Abstract

This paper establishes a novel and rapid method for detecting pure melamine in milk powder using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy based on least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM). Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used for the extraction of principal components (PCs). The scores of the first two PCs have been applied as inputs to LS-SVM. Compared to PLS-DA, the performance of LS-SVM was better, with higher classification accuracy, both 100% for the training and testing set. The detection limit was lower than 1 ppm. Based on the results, it was concluded that NIR spectroscopy combined with LS-SVM could be used as a rapid and accurate method for detecting pure melamine in milk powder.

© 2009 IM Publications LLP

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2009 (1)

H.Y. Yu, X.Y. Niu, H.J. Lin, Y.B. Ying, and B.B. Li, and X.X. Pan, , “A feasibility study on on-line determination of rice wine composition by Vis–NIR spectroscopy and least-squares support vector machines”, Food Chem.  113, 291–296 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.083

H.Y. Yu, X.Y. Niu, H.J. Lin, Y.B. Ying, and B.B. Li, and X.X. Pan, , “A feasibility study on on-line determination of rice wine composition by Vis–NIR spectroscopy and least-squares support vector machines”, Food Chem.  113, 291–296 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.083

2008 (7)

M. Kawasaki, S. Kawamura, M. Tsukahara, S. Morita, and M. Komiya, and M. Natsuga, , “Near-infrared spectroscopic sensing system for on-line milk quality assessment in a milking robot”. Comput. Electron. Agric.  63, 22–27 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2008.01.006

M. Kawasaki, S. Kawamura, M. Tsukahara, S. Morita, and M. Komiya, and M. Natsuga, , “Near-infrared spectroscopic sensing system for on-line milk quality assessment in a milking robot”. Comput. Electron. Agric.  63, 22–27 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2008.01.006

P.B. Garcia-Allende, O.M. Conde, J. Mirapeix, and A. Cobo, and J.M. Lopez-Higuera, , “Quality control of industrial processes by combining a hyperspectral sensor and Fisher's linear discriminant analysis”, Sensor Actual B-Chem.  129, 977–984 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.snb.2007.09.036

P.B. Garcia-Allende, O.M. Conde, J. Mirapeix, and A. Cobo, and J.M. Lopez-Higuera, , “Quality control of industrial processes by combining a hyperspectral sensor and Fisher's linear discriminant analysis”, Sensor Actual B-Chem.  129, 977–984 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.snb.2007.09.036

D. Wu and Y. He, and S. Feng, , “Short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy analysis of major compounds in milk powder and wavelength assignment”, Anal. Chim. Acta  610, 232–242 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2008.01.056

D. Wu and Y. He, and S. Feng, , “Short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy analysis of major compounds in milk powder and wavelength assignment”, Anal. Chim. Acta  610, 232–242 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2008.01.056

F. Liu, and Y. He, , “Classification of brands of instant noodles using vis/NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics”, Food Res. Int.  41, 562–567 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2008.03.011

F. Liu, and Y. He, , “Classification of brands of instant noodles using vis/NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics”, Food Res. Int.  41, 562–567 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2008.03.011

F. Liu and Y. He, and L. Wang, , “Determination of effective wavelengths for discrimination of fruit vinegars using near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis”. Anal Chim Acta  615, 10–17 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2008.03.030

F. Liu and Y. He, and L. Wang, , “Determination of effective wavelengths for discrimination of fruit vinegars using near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis”. Anal Chim Acta  615, 10–17 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2008.03.030

L. Liu, D. Cozzolino, W.U. Cynkar, R.G. Dambergs, L. Janik, B.K. O'Neill, and C.B. Colby, and M. Gishen, “Preliminary study on the application of visible-near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics to classify Riesling wines from different countries”, Food Chem.  106, 781–786 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.015

L. Liu, D. Cozzolino, W.U. Cynkar, R.G. Dambergs, L. Janik, B.K. O'Neill, and C.B. Colby, and M. Gishen, “Preliminary study on the application of visible-near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics to classify Riesling wines from different countries”, Food Chem.  106, 781–786 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.015

H. Li and Y. Liang, and Q. Xu, , “Support vector machines and its applications in chemistry”. Chemometr. Intell. Lab. Syst.  95, 188–198 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.chemolab.2008.10.007

H. Li and Y. Liang, and Q. Xu, , “Support vector machines and its applications in chemistry”. Chemometr. Intell. Lab. Syst.  95, 188–198 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.chemolab.2008.10.007

2006 (3)

Y. He, C. Xiaoli, and L. Haoran, and X. Yupeng, , “Determination of multi-properties of residual oils using mid-infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy”, Fuel  85, 1720–1728 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2006.02.003

Y. He, C. Xiaoli, and L. Haoran, and X. Yupeng, , “Determination of multi-properties of residual oils using mid-infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy”, Fuel  85, 1720–1728 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2006.02.003

H. Cen, Y. Bao, and M. Huang, and Y. He, , “Comparison of data pre-processing in pattern recognition of milk powder vis/NIR spectra”, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.  4093, 1000–1007 (2006). doi: 10.1007/11811305 109

H. Cen, Y. Bao, and M. Huang, and Y. He, , “Comparison of data pre-processing in pattern recognition of milk powder vis/NIR spectra”, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.  4093, 1000–1007 (2006). doi: 10.1007/11811305 109

A. Borin, Flôres M. Ferrão, C. Mello, and Althmann D. Maretto, and R.J. Poppi, , “Least-squares support vector machines and near infrared spectroscopy for quantification of common adulterants in powdered milk”. Anal. Chim. Acta.  579, 25–32 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2006.07.008

A. Borin, Flôres M. Ferrão, C. Mello, and Althmann D. Maretto, and R.J. Poppi, , “Least-squares support vector machines and near infrared spectroscopy for quantification of common adulterants in powdered milk”. Anal. Chim. Acta.  579, 25–32 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2006.07.008

2004 (1)

D. Cozzolino, and I. Murray, , “Identification of animal meat muscles by visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy”, Lebensm.-Wiss. u.-Technol  37, 447–452 (2004).

D. Cozzolino, and I. Murray, , “Identification of animal meat muscles by visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy”, Lebensm.-Wiss. u.-Technol  37, 447–452 (2004).

2000 (1)

M. Kim and Y.-H. Lee, and C. Han, , “Real-time classification of petroleum products using near-infrared spectra”, Comput. Chem. Eng.  24, 513–517 (2000). doi: 10.1016/S0098–1354(00)00522–6

M. Kim and Y.-H. Lee, and C. Han, , “Real-time classification of petroleum products using near-infrared spectra”, Comput. Chem. Eng.  24, 513–517 (2000). doi: 10.1016/S0098–1354(00)00522–6

1999 (1)

J.A.K. Suykens, and J. Vandewalle, , “Least squares support vector machine classifiers”, Neural Process. Lett.  9, 293–300 (1999). doi: 10.1023/A:1018628609742

J.A.K. Suykens, and J. Vandewalle, , “Least squares support vector machine classifiers”, Neural Process. Lett.  9, 293–300 (1999). doi: 10.1023/A:1018628609742

Bao, Y.

H. Cen, Y. Bao, and M. Huang, and Y. He, , “Comparison of data pre-processing in pattern recognition of milk powder vis/NIR spectra”, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.  4093, 1000–1007 (2006). doi: 10.1007/11811305 109

Borin, A.

A. Borin, Flôres M. Ferrão, C. Mello, and Althmann D. Maretto, and R.J. Poppi, , “Least-squares support vector machines and near infrared spectroscopy for quantification of common adulterants in powdered milk”. Anal. Chim. Acta.  579, 25–32 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2006.07.008

Braga, F.

R. Giangiacomo and F. Braga, and C. Galliena, , “Use of nir spectroscopy to detect whey powder mixed with milk powder”. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Aberdeen, Scotland, August 19–23 1991 , Ed. By I. Murray, and I.A. Cowe, VCH, Weinheim, Germany, pp. 399–407 (1991).

Cen, H.

H. Cen, Y. Bao, and M. Huang, and Y. He, , “Comparison of data pre-processing in pattern recognition of milk powder vis/NIR spectra”, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.  4093, 1000–1007 (2006). doi: 10.1007/11811305 109

Cobo, A.

P.B. Garcia-Allende, O.M. Conde, J. Mirapeix, and A. Cobo, and J.M. Lopez-Higuera, , “Quality control of industrial processes by combining a hyperspectral sensor and Fisher's linear discriminant analysis”, Sensor Actual B-Chem.  129, 977–984 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.snb.2007.09.036

Colby, C.B.

L. Liu, D. Cozzolino, W.U. Cynkar, R.G. Dambergs, L. Janik, B.K. O'Neill, and C.B. Colby, and M. Gishen, “Preliminary study on the application of visible-near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics to classify Riesling wines from different countries”, Food Chem.  106, 781–786 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.015

Conde, O.M.

P.B. Garcia-Allende, O.M. Conde, J. Mirapeix, and A. Cobo, and J.M. Lopez-Higuera, , “Quality control of industrial processes by combining a hyperspectral sensor and Fisher's linear discriminant analysis”, Sensor Actual B-Chem.  129, 977–984 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.snb.2007.09.036

Cozzolino, D.

L. Liu, D. Cozzolino, W.U. Cynkar, R.G. Dambergs, L. Janik, B.K. O'Neill, and C.B. Colby, and M. Gishen, “Preliminary study on the application of visible-near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics to classify Riesling wines from different countries”, Food Chem.  106, 781–786 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.015

D. Cozzolino, and I. Murray, , “Identification of animal meat muscles by visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy”, Lebensm.-Wiss. u.-Technol  37, 447–452 (2004).

Cynkar, W.U.

L. Liu, D. Cozzolino, W.U. Cynkar, R.G. Dambergs, L. Janik, B.K. O'Neill, and C.B. Colby, and M. Gishen, “Preliminary study on the application of visible-near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics to classify Riesling wines from different countries”, Food Chem.  106, 781–786 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.015

Dambergs, R.G.

L. Liu, D. Cozzolino, W.U. Cynkar, R.G. Dambergs, L. Janik, B.K. O'Neill, and C.B. Colby, and M. Gishen, “Preliminary study on the application of visible-near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics to classify Riesling wines from different countries”, Food Chem.  106, 781–786 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.015

Feng, S.

D. Wu and Y. He, and S. Feng, , “Short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy analysis of major compounds in milk powder and wavelength assignment”, Anal. Chim. Acta  610, 232–242 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2008.01.056

Ferrão, Flôres M.

A. Borin, Flôres M. Ferrão, C. Mello, and Althmann D. Maretto, and R.J. Poppi, , “Least-squares support vector machines and near infrared spectroscopy for quantification of common adulterants in powdered milk”. Anal. Chim. Acta.  579, 25–32 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2006.07.008

Galliena, C.

R. Giangiacomo and F. Braga, and C. Galliena, , “Use of nir spectroscopy to detect whey powder mixed with milk powder”. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Aberdeen, Scotland, August 19–23 1991 , Ed. By I. Murray, and I.A. Cowe, VCH, Weinheim, Germany, pp. 399–407 (1991).

Garcia-Allende, P.B.

P.B. Garcia-Allende, O.M. Conde, J. Mirapeix, and A. Cobo, and J.M. Lopez-Higuera, , “Quality control of industrial processes by combining a hyperspectral sensor and Fisher's linear discriminant analysis”, Sensor Actual B-Chem.  129, 977–984 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.snb.2007.09.036

Giangiacomo, R.

R. Giangiacomo and F. Braga, and C. Galliena, , “Use of nir spectroscopy to detect whey powder mixed with milk powder”. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Aberdeen, Scotland, August 19–23 1991 , Ed. By I. Murray, and I.A. Cowe, VCH, Weinheim, Germany, pp. 399–407 (1991).

Gishen, M.

L. Liu, D. Cozzolino, W.U. Cynkar, R.G. Dambergs, L. Janik, B.K. O'Neill, and C.B. Colby, and M. Gishen, “Preliminary study on the application of visible-near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics to classify Riesling wines from different countries”, Food Chem.  106, 781–786 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.015

Han, C.

M. Kim and Y.-H. Lee, and C. Han, , “Real-time classification of petroleum products using near-infrared spectra”, Comput. Chem. Eng.  24, 513–517 (2000). doi: 10.1016/S0098–1354(00)00522–6

Haoran, L.

Y. He, C. Xiaoli, and L. Haoran, and X. Yupeng, , “Determination of multi-properties of residual oils using mid-infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy”, Fuel  85, 1720–1728 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2006.02.003

He, Y.

F. Liu and Y. He, and L. Wang, , “Determination of effective wavelengths for discrimination of fruit vinegars using near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis”. Anal Chim Acta  615, 10–17 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2008.03.030

F. Liu, and Y. He, , “Classification of brands of instant noodles using vis/NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics”, Food Res. Int.  41, 562–567 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2008.03.011

D. Wu and Y. He, and S. Feng, , “Short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy analysis of major compounds in milk powder and wavelength assignment”, Anal. Chim. Acta  610, 232–242 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2008.01.056

H. Cen, Y. Bao, and M. Huang, and Y. He, , “Comparison of data pre-processing in pattern recognition of milk powder vis/NIR spectra”, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.  4093, 1000–1007 (2006). doi: 10.1007/11811305 109

Y. He, C. Xiaoli, and L. Haoran, and X. Yupeng, , “Determination of multi-properties of residual oils using mid-infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy”, Fuel  85, 1720–1728 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2006.02.003

Huang, M.

H. Cen, Y. Bao, and M. Huang, and Y. He, , “Comparison of data pre-processing in pattern recognition of milk powder vis/NIR spectra”, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.  4093, 1000–1007 (2006). doi: 10.1007/11811305 109

Janik, L.

L. Liu, D. Cozzolino, W.U. Cynkar, R.G. Dambergs, L. Janik, B.K. O'Neill, and C.B. Colby, and M. Gishen, “Preliminary study on the application of visible-near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics to classify Riesling wines from different countries”, Food Chem.  106, 781–786 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.015

Kawamura, S.

M. Kawasaki, S. Kawamura, M. Tsukahara, S. Morita, and M. Komiya, and M. Natsuga, , “Near-infrared spectroscopic sensing system for on-line milk quality assessment in a milking robot”. Comput. Electron. Agric.  63, 22–27 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2008.01.006

Kawasaki, M.

M. Kawasaki, S. Kawamura, M. Tsukahara, S. Morita, and M. Komiya, and M. Natsuga, , “Near-infrared spectroscopic sensing system for on-line milk quality assessment in a milking robot”. Comput. Electron. Agric.  63, 22–27 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2008.01.006

Kim, M.

M. Kim and Y.-H. Lee, and C. Han, , “Real-time classification of petroleum products using near-infrared spectra”, Comput. Chem. Eng.  24, 513–517 (2000). doi: 10.1016/S0098–1354(00)00522–6

Komiya, M.

M. Kawasaki, S. Kawamura, M. Tsukahara, S. Morita, and M. Komiya, and M. Natsuga, , “Near-infrared spectroscopic sensing system for on-line milk quality assessment in a milking robot”. Comput. Electron. Agric.  63, 22–27 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2008.01.006

Lee, Y.-H.

M. Kim and Y.-H. Lee, and C. Han, , “Real-time classification of petroleum products using near-infrared spectra”, Comput. Chem. Eng.  24, 513–517 (2000). doi: 10.1016/S0098–1354(00)00522–6

Li, B.B.

H.Y. Yu, X.Y. Niu, H.J. Lin, Y.B. Ying, and B.B. Li, and X.X. Pan, , “A feasibility study on on-line determination of rice wine composition by Vis–NIR spectroscopy and least-squares support vector machines”, Food Chem.  113, 291–296 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.083

Li, H.

H. Li and Y. Liang, and Q. Xu, , “Support vector machines and its applications in chemistry”. Chemometr. Intell. Lab. Syst.  95, 188–198 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.chemolab.2008.10.007

Liang, Y.

H. Li and Y. Liang, and Q. Xu, , “Support vector machines and its applications in chemistry”. Chemometr. Intell. Lab. Syst.  95, 188–198 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.chemolab.2008.10.007

Lin, H.J.

H.Y. Yu, X.Y. Niu, H.J. Lin, Y.B. Ying, and B.B. Li, and X.X. Pan, , “A feasibility study on on-line determination of rice wine composition by Vis–NIR spectroscopy and least-squares support vector machines”, Food Chem.  113, 291–296 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.083

Liu, F.

F. Liu and Y. He, and L. Wang, , “Determination of effective wavelengths for discrimination of fruit vinegars using near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis”. Anal Chim Acta  615, 10–17 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2008.03.030

F. Liu, and Y. He, , “Classification of brands of instant noodles using vis/NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics”, Food Res. Int.  41, 562–567 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2008.03.011

Liu, L.

L. Liu, D. Cozzolino, W.U. Cynkar, R.G. Dambergs, L. Janik, B.K. O'Neill, and C.B. Colby, and M. Gishen, “Preliminary study on the application of visible-near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics to classify Riesling wines from different countries”, Food Chem.  106, 781–786 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.015

Lopez-Higuera, J.M.

P.B. Garcia-Allende, O.M. Conde, J. Mirapeix, and A. Cobo, and J.M. Lopez-Higuera, , “Quality control of industrial processes by combining a hyperspectral sensor and Fisher's linear discriminant analysis”, Sensor Actual B-Chem.  129, 977–984 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.snb.2007.09.036

Maretto, Althmann D.

A. Borin, Flôres M. Ferrão, C. Mello, and Althmann D. Maretto, and R.J. Poppi, , “Least-squares support vector machines and near infrared spectroscopy for quantification of common adulterants in powdered milk”. Anal. Chim. Acta.  579, 25–32 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2006.07.008

Mello, C.

A. Borin, Flôres M. Ferrão, C. Mello, and Althmann D. Maretto, and R.J. Poppi, , “Least-squares support vector machines and near infrared spectroscopy for quantification of common adulterants in powdered milk”. Anal. Chim. Acta.  579, 25–32 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2006.07.008

Mirapeix, J.

P.B. Garcia-Allende, O.M. Conde, J. Mirapeix, and A. Cobo, and J.M. Lopez-Higuera, , “Quality control of industrial processes by combining a hyperspectral sensor and Fisher's linear discriminant analysis”, Sensor Actual B-Chem.  129, 977–984 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.snb.2007.09.036

Morita, S.

M. Kawasaki, S. Kawamura, M. Tsukahara, S. Morita, and M. Komiya, and M. Natsuga, , “Near-infrared spectroscopic sensing system for on-line milk quality assessment in a milking robot”. Comput. Electron. Agric.  63, 22–27 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2008.01.006

Murray, I.

D. Cozzolino, and I. Murray, , “Identification of animal meat muscles by visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy”, Lebensm.-Wiss. u.-Technol  37, 447–452 (2004).

Natsuga, M.

M. Kawasaki, S. Kawamura, M. Tsukahara, S. Morita, and M. Komiya, and M. Natsuga, , “Near-infrared spectroscopic sensing system for on-line milk quality assessment in a milking robot”. Comput. Electron. Agric.  63, 22–27 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2008.01.006

Niu, X.Y.

H.Y. Yu, X.Y. Niu, H.J. Lin, Y.B. Ying, and B.B. Li, and X.X. Pan, , “A feasibility study on on-line determination of rice wine composition by Vis–NIR spectroscopy and least-squares support vector machines”, Food Chem.  113, 291–296 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.083

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F. Liu and Y. He, and L. Wang, , “Determination of effective wavelengths for discrimination of fruit vinegars using near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis”. Anal Chim Acta  615, 10–17 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2008.03.030

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H.Y. Yu, X.Y. Niu, H.J. Lin, Y.B. Ying, and B.B. Li, and X.X. Pan, , “A feasibility study on on-line determination of rice wine composition by Vis–NIR spectroscopy and least-squares support vector machines”, Food Chem.  113, 291–296 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.083

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H.Y. Yu, X.Y. Niu, H.J. Lin, Y.B. Ying, and B.B. Li, and X.X. Pan, , “A feasibility study on on-line determination of rice wine composition by Vis–NIR spectroscopy and least-squares support vector machines”, Food Chem.  113, 291–296 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.083

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Y. He, C. Xiaoli, and L. Haoran, and X. Yupeng, , “Determination of multi-properties of residual oils using mid-infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy”, Fuel  85, 1720–1728 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2006.02.003

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F. Liu and Y. He, and L. Wang, , “Determination of effective wavelengths for discrimination of fruit vinegars using near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis”. Anal Chim Acta  615, 10–17 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2008.03.030

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D. Wu and Y. He, and S. Feng, , “Short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy analysis of major compounds in milk powder and wavelength assignment”, Anal. Chim. Acta  610, 232–242 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2008.01.056

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A. Borin, Flôres M. Ferrão, C. Mello, and Althmann D. Maretto, and R.J. Poppi, , “Least-squares support vector machines and near infrared spectroscopy for quantification of common adulterants in powdered milk”. Anal. Chim. Acta.  579, 25–32 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2006.07.008

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H. Li and Y. Liang, and Q. Xu, , “Support vector machines and its applications in chemistry”. Chemometr. Intell. Lab. Syst.  95, 188–198 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.chemolab.2008.10.007

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H.Y. Yu, X.Y. Niu, H.J. Lin, Y.B. Ying, and B.B. Li, and X.X. Pan, , “A feasibility study on on-line determination of rice wine composition by Vis–NIR spectroscopy and least-squares support vector machines”, Food Chem.  113, 291–296 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.083

L. Liu, D. Cozzolino, W.U. Cynkar, R.G. Dambergs, L. Janik, B.K. O'Neill, and C.B. Colby, and M. Gishen, “Preliminary study on the application of visible-near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics to classify Riesling wines from different countries”, Food Chem.  106, 781–786 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.015

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