A.G. Yodh, , “Three-dimensional in vivo fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer in humans”, Opt. Expr.  15, 6696 (2007). doi: 10.1364/OE.15.006696

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H.W. Schytz, T. Wienecke, L.T. Jensen, J. Selb, and D.A. Boas, and M. Ashina, , “Changes in cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide: An experimental study comparing near-infrared spectroscopy and SPECT”, Eur. J. Neurol.  16, 461 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2008.02398.x

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W.M. Kuebler, A. Sckell, O. Habler, M. Kleen, G.E.H. Kuhnle, M. Welte, and K. Messmer, and A.E. Goetz, , “Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.  18, 445 (1998). doi: 10.1097/00004647-199804000-00013

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H.W. Schytz, T. Wienecke, L.T. Jensen, J. Selb, and D.A. Boas, and M. Ashina, , “Changes in cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide: An experimental study comparing near-infrared spectroscopy and SPECT”, Eur. J. Neurol.  16, 461 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2008.02398.x

Semmler, W.

K. Licha, B. Riefke, V. Ntziachristos, A. Becker, and B. Chance, and W. Semmler, , “Hydrophilic cyanine dyes as contrast agents for near-infrared tumor imaging: Synthesis, photophysical properties and spectroscopic in vivo characterization”, Photochem. Photobiol.  72, 392 (2000). doi: 10.1562/0031-8655(2000)072<0392:HCDACA>2.0.CO;2

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G. Settakis, C. Molnar, L. Kerenyi, J. Kollar, D. Legemate, and L. Csiba, and B. Fülesdi, , “Acetazolamide as a vasodilatory stimulus in cerebrovascular diseases and in conditions affecting the cerebral vasculature”, Eur. J. Neurol.  10, 609 (2003). doi: 10.1046/j.1468-1331.2003.00675.x

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T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B.L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M.N. Kim, B.L. Cucchiara, M.E. Putt, Q. Shah, S.E. Kasner, J.H. Greenberg, and A.G. Yodh, and J.A. Detre, , “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients”, Opt. Expr.  17, 3884 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.003884

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F. Gora, S. Shinde, C.E. Elwell, J.C. Goldstone, M. Cope, and D.T. Delpy, and M. Smith, , “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow in adults using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green: A pilot study”, J. Neurosurg. Anesthesiol.  14, 218 (2002). doi: 10.1097/00008506-200207000-00008

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R.D. Rosenberg, B.C. Yankaskas, L.A. Abraham, E.A. Sickles, C.D. Lehman, B.M. Geller, P.A. Carney, K. Kerlikowske, D.S.M. Buist, D.L. Weaver, and W.E. Barlow, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Performance benchmarks for screening mammography”, Radiology  241, 55 (2006). doi: 10.1148/radiol.2411051504

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E. Keller, J. Froehlich, C. Muroi, and C. Sikorski, and M. Muser, , “Neuromonitoring in intensive care: A new brain tissue probe for combined monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygenation”, Acta Neurochir. Suppl. 110 (Pt. 2), 217 (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-3-7091-0356-2 39

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C. Terborg, S. Bramer, S. Harscher, and M. Simon, and O.W. Witte, , “Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion reductions in patients with acute ischaemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green”, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry  75, 38 (2004).

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R. Alford, H.M. Simpson, J. Duberman, G.C. Hill, M. Ogawa, C. Regino, and H. Kobayashi, and P.L. Choyke, , “Toxicity of organic fluorophores used in molecular imaging: Literature review”, Mol. Imaging  8, 341 (2009). doi: 10.2310/7290.2009.00031

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F. Gora, S. Shinde, C.E. Elwell, J.C. Goldstone, M. Cope, and D.T. Delpy, and M. Smith, , “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow in adults using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green: A pilot study”, J. Neurosurg. Anesthesiol.  14, 218 (2002). doi: 10.1097/00008506-200207000-00008

I. Tachtsidis, T.S. Leung, M. Tisdall, D.T. Delpy, and M. Smith, and C.E. Elwell, , “Cerebral blood flow assessment with indocyanine green bolus transit detection by near-infrared spectroscopy before and after acetazolamide provocation in humans”, in Biomedical Optics 2006 Technical Digest. Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA, ME67 (2006).

Soltysinski, T.

A. Gerega, N. Zolek, T. Soltysinski, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, and B. Toczylowska, and A. Liebert, , “Wavelength-resolved measurements of fluorescence lifetime of indocyanine green”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 067010 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3593386

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S. Mordon, J.M. Devoisselle, and S. Soulie-Begu, and T. Desmettre, , “Indocyanine green: Physicochemical factors affecting its fluorescence in vivo”, Microvasc. Res.  55, 146 (1998). doi: 10.1006/mvre.1998.2068

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J.M. Canvin, S. Bernatsky, C.A. Hitchon, M. Jackson, M.G. Sowa, J.R. Mansfield, H.H. Eysel, and H.H. Mantsch, and H.S. El-Gabalawy, , “Infrared spectroscopy: Shedding light on synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis”, Rheumatology (Oxford)  42, 76 (2003). doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keg034

Spinelli, L.

P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, F. Arpaia, and G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, , “Time-resolved optical mammography between 637 and 985 nm: Clinical study on the detection and identification of breast lesions”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2469 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/003

St Lawrence, K.

M. Diop, K. Verdecchia, and T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, , “Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a time-resolved near-infrared technique to yield absolute cerebral blood flow measurements”, Biomed. Opt. Expr.  2, 2068 (2011). doi: 10.1364/BOE.2.002068

Steinbrink, J.

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, and J.B. Fiebach, and R. Macdonald, , “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: Technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke”, J. Biomed. Opt.  15, 061708 (2010). doi: 10.1117/1.3505009

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, and U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, , “Towards noninvasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain”, Neurodegener. Dis.  5, 296 (2008). doi: 10.1159/000135614

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, , “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain”, NeuroImage  31, 600 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.12.046

J. Steinbrink, T. Fischer, H. Kuppe, R. Hetzer, K. Uludag, and H. Obrig, and W.M. Kuebler, , “Relevance of depth resolution for cerebral blood flow monitoring by near-infrared spectroscopic bolus tracking during cardiopulmonary bypass”, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  132, 1172 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2006.05.065

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, , “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,”NeuroImage  24, 426 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.08.046

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, and A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons”, Appl. Opt.  43, 3037 (2004). doi: 10.1364/AO.43.003037

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, and K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, , “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: Separation of brain from skin and skull signals”, J. Biomed. Opt.  7, 464 (2002). doi: 10.1117/1.1482719

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, , “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head”, Phys. Med. Biol.  46, 879 (2001). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/46/3/320

Steinkellner, O.

D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, O. Steinkellner, A. Poellinger, S. Burock, P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, and R. Macdonald, , “A multichannel time-domain scanning fluorescence mammograph: Performance assessment and first in vivo results”, Rev. Sci. Instrum.  82, 024302 (2011). doi: 10.1063/1.3543820

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, and J.B. Fiebach, and R. Macdonald, , “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: Technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke”, J. Biomed. Opt.  15, 061708 (2010). doi: 10.1117/1.3505009

Stem, S.W.

G.R. Cherrick, S.W. Stem, and C.M. Leevy, and C.S. Davidson, , “Indocyanine green: Observations on its physical properties, plasma decay and hepatic extraction”, J. Clin. Invest.  39, 592 (1960). doi: 10.1172/JCI104072

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A. Wunder, R.H. Straub, S. Gay, and J. Funk, and U. Muller-Ladner, , “Molecular imaging: Novel tools in visualizing rheumatoid arthritis”, Rheumatology (Oxford)  44, 1341 (2005). doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keh709

Stroszczynski, C.

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, J. Mucke, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, and B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, , “Scanning time-domain optical mammography: Detection and characterization of breast tumours in vivo”, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.  4, 483 (2005).

Stroszczynski, Ch.

D. Grosenick, K. Th. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, Ch. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2429 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/001

Szabó, B.K.

B. Boné, M.K. Wiberg, B.K. Szabó, and A. Szakos, and R. Danielsson, , “Comparison of 99mTc-sestamibi scintimam-mography and dynamic MR imaging as adjuncts to mammography in the diagnosis of breast cancer”, Acta Radiol.  44, 28 (2003). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0455.2003.00012.x

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B. Boné, M.K. Wiberg, B.K. Szabó, and A. Szakos, and R. Danielsson, , “Comparison of 99mTc-sestamibi scintimam-mography and dynamic MR imaging as adjuncts to mammography in the diagnosis of breast cancer”, Acta Radiol.  44, 28 (2003). doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0455.2003.00012.x

Tachtsidis, I.

I. Tachtsidis, T.S. Leung, M. Tisdall, D.T. Delpy, and M. Smith, and C.E. Elwell, , “Cerebral blood flow assessment with indocyanine green bolus transit detection by near-infrared spectroscopy before and after acetazolamide provocation in humans”, in Biomedical Optics 2006 Technical Digest. Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA, ME67 (2006).

Takahashi, K.

S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, and K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, , “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood”, Invest. Ophthal. Visual Sci.  39, 1286 (1998).

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D. Hargroves, R. Tallis, and V. Pomeroy, and A. Bhalla, , “The influence of positioning upon cerebral oxygenation after acute stroke: A pilot study,”Age Ageing  37, 581 (2008). doi: 10.1093/ageing/afn143

Tanamai, W.

S. Kukreti, A.E. Cerussi, W. Tanamai, D. Hsiang, and B.J. Tromberg, and E. Gratton, , “Characterization of metabolic differences between benign and malignant tumors: High-spectral-resolution diffuse optical spectroscopy”, Radiology  254, 277 (2010). doi: 10.1148/radiol.09082134

Taplin, S.H.

P.A. Carney, D.L. Miglioretti, B.C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C.M. Rutter, B.M. Geller, L.A. Abraham, S.H. Taplin, M. Dignan, and G. Cutter, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography”, Ann. Intern. Med.  138, 168 (2003).

Taroni, P.

P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, F. Arpaia, and G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, , “Time-resolved optical mammography between 637 and 985 nm: Clinical study on the detection and identification of breast lesions”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2469 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/003

Taupitz, M.

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. von Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.G.A. Herrmann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. Macdonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, and T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, , “Assessment of unspecific near-infrared dyes in laser-induced fluorescence imaging of experimental arthritis”, Acad. Radiol.  13, 4 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2005.07.010

Taylor, J.

P.S. Tofts, G. Brix, D.L. Buckley, J.L. Evelhoch, E. Henderson, M.V. Knopp, H.B.W. Larsson, T.-Y. Lee, N.A. Mayr, G.J.M. Parker, R.E. Port, and J. Taylor, and R.M. Weisskoff, , “Estimating kinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI of a diffusible tracer: Standardized quantities and symbols”, J. Magn. Reson. Imaging  10, 223 (1999). doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1522-2586(199909)10:3<223::AID-JMRI2>3.0.C0:2-S

Tchou, J.

R. Choe, S.D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D.R. Busch, S. Pathak, B.J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D.L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S.A. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J.P. Culver, M.D. Schnall, M.E. Putt, and M.A. Rosen, and A.G. Yodh, , “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography”, J. Biomed. Opt.  14, 024020 (2009). doi: 10.1117/1.3103325

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C. Terborg, K. Gröschel, A. Petrovitch, T. Ringer, S. Schnaudigel, and O.W. Witte, and A. Kastrup, , “Noninvasive assessment of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in acute ischemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy”, Eur. Neurol.  62, 338 (2009). doi: 10.1159/000239794

C. Terborg, S. Bramer, S. Harscher, and M. Simon, and O.W. Witte, , “Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion reductions in patients with acute ischaemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green”, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry  75, 38 (2004).

Thomas, A.

T. Fischer, B. Ebert, J. Voigt, R. Macdonald, U. Schneider, A. Thomas, and B. Hamm, , and K.-G.A. Hermann, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis using non-specific contrast enhanced fluorescence imaging”, Acad. Radiol.  17, 375 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2009.09.016

A. Thomas, S. Kümmel, F. Fritzsche, M. Warm, B. Ebert, and B. Hamm, and T. Fischer, , “Real-time sonoelastography performed in addition to B-mode ultrasound and mammography: Improved differentiation of breast lesions?”, Acad. Radiol.  13, 1496 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2006.08.012

Tisdall, M.

I. Tachtsidis, T.S. Leung, M. Tisdall, D.T. Delpy, and M. Smith, and C.E. Elwell, , “Cerebral blood flow assessment with indocyanine green bolus transit detection by near-infrared spectroscopy before and after acetazolamide provocation in humans”, in Biomedical Optics 2006 Technical Digest. Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA, ME67 (2006).

Toczylowska, B.

A. Gerega, N. Zolek, T. Soltysinski, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, and B. Toczylowska, and A. Liebert, , “Wavelength-resolved measurements of fluorescence lifetime of indocyanine green”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 067010 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3593386

Tofts, P.S.

P.S. Tofts, G. Brix, D.L. Buckley, J.L. Evelhoch, E. Henderson, M.V. Knopp, H.B.W. Larsson, T.-Y. Lee, N.A. Mayr, G.J.M. Parker, R.E. Port, and J. Taylor, and R.M. Weisskoff, , “Estimating kinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI of a diffusible tracer: Standardized quantities and symbols”, J. Magn. Reson. Imaging  10, 223 (1999). doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1522-2586(199909)10:3<223::AID-JMRI2>3.0.C0:2-S

Torricelli, A.

P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, F. Arpaia, and G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, , “Time-resolved optical mammography between 637 and 985 nm: Clinical study on the detection and identification of breast lesions”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2469 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/003

Traystman, R.J.

M. Ferrari, D.A. Wilson, and D.F. Hanley, and R.J. Traystman, , “Effects of graded hypotension on cerebral blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time in dogs”, Am. J. Physiol.  262, H1908 (1992).

Tromberg, B.J.

S. Kukreti, A.E. Cerussi, W. Tanamai, D. Hsiang, and B.J. Tromberg, and E. Gratton, , “Characterization of metabolic differences between benign and malignant tumors: High-spectral-resolution diffuse optical spectroscopy”, Radiology  254, 277 (2010). doi: 10.1148/radiol.09082134

Uludag, K.

J. Steinbrink, T. Fischer, H. Kuppe, R. Hetzer, K. Uludag, and H. Obrig, and W.M. Kuebler, , “Relevance of depth resolution for cerebral blood flow monitoring by near-infrared spectroscopic bolus tracking during cardiopulmonary bypass”, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.  132, 1172 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2006.05.065

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, and K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, , “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: Separation of brain from skin and skull signals”, J. Biomed. Opt.  7, 464 (2002). doi: 10.1117/1.1482719

Vahrmeijer, A.L.

B.E. Schaafsma, J.S. Mieog, M. Hutteman, J.R. van der Vorst, P.J. Kuppen, C.W. Löwik, J.V. Frangioni, and C.J. van de Velde, and A.L. Vahrmeijer, , “The clinical use of indocyanine green as a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent for image-guided oncologic surgery”, J. Surg. Oncol.  104, 323 (2011). doi: 10.1002/jso.21943

van Beek, M.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. Van Der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van Der Mark, M. van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, and P. Luijten, and W. Mali, , “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: First clinical experience in patients”, Mol. Imaging Biol.  12, 343 (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11307-009-0269-1

van de Velde, C.J.

B.E. Schaafsma, J.S. Mieog, M. Hutteman, J.R. van der Vorst, P.J. Kuppen, C.W. Löwik, J.V. Frangioni, and C.J. van de Velde, and A.L. Vahrmeijer, , “The clinical use of indocyanine green as a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent for image-guided oncologic surgery”, J. Surg. Oncol.  104, 323 (2011). doi: 10.1002/jso.21943

van de Ven, S.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. Van Der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van Der Mark, M. van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, and P. Luijten, and W. Mali, , “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: First clinical experience in patients”, Mol. Imaging Biol.  12, 343 (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11307-009-0269-1

Van Der Mark, M.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. Van Der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van Der Mark, M. van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, and P. Luijten, and W. Mali, , “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: First clinical experience in patients”, Mol. Imaging Biol.  12, 343 (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11307-009-0269-1

Van Der Voort, M.

S. van de Ven, A. Wiethoff, T. Nielsen, B. Brendel, M. Van Der Voort, R. Nachabe, M. Van Der Mark, M. van Beek, L. Bakker, L. Fels, S. Elias, and P. Luijten, and W. Mali, , “A novel fluorescent imaging agent for diffuse optical tomography of the breast: First clinical experience in patients”, Mol. Imaging Biol.  12, 343 (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11307-009-0269-1

van der Vorst, J.R.

B.E. Schaafsma, J.S. Mieog, M. Hutteman, J.R. van der Vorst, P.J. Kuppen, C.W. Löwik, J.V. Frangioni, and C.J. van de Velde, and A.L. Vahrmeijer, , “The clinical use of indocyanine green as a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent for image-guided oncologic surgery”, J. Surg. Oncol.  104, 323 (2011). doi: 10.1002/jso.21943

Verdecchia, K.

M. Diop, K. Verdecchia, and T.-Y. Lee, and K. St Lawrence, , “Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a time-resolved near-infrared technique to yield absolute cerebral blood flow measurements”, Biomed. Opt. Expr.  2, 2068 (2011). doi: 10.1364/BOE.2.002068

Vermeer, G.A.

D.K.F. Meijer and B. Weert, and G.A. Vermeer, , “Pharmacokinetics of biliary excretion in man. VI. Indocyanine green”, Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.  35, 295 (1988). doi: 10.1007/BF00558268

Villringer, A.

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, and U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, , “Towards noninvasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain”, Neurodegener. Dis.  5, 296 (2008). doi: 10.1159/000135614

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, , “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain”, NeuroImage  31, 600 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.12.046

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, , “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,”NeuroImage  24, 426 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.08.046

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, and A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons”, Appl. Opt.  43, 3037 (2004). doi: 10.1364/AO.43.003037

H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, , “Beyond the visible—imaging the human brain with light”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.  23, 1 (2003). doi: 10.1097/00004647-200301000-00001

M. Kohl-Bareis, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, J. Malak, and K. Uludag, and A. Villringer, , “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow by a dye bolus method: Separation of brain from skin and skull signals”, J. Biomed. Opt.  7, 464 (2002). doi: 10.1117/1.1482719

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, , “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head”, Phys. Med. Biol.  46, 879 (2001). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/46/3/320

Voigt, J.

T. Dziekan, C. Weissbach, J. Voigt, B. Ebert, R. Macdonald, M.L. Bahner, M. Mahler, M. Schirner, M. Berliner, B. Berliner, and J. Osel, and I. Osel, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis by evaluation of normalized variances of fluorescence time correlation functions”, J. Biomed. Opt.  16, 076015 (2011). doi: 10.1117/1.3599958

T. Fischer, B. Ebert, J. Voigt, R. Macdonald, U. Schneider, A. Thomas, and B. Hamm, , and K.-G.A. Hermann, , “Detection of rheumatoid arthritis using non-specific contrast enhanced fluorescence imaging”, Acad. Radiol.  17, 375 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2009.09.016

B. Ebert, J. Berger, J. Voigt, R. Macdonald, T. Fischer, K.-G. Hermann, and K. Licha, and M. Schirner, , “Early detection of rheumatoid arthritis in humans by fluorescence imaging”, in Biomedical Optics  (CD-ROM). The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA, BTuF19 (2008).

von Stieglitz, D.

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. von Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.G.A. Herrmann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. Macdonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, and T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, , “Assessment of unspecific near-infrared dyes in laser-induced fluorescence imaging of experimental arthritis”, Acad. Radiol.  13, 4 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2005.07.010

Wabnitz, H.

O. Steinkellner, C. Gruber, H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, J. Steinbrink, and J.B. Fiebach, and R. Macdonald, , “Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: Technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke”, J. Biomed. Opt.  15, 061708 (2010). doi: 10.1117/1.3505009

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and N. Zolek, and R. Macdonald, , “Monte Carlo algorithm for efficient simulation of time-resolved fluorescence in layered turbid media”, Opt. Expr.  16, 13188 (2008).doi: 10.1364/OE.16.013188

J. Steinbrink, A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, A. Wunder, R. Bourayou, T. Betz, J. Klohs, U. Lindauer, and U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, , “Towards noninvasive molecular fluorescence imaging of the human brain”, Neurodegener. Dis.  5, 296 (2008). doi: 10.1159/000135614

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wübbeler, and R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, , “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography”, Opto-Electron. Rev.  16, 147 (2008). doi: 10.2478/s11772-008-0004-5

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, R. Erdmann, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and J. Steinbrink, , “Non-invasive detection of fluorescence from exogenous chromophores in the adult human brain”, NeuroImage  31, 600 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.12.046

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, and A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, , “Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance,”NeuroImage  24, 426 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.08.046

D. Grosenick, K. Th. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gebauer, Ch. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2429 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/001

H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, J. Mucke, B. Gebauer, C. Stroszczynski, H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, and B. Wassermann, and P.M. Schlag, , “Scanning time-domain optical mammography: Detection and characterization of breast tumours in vivo”, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.  4, 483 (2005).

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Moeller, R. Macdonald, and A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, , “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons”, Appl. Opt.  43, 3037 (2004). doi: 10.1364/AO.43.003037

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A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, M.A. Rosen, M. Schweiger, S.R. Arridge, and M.D. Schnall, and A.G. Yodh, , “Three-dimensional in vivo fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer in humans”, Opt. Expr.  15, 6696 (2007). doi: 10.1364/OE.15.006696

A. Hagen, D. Grosenick, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, S. Burock, P. Warnick, and A. Poellinger, and P.M. Schlag, , “Late-fluorescence mammography assesses tumor capillary permeability and differentiates malignant from benign lesions”, Opt. Expr.  17, 17016 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.017016

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B.L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M.N. Kim, B.L. Cucchiara, M.E. Putt, Q. Shah, S.E. Kasner, J.H. Greenberg, and A.G. Yodh, and J.A. Detre, , “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients”, Opt. Expr.  17, 3884 (2009). doi: 10.1364/OE.17.003884

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and N. Zolek, and R. Macdonald, , “Monte Carlo algorithm for efficient simulation of time-resolved fluorescence in layered turbid media”, Opt. Expr.  16, 13188 (2008).doi: 10.1364/OE.16.013188

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H. Rinneberg, D. Grosenick, K.T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, G. Wübbeler, and R. Macdonald, and P. Schlag, , “Detection and characterization of breast tumours by time-domain scanning optical mammography”, Opto-Electron. Rev.  16, 147 (2008). doi: 10.2478/s11772-008-0004-5

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P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, F. Arpaia, and G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, , “Time-resolved optical mammography between 637 and 985 nm: Clinical study on the detection and identification of breast lesions”, Phys. Med. Biol.  50, 2469 (2005). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/11/003

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V. Ntziachristos, A.G. Yodh, and M. Schnall, and B. Chance, , “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA  97, 2767 (2000). doi: 10.1073/pnas.040570597

Radiology (4)

A. Poellinger, S. Burock, D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, L. Lüdemann, F. Diekmann, F. Engelken, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, and P.M. Schlag, , “Breast cancer: Early- and late-fluorescence near-infrared imaging with indocyanine green—A preliminary study”, Radiology  258, 409 (2011). doi: 10.1148/radiol.10100258

R.D. Rosenberg, B.C. Yankaskas, L.A. Abraham, E.A. Sickles, C.D. Lehman, B.M. Geller, P.A. Carney, K. Kerlikowske, D.S.M. Buist, D.L. Weaver, and W.E. Barlow, and R. Ballard-Barbash, , “Performance benchmarks for screening mammography”, Radiology  241, 55 (2006). doi: 10.1148/radiol.2411051504

C. Kuhl, , “The current status of breast MR imaging. Part I. Choice of technique, image interpretation, diagnostic accuracy, and transfer to clinical practice”, Radiology  244, 356 (2007). doi: 10.1148/radiol.2442051620

S. Kukreti, A.E. Cerussi, W. Tanamai, D. Hsiang, and B.J. Tromberg, and E. Gratton, , “Characterization of metabolic differences between benign and malignant tumors: High-spectral-resolution diffuse optical spectroscopy”, Radiology  254, 277 (2010). doi: 10.1148/radiol.09082134

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D. Grosenick, A. Hagen, O. Steinkellner, A. Poellinger, S. Burock, P.M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, and R. Macdonald, , “A multichannel time-domain scanning fluorescence mammograph: Performance assessment and first in vivo results”, Rev. Sci. Instrum.  82, 024302 (2011). doi: 10.1063/1.3543820

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J.M. Canvin, S. Bernatsky, C.A. Hitchon, M. Jackson, M.G. Sowa, J.R. Mansfield, H.H. Eysel, and H.H. Mantsch, and H.S. El-Gabalawy, , “Infrared spectroscopy: Shedding light on synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis”, Rheumatology (Oxford)  42, 76 (2003). doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keg034

A. Wunder, R.H. Straub, S. Gay, and J. Funk, and U. Muller-Ladner, , “Molecular imaging: Novel tools in visualizing rheumatoid arthritis”, Rheumatology (Oxford)  44, 1341 (2005). doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keh709

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I. Tachtsidis, T.S. Leung, M. Tisdall, D.T. Delpy, and M. Smith, and C.E. Elwell, , “Cerebral blood flow assessment with indocyanine green bolus transit detection by near-infrared spectroscopy before and after acetazolamide provocation in humans”, in Biomedical Optics 2006 Technical Digest. Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA, ME67 (2006).

B. Ebert, J. Berger, J. Voigt, R. Macdonald, T. Fischer, K.-G. Hermann, and K. Licha, and M. Schirner, , “Early detection of rheumatoid arthritis in humans by fluorescence imaging”, in Biomedical Optics  (CD-ROM). The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA, BTuF19 (2008).

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