Abstract

The near infrared (NIR) absorption spectra of deoxynivalenol (DON) and single wheat kernels with or without DON were examined. The NIR absorption spectra of 0.5–2000 ppm of DON in acetonitrile were recorded in the 350–2500 nm range. Second derivative processing of the NIR spectra and spectral subtractions showed DON absorption bands at 1408 nm, 1904 nm and 1919 nm. NIR spectra of sound and Fusarium-damaged kernels were also acquired using two instruments. Subtraction of average absorption spectra and second derivative spectra were evaluated to identify different NIR signatures of the two types of kernel. Differences in peak height and positions of the NIR absorption bands of the kernels were noted. At 1204 nm, 1365 nm and 1700 nm, the differences were in the heights of the absorption peaks. Such differences may be attributed to changes in the levels of grain food reserves such as starches, proteins and lipids and other structural compounds. Shifts in absorption peak positions between the two types of kernels were observed at 1425–1440 nm and 1915–1930 nm. These differences may arise from other NIR active compounds, such as DON, which are not common for the two types of kernel. Since the NIR absorption of DON may have contributed to the shifts between sound and Fusarium-damaged kernels, this study indicates the potential for NIR spectrometry to evaluate Fusarium damage in single kernels based on the DON levels.

© 2009 IM Publications LLP

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  12. T. Miedaner and B. Schneider, and H.H. Geiger, , “Deoxynivalenol (DON) content and Fusarium head blight resistance in segregating populations of winter rye and winter wheat”, Crop Sci.  43, 519 (2003).
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  22. D. Boyacioglu, and N.S. Hettiarachchy, , “Changes in some biochemical components of wheat grain that was infected with Fusarium graminearum”, J. Cereal Sci.  21, 57 (1995). doi: 10.1016/S0733–5210(95)80008–5

2005 (2)

S.R. Delwiche and T.C. Pearson, and D.L. Brabec, “High-speed optical sorting of soft wheat for reduction of deoxynivalenol”. Plant Dis.  89, 1214 (2005). doi: 10.1094/PD-89-1214

S.R. Delwiche and T.C. Pearson, and D.L. Brabec, “High-speed optical sorting of soft wheat for reduction of deoxynivalenol”. Plant Dis.  89, 1214 (2005). doi: 10.1094/PD-89-1214

A. Ludewig, U. Kabsch, and J.A. Verreet, , “Comparative deoxynivalenol accumulation and aggressiveness of isolates of Fusarium graminearum on wheat and the influence on yield as affected by fungal isolate and wheat cultivar”, J. Plant Dis. Protect.  112, 329 (2005).

2004 (1)

A. Champeil and T. Dore, and J.F. Fourbet, , “Fusarium head blight: Epidemiological origin of the effects of cultural practices on head blight attacks and the production of mycotoxins by Fusarium in wheat grains”, Plant Sci.  166, 1389 (2004). doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.02.004

A. Champeil and T. Dore, and J.F. Fourbet, , “Fusarium head blight: Epidemiological origin of the effects of cultural practices on head blight attacks and the production of mycotoxins by Fusarium in wheat grains”, Plant Sci.  166, 1389 (2004). doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.02.004

2003 (1)

T. Miedaner and B. Schneider, and H.H. Geiger, , “Deoxynivalenol (DON) content and Fusarium head blight resistance in segregating populations of winter rye and winter wheat”, Crop Sci.  43, 519 (2003).

T. Miedaner and B. Schneider, and H.H. Geiger, , “Deoxynivalenol (DON) content and Fusarium head blight resistance in segregating populations of winter rye and winter wheat”, Crop Sci.  43, 519 (2003).

2002 (1)

R. Ruan, Y. Li, and X. Lin, and P. Chen, , “Non destructive determination of deoxynivalenol levels in barley using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Appl. Eng. Agric.  18, 549 (2002).

R. Ruan, Y. Li, and X. Lin, and P. Chen, , “Non destructive determination of deoxynivalenol levels in barley using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Appl. Eng. Agric.  18, 549 (2002).

2001 (1)

G.H. Bai, R. Plattner, and A. Desjardins, and F. Kolb, , “Resistance to Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat”, Plant Breeding  120, 1 (2001). doi: 10.1046/j.1439–0523.2001.00562.x

G.H. Bai, R. Plattner, and A. Desjardins, and F. Kolb, , “Resistance to Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat”, Plant Breeding  120, 1 (2001). doi: 10.1046/j.1439–0523.2001.00562.x

1999 (2)

A. Mesterhazy, T. Bartok, and C.G. Mirocha, and R. Komoroczy, , “Nature of wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight and the role of deoxynivalenol for breeding”, Plant Breeding  118, 97 (1999). doi: 10.1046/j.1439–0523.1999.118002097.x

A. Mesterhazy, T. Bartok, and C.G. Mirocha, and R. Komoroczy, , “Nature of wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight and the role of deoxynivalenol for breeding”, Plant Breeding  118, 97 (1999). doi: 10.1046/j.1439–0523.1999.118002097.x

F.E. Dowell and M.S. Ram, and L.M. Seitz, , “Predicting scab, vomitoxin, and ergosterol in single wheat kernels using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Cereal Chem.  76, 573 (1999). doi: 10.1094/CCHEM.1999.76.4.573

F.E. Dowell and M.S. Ram, and L.M. Seitz, , “Predicting scab, vomitoxin, and ergosterol in single wheat kernels using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Cereal Chem.  76, 573 (1999). doi: 10.1094/CCHEM.1999.76.4.573

1998 (1)

R. Ruan, S. Ning, A. Song, A. Ning, and R. Jones, and P. Chen, , “Estimation of fusarium scab in wheat using machine vision and a neural network”, Cereal Chem.  75, 455 (1998). doi: 10.1094/CCHEM.1998.75.4.455

R. Ruan, S. Ning, A. Song, A. Ning, and R. Jones, and P. Chen, , “Estimation of fusarium scab in wheat using machine vision and a neural network”, Cereal Chem.  75, 455 (1998). doi: 10.1094/CCHEM.1998.75.4.455

1997 (1)

M.P. McMullen and R. Jones, and D. Gallenberg, , “Scab of wheat and barley: A reemerging disease of devastating impact”, Plant Dis.  81, 1340 (1997). doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1997.81.12.1340

M.P. McMullen and R. Jones, and D. Gallenberg, , “Scab of wheat and barley: A reemerging disease of devastating impact”, Plant Dis.  81, 1340 (1997). doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1997.81.12.1340

1995 (2)

D.W. Parry and P. Jenkinson, and L. McLeod, , “Fusarium ear blight (scab) in small cereals—a review”, Plant Pathol.  44, 207 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1365–3059.1995.tb02773.x

D.W. Parry and P. Jenkinson, and L. McLeod, , “Fusarium ear blight (scab) in small cereals—a review”, Plant Pathol.  44, 207 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1365–3059.1995.tb02773.x

D. Boyacioglu, and N.S. Hettiarachchy, , “Changes in some biochemical components of wheat grain that was infected with Fusarium graminearum”, J. Cereal Sci.  21, 57 (1995). doi: 10.1016/S0733–5210(95)80008–5

D. Boyacioglu, and N.S. Hettiarachchy, , “Changes in some biochemical components of wheat grain that was infected with Fusarium graminearum”, J. Cereal Sci.  21, 57 (1995). doi: 10.1016/S0733–5210(95)80008–5

1985 (1)

D.B. Bechtel, L.A. Kaleikau, and R.L. Games, and L.M. Seitz, , “The effects of Fusarium graminearum infection on wheat kernels”, Cereal Chem.  62, 191 (1985).

D.B. Bechtel, L.A. Kaleikau, and R.L. Games, and L.M. Seitz, , “The effects of Fusarium graminearum infection on wheat kernels”, Cereal Chem.  62, 191 (1985).

1968 (1)

J.R. Morrey, , “On determining spectral peak positions from composite spectra with a digital computer”, Anal. Chem.  40, 905 (1968). doi: 10.1021/ac60262a006

Agostinelli, A.

A. Agostinelli and N. Mundell, and D.V. Sanford, , “Percentage of fusarium damaged kernels measured by air separation”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , 2–4 Dec 2008, Indianapolis, IN, USA, Ed by S.M. Canty, E. Walton, A. Clark, D. Ellis, and J. Mundell, and D.A. Van Sanford, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA, p.133 (2008).

Archibald, D.D.

K.T. Willyerd, D.D. Archibald, K. Boroczky, and E.D. DeWolf, and G.A. Kuldau, , “Effects of temperature on deoxynivalenol translocation and F. Graminearum infection of wheat heads”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , 2–4 Dec 2008, Indianapolis, IN, USA, Ed by S.M. Canty, E. Walton, A. Clark, D. Ellis, and J. Mundell, and D.A. Van Sanford, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA, p. 74 (2008).

Bai, G.H.

G.H. Bai, R. Plattner, and A. Desjardins, and F. Kolb, , “Resistance to Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat”, Plant Breeding  120, 1 (2001). doi: 10.1046/j.1439–0523.2001.00562.x

Bangsund, D.A.

W.E. Nganje, S. Kaitibie, W.W. Wilson, and F.L. Leistritz, and D.A. Bangsund, , “Economic impacts of Fusarium head blight in wheat and barley: 1993–2001”, Agribusiness and Applied Economics Report No. 538. Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA (2004).

Bartok, T.

A. Mesterhazy, T. Bartok, and C.G. Mirocha, and R. Komoroczy, , “Nature of wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight and the role of deoxynivalenol for breeding”, Plant Breeding  118, 97 (1999). doi: 10.1046/j.1439–0523.1999.118002097.x

Bechtel, D.B.

D.B. Bechtel, L.A. Kaleikau, and R.L. Games, and L.M. Seitz, , “The effects of Fusarium graminearum infection on wheat kernels”, Cereal Chem.  62, 191 (1985).

Boroczky, K.

K.T. Willyerd, D.D. Archibald, K. Boroczky, and E.D. DeWolf, and G.A. Kuldau, , “Effects of temperature on deoxynivalenol translocation and F. Graminearum infection of wheat heads”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , 2–4 Dec 2008, Indianapolis, IN, USA, Ed by S.M. Canty, E. Walton, A. Clark, D. Ellis, and J. Mundell, and D.A. Van Sanford, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA, p. 74 (2008).

Boyacioglu, D.

D. Boyacioglu, and N.S. Hettiarachchy, , “Changes in some biochemical components of wheat grain that was infected with Fusarium graminearum”, J. Cereal Sci.  21, 57 (1995). doi: 10.1016/S0733–5210(95)80008–5

Brabec, D.L.

S.R. Delwiche and T.C. Pearson, and D.L. Brabec, “High-speed optical sorting of soft wheat for reduction of deoxynivalenol”. Plant Dis.  89, 1214 (2005). doi: 10.1094/PD-89-1214

Champeil, A.

A. Champeil and T. Dore, and J.F. Fourbet, , “Fusarium head blight: Epidemiological origin of the effects of cultural practices on head blight attacks and the production of mycotoxins by Fusarium in wheat grains”, Plant Sci.  166, 1389 (2004). doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.02.004

Chen, P.

R. Ruan, Y. Li, and X. Lin, and P. Chen, , “Non destructive determination of deoxynivalenol levels in barley using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Appl. Eng. Agric.  18, 549 (2002).

R. Ruan, S. Ning, A. Song, A. Ning, and R. Jones, and P. Chen, , “Estimation of fusarium scab in wheat using machine vision and a neural network”, Cereal Chem.  75, 455 (1998). doi: 10.1094/CCHEM.1998.75.4.455

De Wolf, E.

M. Nita, K. Tilley, and E. De Wolf, and G. Kuldau, , “Effects of moisture during and after anthesis on the development of Fusarium head blight of wheat and mycotoxin production”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , Milwaukee, WI. 11–13 Dec. 2005, Ed by S.M. Canty, T. Boring, J. Wardwell, and L. Siler, and R.W. Ward, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA, pp. 125–128. (2005).

Delwiche, S.R.

S.R. Delwiche and T.C. Pearson, and D.L. Brabec, “High-speed optical sorting of soft wheat for reduction of deoxynivalenol”. Plant Dis.  89, 1214 (2005). doi: 10.1094/PD-89-1214

Desjardins, A.

G.H. Bai, R. Plattner, and A. Desjardins, and F. Kolb, , “Resistance to Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat”, Plant Breeding  120, 1 (2001). doi: 10.1046/j.1439–0523.2001.00562.x

DeWolf, E.D.

K.T. Willyerd, D.D. Archibald, K. Boroczky, and E.D. DeWolf, and G.A. Kuldau, , “Effects of temperature on deoxynivalenol translocation and F. Graminearum infection of wheat heads”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , 2–4 Dec 2008, Indianapolis, IN, USA, Ed by S.M. Canty, E. Walton, A. Clark, D. Ellis, and J. Mundell, and D.A. Van Sanford, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA, p. 74 (2008).

Dore, T.

A. Champeil and T. Dore, and J.F. Fourbet, , “Fusarium head blight: Epidemiological origin of the effects of cultural practices on head blight attacks and the production of mycotoxins by Fusarium in wheat grains”, Plant Sci.  166, 1389 (2004). doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.02.004

Dowell, F.E.

F.E. Dowell and M.S. Ram, and L.M. Seitz, , “Predicting scab, vomitoxin, and ergosterol in single wheat kernels using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Cereal Chem.  76, 573 (1999). doi: 10.1094/CCHEM.1999.76.4.573

Fourbet, J.F.

A. Champeil and T. Dore, and J.F. Fourbet, , “Fusarium head blight: Epidemiological origin of the effects of cultural practices on head blight attacks and the production of mycotoxins by Fusarium in wheat grains”, Plant Sci.  166, 1389 (2004). doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.02.004

Gallenberg, D.

M.P. McMullen and R. Jones, and D. Gallenberg, , “Scab of wheat and barley: A reemerging disease of devastating impact”, Plant Dis.  81, 1340 (1997). doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1997.81.12.1340

Games, R.L.

D.B. Bechtel, L.A. Kaleikau, and R.L. Games, and L.M. Seitz, , “The effects of Fusarium graminearum infection on wheat kernels”, Cereal Chem.  62, 191 (1985).

Geiger, H.H.

T. Miedaner and B. Schneider, and H.H. Geiger, , “Deoxynivalenol (DON) content and Fusarium head blight resistance in segregating populations of winter rye and winter wheat”, Crop Sci.  43, 519 (2003).

Hettiarachchy, N.S.

D. Boyacioglu, and N.S. Hettiarachchy, , “Changes in some biochemical components of wheat grain that was infected with Fusarium graminearum”, J. Cereal Sci.  21, 57 (1995). doi: 10.1016/S0733–5210(95)80008–5

Jenkinson, P.

D.W. Parry and P. Jenkinson, and L. McLeod, , “Fusarium ear blight (scab) in small cereals—a review”, Plant Pathol.  44, 207 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1365–3059.1995.tb02773.x

Jones, R.

R. Ruan, S. Ning, A. Song, A. Ning, and R. Jones, and P. Chen, , “Estimation of fusarium scab in wheat using machine vision and a neural network”, Cereal Chem.  75, 455 (1998). doi: 10.1094/CCHEM.1998.75.4.455

M.P. McMullen and R. Jones, and D. Gallenberg, , “Scab of wheat and barley: A reemerging disease of devastating impact”, Plant Dis.  81, 1340 (1997). doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1997.81.12.1340

Kabsch, U.

A. Ludewig, U. Kabsch, and J.A. Verreet, , “Comparative deoxynivalenol accumulation and aggressiveness of isolates of Fusarium graminearum on wheat and the influence on yield as affected by fungal isolate and wheat cultivar”, J. Plant Dis. Protect.  112, 329 (2005).

Kaitibie, S.

W.E. Nganje, S. Kaitibie, W.W. Wilson, and F.L. Leistritz, and D.A. Bangsund, , “Economic impacts of Fusarium head blight in wheat and barley: 1993–2001”, Agribusiness and Applied Economics Report No. 538. Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA (2004).

Kaleikau, L.A.

D.B. Bechtel, L.A. Kaleikau, and R.L. Games, and L.M. Seitz, , “The effects of Fusarium graminearum infection on wheat kernels”, Cereal Chem.  62, 191 (1985).

Kolb, F.

G.H. Bai, R. Plattner, and A. Desjardins, and F. Kolb, , “Resistance to Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat”, Plant Breeding  120, 1 (2001). doi: 10.1046/j.1439–0523.2001.00562.x

Komoroczy, R.

A. Mesterhazy, T. Bartok, and C.G. Mirocha, and R. Komoroczy, , “Nature of wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight and the role of deoxynivalenol for breeding”, Plant Breeding  118, 97 (1999). doi: 10.1046/j.1439–0523.1999.118002097.x

Kuldau, G.

M. Nita, K. Tilley, and E. De Wolf, and G. Kuldau, , “Effects of moisture during and after anthesis on the development of Fusarium head blight of wheat and mycotoxin production”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , Milwaukee, WI. 11–13 Dec. 2005, Ed by S.M. Canty, T. Boring, J. Wardwell, and L. Siler, and R.W. Ward, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA, pp. 125–128. (2005).

Kuldau, G.A.

K.T. Willyerd, D.D. Archibald, K. Boroczky, and E.D. DeWolf, and G.A. Kuldau, , “Effects of temperature on deoxynivalenol translocation and F. Graminearum infection of wheat heads”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , 2–4 Dec 2008, Indianapolis, IN, USA, Ed by S.M. Canty, E. Walton, A. Clark, D. Ellis, and J. Mundell, and D.A. Van Sanford, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA, p. 74 (2008).

Leistritz, F.L.

W.E. Nganje, S. Kaitibie, W.W. Wilson, and F.L. Leistritz, and D.A. Bangsund, , “Economic impacts of Fusarium head blight in wheat and barley: 1993–2001”, Agribusiness and Applied Economics Report No. 538. Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA (2004).

Li, Y.

R. Ruan, Y. Li, and X. Lin, and P. Chen, , “Non destructive determination of deoxynivalenol levels in barley using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Appl. Eng. Agric.  18, 549 (2002).

Lin, X.

R. Ruan, Y. Li, and X. Lin, and P. Chen, , “Non destructive determination of deoxynivalenol levels in barley using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Appl. Eng. Agric.  18, 549 (2002).

Ludewig, A.

A. Ludewig, U. Kabsch, and J.A. Verreet, , “Comparative deoxynivalenol accumulation and aggressiveness of isolates of Fusarium graminearum on wheat and the influence on yield as affected by fungal isolate and wheat cultivar”, J. Plant Dis. Protect.  112, 329 (2005).

Madden, L.V.

K.J. Odenbach, J.D. Salgado, and L.V. Madden, and P.A. Paul, , “Influence of cultivar resistance, infection timing, and inoculum density on FHB development and DON accumulation in asymptomatic wheat spikes”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , 2–4 Dec 2008, Indianapolis, IN, USA, Ed by S.M. Canty, E. Walton, A. Clark, D. Ellis, and J. Mundell, and D.A. Van Sanford, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA, p.50 (2008).

McLeod, L.

D.W. Parry and P. Jenkinson, and L. McLeod, , “Fusarium ear blight (scab) in small cereals—a review”, Plant Pathol.  44, 207 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1365–3059.1995.tb02773.x

McMullen, M.P.

M.P. McMullen and R. Jones, and D. Gallenberg, , “Scab of wheat and barley: A reemerging disease of devastating impact”, Plant Dis.  81, 1340 (1997). doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1997.81.12.1340

Mesterhazy, A.

A. Mesterhazy, T. Bartok, and C.G. Mirocha, and R. Komoroczy, , “Nature of wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight and the role of deoxynivalenol for breeding”, Plant Breeding  118, 97 (1999). doi: 10.1046/j.1439–0523.1999.118002097.x

Miedaner, T.

T. Miedaner and B. Schneider, and H.H. Geiger, , “Deoxynivalenol (DON) content and Fusarium head blight resistance in segregating populations of winter rye and winter wheat”, Crop Sci.  43, 519 (2003).

Mirocha, C.G.

A. Mesterhazy, T. Bartok, and C.G. Mirocha, and R. Komoroczy, , “Nature of wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight and the role of deoxynivalenol for breeding”, Plant Breeding  118, 97 (1999). doi: 10.1046/j.1439–0523.1999.118002097.x

Morrey, J.R.

J.R. Morrey, , “On determining spectral peak positions from composite spectra with a digital computer”, Anal. Chem.  40, 905 (1968). doi: 10.1021/ac60262a006

Mundell, N.

A. Agostinelli and N. Mundell, and D.V. Sanford, , “Percentage of fusarium damaged kernels measured by air separation”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , 2–4 Dec 2008, Indianapolis, IN, USA, Ed by S.M. Canty, E. Walton, A. Clark, D. Ellis, and J. Mundell, and D.A. Van Sanford, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA, p.133 (2008).

Nganje, W.E.

W.E. Nganje, S. Kaitibie, W.W. Wilson, and F.L. Leistritz, and D.A. Bangsund, , “Economic impacts of Fusarium head blight in wheat and barley: 1993–2001”, Agribusiness and Applied Economics Report No. 538. Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA (2004).

Ning, A.

R. Ruan, S. Ning, A. Song, A. Ning, and R. Jones, and P. Chen, , “Estimation of fusarium scab in wheat using machine vision and a neural network”, Cereal Chem.  75, 455 (1998). doi: 10.1094/CCHEM.1998.75.4.455

Ning, S.

R. Ruan, S. Ning, A. Song, A. Ning, and R. Jones, and P. Chen, , “Estimation of fusarium scab in wheat using machine vision and a neural network”, Cereal Chem.  75, 455 (1998). doi: 10.1094/CCHEM.1998.75.4.455

Nita, M.

M. Nita, K. Tilley, and E. De Wolf, and G. Kuldau, , “Effects of moisture during and after anthesis on the development of Fusarium head blight of wheat and mycotoxin production”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , Milwaukee, WI. 11–13 Dec. 2005, Ed by S.M. Canty, T. Boring, J. Wardwell, and L. Siler, and R.W. Ward, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA, pp. 125–128. (2005).

Odenbach, K.J.

K.J. Odenbach, J.D. Salgado, and L.V. Madden, and P.A. Paul, , “Influence of cultivar resistance, infection timing, and inoculum density on FHB development and DON accumulation in asymptomatic wheat spikes”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , 2–4 Dec 2008, Indianapolis, IN, USA, Ed by S.M. Canty, E. Walton, A. Clark, D. Ellis, and J. Mundell, and D.A. Van Sanford, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA, p.50 (2008).

Parry, D.W.

D.W. Parry and P. Jenkinson, and L. McLeod, , “Fusarium ear blight (scab) in small cereals—a review”, Plant Pathol.  44, 207 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1365–3059.1995.tb02773.x

Paul, P.A.

K.J. Odenbach, J.D. Salgado, and L.V. Madden, and P.A. Paul, , “Influence of cultivar resistance, infection timing, and inoculum density on FHB development and DON accumulation in asymptomatic wheat spikes”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , 2–4 Dec 2008, Indianapolis, IN, USA, Ed by S.M. Canty, E. Walton, A. Clark, D. Ellis, and J. Mundell, and D.A. Van Sanford, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA, p.50 (2008).

Pearson, T.C.

S.R. Delwiche and T.C. Pearson, and D.L. Brabec, “High-speed optical sorting of soft wheat for reduction of deoxynivalenol”. Plant Dis.  89, 1214 (2005). doi: 10.1094/PD-89-1214

Plattner, R.

G.H. Bai, R. Plattner, and A. Desjardins, and F. Kolb, , “Resistance to Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat”, Plant Breeding  120, 1 (2001). doi: 10.1046/j.1439–0523.2001.00562.x

Ram, M.S.

F.E. Dowell and M.S. Ram, and L.M. Seitz, , “Predicting scab, vomitoxin, and ergosterol in single wheat kernels using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Cereal Chem.  76, 573 (1999). doi: 10.1094/CCHEM.1999.76.4.573

Ruan, R.

R. Ruan, Y. Li, and X. Lin, and P. Chen, , “Non destructive determination of deoxynivalenol levels in barley using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Appl. Eng. Agric.  18, 549 (2002).

R. Ruan, S. Ning, A. Song, A. Ning, and R. Jones, and P. Chen, , “Estimation of fusarium scab in wheat using machine vision and a neural network”, Cereal Chem.  75, 455 (1998). doi: 10.1094/CCHEM.1998.75.4.455

Salgado, J.D.

K.J. Odenbach, J.D. Salgado, and L.V. Madden, and P.A. Paul, , “Influence of cultivar resistance, infection timing, and inoculum density on FHB development and DON accumulation in asymptomatic wheat spikes”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , 2–4 Dec 2008, Indianapolis, IN, USA, Ed by S.M. Canty, E. Walton, A. Clark, D. Ellis, and J. Mundell, and D.A. Van Sanford, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA, p.50 (2008).

Sanford, D.V.

A. Agostinelli and N. Mundell, and D.V. Sanford, , “Percentage of fusarium damaged kernels measured by air separation”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , 2–4 Dec 2008, Indianapolis, IN, USA, Ed by S.M. Canty, E. Walton, A. Clark, D. Ellis, and J. Mundell, and D.A. Van Sanford, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA, p.133 (2008).

Schneider, B.

T. Miedaner and B. Schneider, and H.H. Geiger, , “Deoxynivalenol (DON) content and Fusarium head blight resistance in segregating populations of winter rye and winter wheat”, Crop Sci.  43, 519 (2003).

Seitz, L.M.

F.E. Dowell and M.S. Ram, and L.M. Seitz, , “Predicting scab, vomitoxin, and ergosterol in single wheat kernels using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Cereal Chem.  76, 573 (1999). doi: 10.1094/CCHEM.1999.76.4.573

D.B. Bechtel, L.A. Kaleikau, and R.L. Games, and L.M. Seitz, , “The effects of Fusarium graminearum infection on wheat kernels”, Cereal Chem.  62, 191 (1985).

Song, A.

R. Ruan, S. Ning, A. Song, A. Ning, and R. Jones, and P. Chen, , “Estimation of fusarium scab in wheat using machine vision and a neural network”, Cereal Chem.  75, 455 (1998). doi: 10.1094/CCHEM.1998.75.4.455

Tilley, K.

M. Nita, K. Tilley, and E. De Wolf, and G. Kuldau, , “Effects of moisture during and after anthesis on the development of Fusarium head blight of wheat and mycotoxin production”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , Milwaukee, WI. 11–13 Dec. 2005, Ed by S.M. Canty, T. Boring, J. Wardwell, and L. Siler, and R.W. Ward, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA, pp. 125–128. (2005).

Verreet, J.A.

A. Ludewig, U. Kabsch, and J.A. Verreet, , “Comparative deoxynivalenol accumulation and aggressiveness of isolates of Fusarium graminearum on wheat and the influence on yield as affected by fungal isolate and wheat cultivar”, J. Plant Dis. Protect.  112, 329 (2005).

Weyer, L.

J. Workman, and L. Weyer, , Practical Guide to Interpretive Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA (2008).

Willyerd, K.T.

K.T. Willyerd, D.D. Archibald, K. Boroczky, and E.D. DeWolf, and G.A. Kuldau, , “Effects of temperature on deoxynivalenol translocation and F. Graminearum infection of wheat heads”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , 2–4 Dec 2008, Indianapolis, IN, USA, Ed by S.M. Canty, E. Walton, A. Clark, D. Ellis, and J. Mundell, and D.A. Van Sanford, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA, p. 74 (2008).

Wilson, W.W.

W.E. Nganje, S. Kaitibie, W.W. Wilson, and F.L. Leistritz, and D.A. Bangsund, , “Economic impacts of Fusarium head blight in wheat and barley: 1993–2001”, Agribusiness and Applied Economics Report No. 538. Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA (2004).

Workman, J.

J. Workman, and L. Weyer, , Practical Guide to Interpretive Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA (2008).

Anal. Chem. (1)

J.R. Morrey, , “On determining spectral peak positions from composite spectra with a digital computer”, Anal. Chem.  40, 905 (1968). doi: 10.1021/ac60262a006

Appl. Eng. Agric. (1)

R. Ruan, Y. Li, and X. Lin, and P. Chen, , “Non destructive determination of deoxynivalenol levels in barley using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Appl. Eng. Agric.  18, 549 (2002).

Cereal Chem. (3)

F.E. Dowell and M.S. Ram, and L.M. Seitz, , “Predicting scab, vomitoxin, and ergosterol in single wheat kernels using near-infrared spectroscopy”, Cereal Chem.  76, 573 (1999). doi: 10.1094/CCHEM.1999.76.4.573

R. Ruan, S. Ning, A. Song, A. Ning, and R. Jones, and P. Chen, , “Estimation of fusarium scab in wheat using machine vision and a neural network”, Cereal Chem.  75, 455 (1998). doi: 10.1094/CCHEM.1998.75.4.455

D.B. Bechtel, L.A. Kaleikau, and R.L. Games, and L.M. Seitz, , “The effects of Fusarium graminearum infection on wheat kernels”, Cereal Chem.  62, 191 (1985).

Crop Sci. (1)

T. Miedaner and B. Schneider, and H.H. Geiger, , “Deoxynivalenol (DON) content and Fusarium head blight resistance in segregating populations of winter rye and winter wheat”, Crop Sci.  43, 519 (2003).

J. Cereal Sci. (1)

D. Boyacioglu, and N.S. Hettiarachchy, , “Changes in some biochemical components of wheat grain that was infected with Fusarium graminearum”, J. Cereal Sci.  21, 57 (1995). doi: 10.1016/S0733–5210(95)80008–5

J. Plant Dis. Protect. (1)

A. Ludewig, U. Kabsch, and J.A. Verreet, , “Comparative deoxynivalenol accumulation and aggressiveness of isolates of Fusarium graminearum on wheat and the influence on yield as affected by fungal isolate and wheat cultivar”, J. Plant Dis. Protect.  112, 329 (2005).

Plant Breeding (2)

A. Mesterhazy, T. Bartok, and C.G. Mirocha, and R. Komoroczy, , “Nature of wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight and the role of deoxynivalenol for breeding”, Plant Breeding  118, 97 (1999). doi: 10.1046/j.1439–0523.1999.118002097.x

G.H. Bai, R. Plattner, and A. Desjardins, and F. Kolb, , “Resistance to Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat”, Plant Breeding  120, 1 (2001). doi: 10.1046/j.1439–0523.2001.00562.x

Plant Dis. (2)

S.R. Delwiche and T.C. Pearson, and D.L. Brabec, “High-speed optical sorting of soft wheat for reduction of deoxynivalenol”. Plant Dis.  89, 1214 (2005). doi: 10.1094/PD-89-1214

M.P. McMullen and R. Jones, and D. Gallenberg, , “Scab of wheat and barley: A reemerging disease of devastating impact”, Plant Dis.  81, 1340 (1997). doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1997.81.12.1340

Plant Pathol. (1)

D.W. Parry and P. Jenkinson, and L. McLeod, , “Fusarium ear blight (scab) in small cereals—a review”, Plant Pathol.  44, 207 (1995). doi: 10.1111/j.1365–3059.1995.tb02773.x

Plant Sci. (1)

A. Champeil and T. Dore, and J.F. Fourbet, , “Fusarium head blight: Epidemiological origin of the effects of cultural practices on head blight attacks and the production of mycotoxins by Fusarium in wheat grains”, Plant Sci.  166, 1389 (2004). doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.02.004

Other (8)

M. Nita, K. Tilley, and E. De Wolf, and G. Kuldau, , “Effects of moisture during and after anthesis on the development of Fusarium head blight of wheat and mycotoxin production”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , Milwaukee, WI. 11–13 Dec. 2005, Ed by S.M. Canty, T. Boring, J. Wardwell, and L. Siler, and R.W. Ward, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA, pp. 125–128. (2005).

K.T. Willyerd, D.D. Archibald, K. Boroczky, and E.D. DeWolf, and G.A. Kuldau, , “Effects of temperature on deoxynivalenol translocation and F. Graminearum infection of wheat heads”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , 2–4 Dec 2008, Indianapolis, IN, USA, Ed by S.M. Canty, E. Walton, A. Clark, D. Ellis, and J. Mundell, and D.A. Van Sanford, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA, p. 74 (2008).

K.J. Odenbach, J.D. Salgado, and L.V. Madden, and P.A. Paul, , “Influence of cultivar resistance, infection timing, and inoculum density on FHB development and DON accumulation in asymptomatic wheat spikes”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , 2–4 Dec 2008, Indianapolis, IN, USA, Ed by S.M. Canty, E. Walton, A. Clark, D. Ellis, and J. Mundell, and D.A. Van Sanford, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA, p.50 (2008).

Anon, Discussion Paper on Deoxynivalenol (DON). Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program. Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants.  Thirty-eighth session. The Hague, Netherlands, 24–28 April (2006).

H.J. Dubin, L. Gilchrist, and J. Reeves, and A. McNab, , Eds, Fusarium head scab: Global status and prospects. CIMMYT, Mexico, DF, Mexico. 130 pp. (1997).

W.E. Nganje, S. Kaitibie, W.W. Wilson, and F.L. Leistritz, and D.A. Bangsund, , “Economic impacts of Fusarium head blight in wheat and barley: 1993–2001”, Agribusiness and Applied Economics Report No. 538. Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA (2004).

A. Agostinelli and N. Mundell, and D.V. Sanford, , “Percentage of fusarium damaged kernels measured by air separation”, in Proc. of the National Fusarium Head Blight Forum , 2–4 Dec 2008, Indianapolis, IN, USA, Ed by S.M. Canty, E. Walton, A. Clark, D. Ellis, and J. Mundell, and D.A. Van Sanford, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA, p.133 (2008).

J. Workman, and L. Weyer, , Practical Guide to Interpretive Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA (2008).

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