Abstract

This article will discuss the collaboratively formed cross-industry open cables concept for characterizing optical performance of undersea cables with the intent of assessing and understanding their capacity potential. The article proposes definitions of two critical nonlinear and linear performance metrics for open cables: GSNR (Gaussian or generalized signal to noise ratio) and SNRASE (Signal to noise ratio amplified spontaneous emission), including effects such as GAWBS (guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering) and signal droop. Measurement methodologies for these metrics are proposed, with considerations for limitations and impact of the test conditions and characteristics of the transponders used. Expanded definitions are offered to enable variable symbol rate transponders to be used for measurement, with considerations for scaling of SNR values. Considerations for using these metrics for capacity assessment and applying these techniques to concatenated multi-segment systems are introduced. Recommendations on key parameters for system specification, system characterization, and proposals for SNR-based performance budgeting tables are also discussed as foundational elements to enabling accurate estimation of the capacity potential of a subsea open cable.

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2020 (2)

M. A. Bolshtyansky, “Single-mode fiber SDM submarine systems,” J. Lightw. Technol, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1296–1304, 2020.

A. Bononi, J. C. Antona, M. Lonardi, A. Carbo-Meseguer, and P. Serena, “The generalized droop formula for low signal to noise ratio optical links,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 2201–2213, 2020.

2018 (1)

M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, M. Terayama, S. Okamoto, K. Kasai, and T. Hirooka, “Observation of guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering noise and its compensation in digital coherent optical fiber transmission systems,” Opt. Exp., vol. 26, no. 7, 2018, Art. no. .

2017 (2)

2015 (1)

“Characteristics of optically amplified optical fibre submarine cable systems,” ITU-T, Series G, G.977, 2015.

2012 (2)

Optical System Design and Engineering considerations, ITU-T, Series G, Supplement. vol. 39, 2012.

P. Poggiolini, “The GN model of non-linear propagation in uncompensated coherent optical systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 24, pp. 3857–3879, 2012.

2011 (2)

P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, V. Curri, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “Analytical modeling of nonlinear propagation in uncompensated optical transmission links,” PTL, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 742–744, 2011.

E. Grellier and A. Bononi, “Quality parameter for coherent transmissions with Gaussian-distributed nonlinear noise,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 12781–12788, 2011.

2008 (1)

W. Shieh and K. Ho, “Equalization-enhanced phase noise for coherent detection systems using electronic digital signal processing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 20, 2008, Art. no. .

2005 (1)

Neal S. Bergano, “Wavelength division multiplexing in long-haul transoceanic transmission systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 12, 2005, Art. no. .

1995 (1)

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications. McGraw-Hill, 1995.

1985 (1)

R.M. Shelby, M.D. Levenson, and P.W. Bayer, “Guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 5244–5252, 1985.

Al Khateeb, M. A. Z.

Andre, M.

J. Gaudette, E. Rivera Hartling, M. O'Sullivan, P. Booi, and M. Andre, “Using coherent technology for simple, accurate performance budgeting,” in Proc. SubOptic, Paris, France, 2013, Paper WE.1A.02.

Antona, J. C.

A. Bononi, J. C. Antona, M. Lonardi, A. Carbo-Meseguer, and P. Serena, “The generalized droop formula for low signal to noise ratio optical links,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 2201–2213, 2020.

J. C. Antona, A. Meseguer, and V. Letellier, “Transmission systems with constant output power amplifiers at Low SNR values: A generalized droop model,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, Paper M1J.6.

Antona, J.C.

A. Carbo Meseguer, P. Plantady, A. Calsat, S. Dubost, J.C. Antona, and V. Letellier, “Automated full c-band technique for fast characterization of subsea open cable G-SNR,” in Proc. Asia Commun. Photon. Conf., Chengdu, China, 2019, Paper S4B.5.

Antona, J.-C.

P. Serena, F. Poli, A. Bononi, and J.-C. Antona, “Scattering efficiency of thermally excited GAWBS in fibers for optical communications,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Dublin, Ireland, 2019, Paper Tu1C2.

Arik, S. Ö.

O. Domingues, D. Mello, S. Ö. Arik, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limits of space-division multiplexed submarine links subject to nonlinearities and power feed constraints,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper Th2A.50.

Balaban, P.

M. C. Jeruchim, P. Balaban, and K. S. Shanmugan, Simulation of Communication Systems.Norwell, MA, USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.

Barry, J. R.

J. R. Barry, E. A. Lee, D. G. Messerschmitt, Digital Communications. Springer, 2003.

Bayer, P.W.

R.M. Shelby, M.D. Levenson, and P.W. Bayer, “Guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 5244–5252, 1985.

Bergano, N. S.

A. Pilipetskii, D. Foursa, M. Bolshtyansky, G. Mohs, and N. S. Bergano, “Optical designs for greater power efficiency,” in Proc. SubOptic, Dubai, UAE, 2016, Paper TH1A.5.

Bergano, Neal S.

Neal S. Bergano, “Wavelength division multiplexing in long-haul transoceanic transmission systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 12, 2005, Art. no. .

Bolshtyansky, M.

A. Pilipetskii, D. Foursa, M. Bolshtyansky, G. Mohs, and N. S. Bergano, “Optical designs for greater power efficiency,” in Proc. SubOptic, Dubai, UAE, 2016, Paper TH1A.5.

Bolshtyansky, M. A.

M. A. Bolshtyansky, “Single-mode fiber SDM submarine systems,” J. Lightw. Technol, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1296–1304, 2020.

M. A. Bolshtyansky, “Impact of spontaneous guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering on long-haul transmission,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo., San Diego, CA, USA, 2018, Paper M4B.3.

M. Paskov, M. A. Bolshtyansky, J.-X. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “Observation and compensation of GAWBS in modulated channels,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, Paper Tu3J.3.

Bononi, A.

A. Bononi, J. C. Antona, M. Lonardi, A. Carbo-Meseguer, and P. Serena, “The generalized droop formula for low signal to noise ratio optical links,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 2201–2213, 2020.

E. Grellier and A. Bononi, “Quality parameter for coherent transmissions with Gaussian-distributed nonlinear noise,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 12781–12788, 2011.

P. Serena, F. Poli, A. Bononi, and J.-C. Antona, “Scattering efficiency of thermally excited GAWBS in fibers for optical communications,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Dublin, Ireland, 2019, Paper Tu1C2.

Booi, P.

J. Gaudette, E. Rivera Hartling, M. O'Sullivan, P. Booi, and M. Andre, “Using coherent technology for simple, accurate performance budgeting,” in Proc. SubOptic, Paris, France, 2013, Paper WE.1A.02.

Bosco, G.

P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, V. Curri, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “Analytical modeling of nonlinear propagation in uncompensated optical transmission links,” PTL, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 742–744, 2011.

Cai, J.-X.

M. Paskov, M. A. Bolshtyansky, J.-X. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “Observation and compensation of GAWBS in modulated channels,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, Paper Tu3J.3.

Calsat, A.

A. Carbo Meseguer, P. Plantady, A. Calsat, S. Dubost, J.C. Antona, and V. Letellier, “Automated full c-band technique for fast characterization of subsea open cable G-SNR,” in Proc. Asia Commun. Photon. Conf., Chengdu, China, 2019, Paper S4B.5.

Carbo Meseguer, A.

A. Carbo Meseguer, P. Plantady, A. Calsat, S. Dubost, J.C. Antona, and V. Letellier, “Automated full c-band technique for fast characterization of subsea open cable G-SNR,” in Proc. Asia Commun. Photon. Conf., Chengdu, China, 2019, Paper S4B.5.

Carbo-Meseguer, A.

A. Bononi, J. C. Antona, M. Lonardi, A. Carbo-Meseguer, and P. Serena, “The generalized droop formula for low signal to noise ratio optical links,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 2201–2213, 2020.

Carena, A.

P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, V. Curri, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “Analytical modeling of nonlinear propagation in uncompensated optical transmission links,” PTL, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 742–744, 2011.

Courtois, O.

P. Pecci, S. Dupont, S. Dubost, S. Ruggeri, O. Courtois, and V. Letellier, “Experimental characterization of submarine “Open Cable” using Gaussian-noise model and OSNRWET parameter,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper M2E.4.

Curri, V.

P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, V. Curri, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “Analytical modeling of nonlinear propagation in uncompensated optical transmission links,” PTL, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 742–744, 2011.

Dar, R.

R. Dar, “Submarine cable cost reduction through massive SDM,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.5.

Davidson, C. R.

M. Paskov, M. A. Bolshtyansky, J.-X. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “Observation and compensation of GAWBS in modulated channels,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, Paper Tu3J.3.

Domingues, O.

O. Domingues, D. Mello, S. Ö. Arik, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limits of space-division multiplexed submarine links subject to nonlinearities and power feed constraints,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper Th2A.50.

Doran, N. J.

Downie, J.

J. Downie, “Maximum cable capacity in submarine systems with power feed constraints and implications for SDM requirements,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.4.

Dubost, S.

P. Pecci, S. Dupont, S. Dubost, S. Ruggeri, O. Courtois, and V. Letellier, “Experimental characterization of submarine “Open Cable” using Gaussian-noise model and OSNRWET parameter,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper M2E.4.

A. Carbo Meseguer, P. Plantady, A. Calsat, S. Dubost, J.C. Antona, and V. Letellier, “Automated full c-band technique for fast characterization of subsea open cable G-SNR,” in Proc. Asia Commun. Photon. Conf., Chengdu, China, 2019, Paper S4B.5.

Dupont, S.

P. Pecci, S. Dupont, S. Dubost, S. Ruggeri, O. Courtois, and V. Letellier, “Experimental characterization of submarine “Open Cable” using Gaussian-noise model and OSNRWET parameter,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper M2E.4.

Ellis, A. D.

Enright, M.

M. Enright, E. Muth, J. Thogoluva, and G. Mohs, “Open cables and interaction with terrestrial networks,” in Proc. SubOptic, Dubai, UAE, 2016, Paper WE2A.4.

Forghieri, F.

P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, V. Curri, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “Analytical modeling of nonlinear propagation in uncompensated optical transmission links,” PTL, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 742–744, 2011.

Foursa, D.

A. Pilipetskii, D. Foursa, M. Bolshtyansky, G. Mohs, and N. S. Bergano, “Optical designs for greater power efficiency,” in Proc. SubOptic, Dubai, UAE, 2016, Paper TH1A.5.

Foursa, D. G.

M. Paskov, M. A. Bolshtyansky, J.-X. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “Observation and compensation of GAWBS in modulated channels,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, Paper Tu3J.3.

Gareau, S.

Gariépy, D.

G. He, S. Searcy, D. Gariépy and S. Tibuleac, “GOSNR characterization by optical spectrum analysis,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2020, Paper W2A.21.

Gaudette, J.

J. Gaudette, E. Rivera Hartling, M. O'Sullivan, P. Booi, and M. Andre, “Using coherent technology for simple, accurate performance budgeting,” in Proc. SubOptic, Paris, France, 2013, Paper WE.1A.02.

T. Stuch and J. Gaudette, “Open undersea cable systems for cloud scale operation,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper M2E.1.

Grellier, E.

E. Grellier and A. Bononi, “Quality parameter for coherent transmissions with Gaussian-distributed nonlinear noise,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 12781–12788, 2011.

Hartling, E. Rivera

E. Rivera Hartling, “From the acceptance of turnkey systems to open networks with G-SNR,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2020, Tutorial W1J.4.

E. Rivera Hartling, “Subsea open cables: A practical perspective on the guidelines and gotchas,” in Proc. SubOptic, New Orleans, LA, USA, 2019.

J. Gaudette, E. Rivera Hartling, M. O'Sullivan, P. Booi, and M. Andre, “Using coherent technology for simple, accurate performance budgeting,” in Proc. SubOptic, Paris, France, 2013, Paper WE.1A.02.

He, G.

G. He, S. Searcy, D. Gariépy and S. Tibuleac, “GOSNR characterization by optical spectrum analysis,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2020, Paper W2A.21.

Hirooka, T.

M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, M. Terayama, S. Okamoto, K. Kasai, and T. Hirooka, “Observation of guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering noise and its compensation in digital coherent optical fiber transmission systems,” Opt. Exp., vol. 26, no. 7, 2018, Art. no. .

Ho, K.

W. Shieh and K. Ho, “Equalization-enhanced phase noise for coherent detection systems using electronic digital signal processing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 20, 2008, Art. no. .

Inada, Y.

E. Mateo, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, S. Mikami, V. Kamalov, and V. Vusirikala, “Capacity limits of submarine cables,” in Proc. SubOptic, Dubai, UAE, 2016, Paper TH1A.1.

E. Mateo, K. Nakamura, T. Inoue, Y. Inada, and T. Ogata, “Nonlinear characterization of fiber optic submarine cables,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017, Paper Th.2.E.4.

Inoue, T.

E. Mateo, K. Nakamura, T. Inoue, Y. Inada, and T. Ogata, “Nonlinear characterization of fiber optic submarine cables,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017, Paper Th.2.E.4.

Jeruchim, M. C.

M. C. Jeruchim, P. Balaban, and K. S. Shanmugan, Simulation of Communication Systems.Norwell, MA, USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.

Kahn, J. M.

O. Domingues, D. Mello, S. Ö. Arik, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limits of space-division multiplexed submarine links subject to nonlinearities and power feed constraints,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper Th2A.50.

Kam, A.

A. Kam, “Pre-emphasis-based equalization strategy to maximize cable performance,” in Proc. SubOptic, New Orleans, LA, USA, 2019, Paper OP14-1.

Kamalov, V.

V. Kamalov, “The subsea fiber as a shannon channel,” in Proc. SubOptic, New Orleans, LA, USA, 2019, Paper OP12-2.

E. Mateo, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, S. Mikami, V. Kamalov, and V. Vusirikala, “Capacity limits of submarine cables,” in Proc. SubOptic, Dubai, UAE, 2016, Paper TH1A.1.

V. Kamalov, “Lessons learned from open line system deployments,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper M2E.2.

Kasai, K.

M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, M. Terayama, S. Okamoto, K. Kasai, and T. Hirooka, “Observation of guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering noise and its compensation in digital coherent optical fiber transmission systems,” Opt. Exp., vol. 26, no. 7, 2018, Art. no. .

Laperle, C.

Lee, E. A.

J. R. Barry, E. A. Lee, D. G. Messerschmitt, Digital Communications. Springer, 2003.

Letellier, V.

J. C. Antona, A. Meseguer, and V. Letellier, “Transmission systems with constant output power amplifiers at Low SNR values: A generalized droop model,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, Paper M1J.6.

A. Carbo Meseguer, P. Plantady, A. Calsat, S. Dubost, J.C. Antona, and V. Letellier, “Automated full c-band technique for fast characterization of subsea open cable G-SNR,” in Proc. Asia Commun. Photon. Conf., Chengdu, China, 2019, Paper S4B.5.

P. Pecci, S. Dupont, S. Dubost, S. Ruggeri, O. Courtois, and V. Letellier, “Experimental characterization of submarine “Open Cable” using Gaussian-noise model and OSNRWET parameter,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper M2E.4.

Levenson, M.D.

R.M. Shelby, M.D. Levenson, and P.W. Bayer, “Guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 5244–5252, 1985.

Lonardi, M.

A. Bononi, J. C. Antona, M. Lonardi, A. Carbo-Meseguer, and P. Serena, “The generalized droop formula for low signal to noise ratio optical links,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 2201–2213, 2020.

Mateo, E.

E. Mateo, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, S. Mikami, V. Kamalov, and V. Vusirikala, “Capacity limits of submarine cables,” in Proc. SubOptic, Dubai, UAE, 2016, Paper TH1A.1.

E. Mateo, K. Nakamura, T. Inoue, Y. Inada, and T. Ogata, “Nonlinear characterization of fiber optic submarine cables,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017, Paper Th.2.E.4.

McCarthy, M. E.

Mello, D.

O. Domingues, D. Mello, S. Ö. Arik, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limits of space-division multiplexed submarine links subject to nonlinearities and power feed constraints,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper Th2A.50.

Meseguer, A.

J. C. Antona, A. Meseguer, and V. Letellier, “Transmission systems with constant output power amplifiers at Low SNR values: A generalized droop model,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, Paper M1J.6.

Messerschmitt, D. G.

J. R. Barry, E. A. Lee, D. G. Messerschmitt, Digital Communications. Springer, 2003.

Mikami, S.

E. Mateo, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, S. Mikami, V. Kamalov, and V. Vusirikala, “Capacity limits of submarine cables,” in Proc. SubOptic, Dubai, UAE, 2016, Paper TH1A.1.

Mohs, G.

A. Pilipetskii, D. Foursa, M. Bolshtyansky, G. Mohs, and N. S. Bergano, “Optical designs for greater power efficiency,” in Proc. SubOptic, Dubai, UAE, 2016, Paper TH1A.5.

M. Enright, E. Muth, J. Thogoluva, and G. Mohs, “Open cables and interaction with terrestrial networks,” in Proc. SubOptic, Dubai, UAE, 2016, Paper WE2A.4.

Monga, I.

Muth, E.

M. Enright, E. Muth, J. Thogoluva, and G. Mohs, “Open cables and interaction with terrestrial networks,” in Proc. SubOptic, Dubai, UAE, 2016, Paper WE2A.4.

Nakamura, K.

E. Mateo, K. Nakamura, T. Inoue, Y. Inada, and T. Ogata, “Nonlinear characterization of fiber optic submarine cables,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017, Paper Th.2.E.4.

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, M. Terayama, S. Okamoto, K. Kasai, and T. Hirooka, “Observation of guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering noise and its compensation in digital coherent optical fiber transmission systems,” Opt. Exp., vol. 26, no. 7, 2018, Art. no. .

Nelson, L. E.

L. E. Nelson, “Polarization effects in coherent systems,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper OTu1A.4.

Ogata, T.

E. Mateo, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, S. Mikami, V. Kamalov, and V. Vusirikala, “Capacity limits of submarine cables,” in Proc. SubOptic, Dubai, UAE, 2016, Paper TH1A.1.

E. Mateo, K. Nakamura, T. Inoue, Y. Inada, and T. Ogata, “Nonlinear characterization of fiber optic submarine cables,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017, Paper Th.2.E.4.

Okamoto, S.

M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, M. Terayama, S. Okamoto, K. Kasai, and T. Hirooka, “Observation of guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering noise and its compensation in digital coherent optical fiber transmission systems,” Opt. Exp., vol. 26, no. 7, 2018, Art. no. .

O'Sullivan, M.

J. Gaudette, E. Rivera Hartling, M. O'Sullivan, P. Booi, and M. Andre, “Using coherent technology for simple, accurate performance budgeting,” in Proc. SubOptic, Paris, France, 2013, Paper WE.1A.02.

M. Reimer, S. Oveis Gharan, A. D. Shiner, and M. O'Sullivan, “Optimized 4 and 8 dimensional modulation formats for variable capacity in optical networks,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2016, Paper M3A.4.

Oveis Gharan, S.

M. Reimer, S. Oveis Gharan, A. D. Shiner, and M. O'Sullivan, “Optimized 4 and 8 dimensional modulation formats for variable capacity in optical networks,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2016, Paper M3A.4.

Paskov, M.

M. Paskov, M. A. Bolshtyansky, J.-X. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “Observation and compensation of GAWBS in modulated channels,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, Paper Tu3J.3.

Pecci, P.

P. Pecci, S. Dupont, S. Dubost, S. Ruggeri, O. Courtois, and V. Letellier, “Experimental characterization of submarine “Open Cable” using Gaussian-noise model and OSNRWET parameter,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper M2E.4.

Pilipetskii, A.

A. Pilipetskii, “High capacity submarine transmission systems,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Tutorial W3G.5.

A. Pilipetskii, D. Foursa, M. Bolshtyansky, G. Mohs, and N. S. Bergano, “Optical designs for greater power efficiency,” in Proc. SubOptic, Dubai, UAE, 2016, Paper TH1A.5.

Pilipetskii, A. N.

M. Paskov, M. A. Bolshtyansky, J.-X. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “Observation and compensation of GAWBS in modulated channels,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, Paper Tu3J.3.

Plantady, P.

A. Carbo Meseguer, P. Plantady, A. Calsat, S. Dubost, J.C. Antona, and V. Letellier, “Automated full c-band technique for fast characterization of subsea open cable G-SNR,” in Proc. Asia Commun. Photon. Conf., Chengdu, China, 2019, Paper S4B.5.

Poggiolini, P.

P. Poggiolini, “The GN model of non-linear propagation in uncompensated coherent optical systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 24, pp. 3857–3879, 2012.

P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, V. Curri, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “Analytical modeling of nonlinear propagation in uncompensated optical transmission links,” PTL, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 742–744, 2011.

Poli, F.

P. Serena, F. Poli, A. Bononi, and J.-C. Antona, “Scattering efficiency of thermally excited GAWBS in fibers for optical communications,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Dublin, Ireland, 2019, Paper Tu1C2.

Proakis, J. G.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications. McGraw-Hill, 1995.

Reimer, M.

M. Reimer, S. Oveis Gharan, A. D. Shiner, and M. O'Sullivan, “Optimized 4 and 8 dimensional modulation formats for variable capacity in optical networks,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2016, Paper M3A.4.

Roberts, K.

Ruggeri, S.

P. Pecci, S. Dupont, S. Dubost, S. Ruggeri, O. Courtois, and V. Letellier, “Experimental characterization of submarine “Open Cable” using Gaussian-noise model and OSNRWET parameter,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper M2E.4.

Ryf, R.

R. Ryf, “White Gaussian noise based capacity estimate and characterization of fiber-optic link,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo., San Diego, CA, USA, 2018, Paper W1G.2.

Searcy, S.

G. He, S. Searcy, D. Gariépy and S. Tibuleac, “GOSNR characterization by optical spectrum analysis,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2020, Paper W2A.21.

Serena, P.

A. Bononi, J. C. Antona, M. Lonardi, A. Carbo-Meseguer, and P. Serena, “The generalized droop formula for low signal to noise ratio optical links,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 2201–2213, 2020.

P. Serena, F. Poli, A. Bononi, and J.-C. Antona, “Scattering efficiency of thermally excited GAWBS in fibers for optical communications,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Dublin, Ireland, 2019, Paper Tu1C2.

Shanmugan, K. S.

M. C. Jeruchim, P. Balaban, and K. S. Shanmugan, Simulation of Communication Systems.Norwell, MA, USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.

Shelby, R.M.

R.M. Shelby, M.D. Levenson, and P.W. Bayer, “Guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 5244–5252, 1985.

Shieh, W.

W. Shieh and K. Ho, “Equalization-enhanced phase noise for coherent detection systems using electronic digital signal processing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 20, 2008, Art. no. .

Shiner, A. D.

A. D. Shiner, “Neural network training for OSNR estimation from prototype to product,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo., San Diego, CA, USA, 2020, Paper M4E.2.

M. Reimer, S. Oveis Gharan, A. D. Shiner, and M. O'Sullivan, “Optimized 4 and 8 dimensional modulation formats for variable capacity in optical networks,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2016, Paper M3A.4.

Sinkin, O. V.

O. V. Sinkin, “Effective signal to noise ratio performance metric for dispersion-uncompensated links,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Valencia, Spain, 2015, Paper P.5.3.

Sorokina, M.

Stuch, T.

T. Stuch and J. Gaudette, “Open undersea cable systems for cloud scale operation,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper M2E.1.

Terayama, M.

M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, M. Terayama, S. Okamoto, K. Kasai, and T. Hirooka, “Observation of guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering noise and its compensation in digital coherent optical fiber transmission systems,” Opt. Exp., vol. 26, no. 7, 2018, Art. no. .

Thogoluva, J.

M. Enright, E. Muth, J. Thogoluva, and G. Mohs, “Open cables and interaction with terrestrial networks,” in Proc. SubOptic, Dubai, UAE, 2016, Paper WE2A.4.

Tibuleac, S.

G. He, S. Searcy, D. Gariépy and S. Tibuleac, “GOSNR characterization by optical spectrum analysis,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2020, Paper W2A.21.

Vusirikala, V.

E. Mateo, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, S. Mikami, V. Kamalov, and V. Vusirikala, “Capacity limits of submarine cables,” in Proc. SubOptic, Dubai, UAE, 2016, Paper TH1A.1.

Yoshida, M.

M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, M. Terayama, S. Okamoto, K. Kasai, and T. Hirooka, “Observation of guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering noise and its compensation in digital coherent optical fiber transmission systems,” Opt. Exp., vol. 26, no. 7, 2018, Art. no. .

Zhuge, Q.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

J. Lightw. Technol (1)

M. A. Bolshtyansky, “Single-mode fiber SDM submarine systems,” J. Lightw. Technol, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1296–1304, 2020.

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

P. Poggiolini, “The GN model of non-linear propagation in uncompensated coherent optical systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 24, pp. 3857–3879, 2012.

A. Bononi, J. C. Antona, M. Lonardi, A. Carbo-Meseguer, and P. Serena, “The generalized droop formula for low signal to noise ratio optical links,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 2201–2213, 2020.

Neal S. Bergano, “Wavelength division multiplexing in long-haul transoceanic transmission systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 12, 2005, Art. no. .

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Opt. Exp. (3)

W. Shieh and K. Ho, “Equalization-enhanced phase noise for coherent detection systems using electronic digital signal processing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 20, 2008, Art. no. .

E. Grellier and A. Bononi, “Quality parameter for coherent transmissions with Gaussian-distributed nonlinear noise,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 12781–12788, 2011.

M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, M. Terayama, S. Okamoto, K. Kasai, and T. Hirooka, “Observation of guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering noise and its compensation in digital coherent optical fiber transmission systems,” Opt. Exp., vol. 26, no. 7, 2018, Art. no. .

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R.M. Shelby, M.D. Levenson, and P.W. Bayer, “Guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 5244–5252, 1985.

PTL (1)

P. Poggiolini, A. Carena, V. Curri, G. Bosco, and F. Forghieri, “Analytical modeling of nonlinear propagation in uncompensated optical transmission links,” PTL, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 742–744, 2011.

Other (32)

M. Enright, E. Muth, J. Thogoluva, and G. Mohs, “Open cables and interaction with terrestrial networks,” in Proc. SubOptic, Dubai, UAE, 2016, Paper WE2A.4.

V. Kamalov, “Lessons learned from open line system deployments,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper M2E.2.

T. Stuch and J. Gaudette, “Open undersea cable systems for cloud scale operation,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper M2E.1.

E. Rivera Hartling, “From the acceptance of turnkey systems to open networks with G-SNR,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2020, Tutorial W1J.4.

P. Serena, F. Poli, A. Bononi, and J.-C. Antona, “Scattering efficiency of thermally excited GAWBS in fibers for optical communications,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Dublin, Ireland, 2019, Paper Tu1C2.

M. Paskov, M. A. Bolshtyansky, J.-X. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “Observation and compensation of GAWBS in modulated channels,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, Paper Tu3J.3.

J. C. Antona, A. Meseguer, and V. Letellier, “Transmission systems with constant output power amplifiers at Low SNR values: A generalized droop model,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, Paper M1J.6.

Optical System Design and Engineering considerations, ITU-T, Series G, Supplement. vol. 39, 2012.

J. Gaudette, E. Rivera Hartling, M. O'Sullivan, P. Booi, and M. Andre, “Using coherent technology for simple, accurate performance budgeting,” in Proc. SubOptic, Paris, France, 2013, Paper WE.1A.02.

O. V. Sinkin, “Effective signal to noise ratio performance metric for dispersion-uncompensated links,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Valencia, Spain, 2015, Paper P.5.3.

P. Pecci, S. Dupont, S. Dubost, S. Ruggeri, O. Courtois, and V. Letellier, “Experimental characterization of submarine “Open Cable” using Gaussian-noise model and OSNRWET parameter,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper M2E.4.

E. Mateo, K. Nakamura, T. Inoue, Y. Inada, and T. Ogata, “Nonlinear characterization of fiber optic submarine cables,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017, Paper Th.2.E.4.

A. Carbo Meseguer, P. Plantady, A. Calsat, S. Dubost, J.C. Antona, and V. Letellier, “Automated full c-band technique for fast characterization of subsea open cable G-SNR,” in Proc. Asia Commun. Photon. Conf., Chengdu, China, 2019, Paper S4B.5.

E. Rivera Hartling, “Subsea open cables: A practical perspective on the guidelines and gotchas,” in Proc. SubOptic, New Orleans, LA, USA, 2019.

A. Pilipetskii, “High capacity submarine transmission systems,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Tutorial W3G.5.

E. Mateo, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, S. Mikami, V. Kamalov, and V. Vusirikala, “Capacity limits of submarine cables,” in Proc. SubOptic, Dubai, UAE, 2016, Paper TH1A.1.

A. Pilipetskii, D. Foursa, M. Bolshtyansky, G. Mohs, and N. S. Bergano, “Optical designs for greater power efficiency,” in Proc. SubOptic, Dubai, UAE, 2016, Paper TH1A.5.

O. Domingues, D. Mello, S. Ö. Arik, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limits of space-division multiplexed submarine links subject to nonlinearities and power feed constraints,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper Th2A.50.

R. Dar, “Submarine cable cost reduction through massive SDM,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.5.

J. Downie, “Maximum cable capacity in submarine systems with power feed constraints and implications for SDM requirements,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.4.

M. A. Bolshtyansky, “Impact of spontaneous guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering on long-haul transmission,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo., San Diego, CA, USA, 2018, Paper M4B.3.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications. McGraw-Hill, 1995.

J. R. Barry, E. A. Lee, D. G. Messerschmitt, Digital Communications. Springer, 2003.

M. Reimer, S. Oveis Gharan, A. D. Shiner, and M. O'Sullivan, “Optimized 4 and 8 dimensional modulation formats for variable capacity in optical networks,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2016, Paper M3A.4.

M. C. Jeruchim, P. Balaban, and K. S. Shanmugan, Simulation of Communication Systems.Norwell, MA, USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.

G. He, S. Searcy, D. Gariépy and S. Tibuleac, “GOSNR characterization by optical spectrum analysis,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2020, Paper W2A.21.

R. Ryf, “White Gaussian noise based capacity estimate and characterization of fiber-optic link,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo., San Diego, CA, USA, 2018, Paper W1G.2.

A. D. Shiner, “Neural network training for OSNR estimation from prototype to product,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo., San Diego, CA, USA, 2020, Paper M4E.2.

A. Kam, “Pre-emphasis-based equalization strategy to maximize cable performance,” in Proc. SubOptic, New Orleans, LA, USA, 2019, Paper OP14-1.

V. Kamalov, “The subsea fiber as a shannon channel,” in Proc. SubOptic, New Orleans, LA, USA, 2019, Paper OP12-2.

L. E. Nelson, “Polarization effects in coherent systems,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper OTu1A.4.

“Characteristics of optically amplified optical fibre submarine cable systems,” ITU-T, Series G, G.977, 2015.

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