Abstract

We demonstrate a 222 GBd on-off-keying transmitter in a short-reach intra-datacenter scenario with direct detection after 120 m of standard single mode fiber. The system operates at net-data rates of >200 Gb/s OOK for transmission distances of a few meters, and >177 Gb/s over 120 m, limited by chromatic dispersion in the standard single mode fiber. The high symbol rate transmitter is enabled by a high-bandwidth plasmonic-organic hybrid Mach–Zehnder modulator on the silicon photonic platform that is ribbon-bonded to an InP DHBT 2:1 digital multiplexing selector. Requiring no driving RF amplifiers, the selector directly drives the modulator with a differential output voltage of 622 mVpp measured across a 50 Ω resistor. The transmitter assembly occupies a footprint of less than 1.5 mm × 2.1 mm.

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2019 (12)

J. M. Estaran, “140/180/204-Gbaud OOK transceiver for inter- and intra-data center connectivity,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 178–187, 2019.

J. Sun, R. Kumar, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, H. Jayatilleka, and H. Rong, “A 128 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring modulator with integrated thermo-optic resonance tuning,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 110–115, 2019.

H. Yamazaki, “IMDD transmission at net data rate of 333 Gb/s using over-100-GHz-bandwidth analog multiplexer and Mach–Zehnder modulator,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1772–1778, 2019.

B. Baeuerle, “120 GBd plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator with a novel differential electrode design operated at a peak-to-peak drive voltage of 178 mV,” Opt. Express, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 16823–16832, 2019.

B. Baeuerle, “Reduced equalization needs of 100 GHz bandwidth plasmonic modulators,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 2050–2057, 2019.

A. Konczykowska, “212-Gbit/s 2:1 multiplexing selector realised in InP DHBT,” Electron. Lett., vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 242–244, 2019.

V. Nodjiadjim, “0.7- um InP DHBT technology with 400-GHz f_t and f_MAX and 4.5-V BVCE0 for high speed and high frequency integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Electron. Devices Soc., vol. 7, pp. 748–752, 2019.

M. Burla, “500 GHz plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling sub-THz microwave photonics,” APL Photon., vol. 4, no. 5, 2019, Art no. .

W. Heni, “Plasmonic IQ modulators with attojoule per bit electrical energy consumption,” Nature Commun., vol. 10, no. 1, 2019, Art. no. .

S. Ummethala, “THz-to-optical conversion in wireless communications using an ultra-broadband plasmonic modulator,” Nature Photon., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 519–524, 2019.

U. Koch, “Ultra-compact terabit plasmonic modulator array,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1484–1491, 2019.

M. Ayata, “All-plasmonic IQ modulator with a 36 μm fiber-to-fiber pitch,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1492–1497, 2019.

2018 (7)

B. H. Robinson, “Optimization of plasmonic-organic hybrid electro-optics,” (in English), J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 36, no. 21, pp. 5036–5047, 2018.

J. Verbist, “Real-Time 100 Gb/s NRZ and EDB transmission with a GeSi electro-absorption modulator for short-reach optical interconnects EAM,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 90–96, 2018.

S. Lange, “100 GBd intensity modulation and direct detection with an InP-based monolithic DFB laser Mach–Zehnder modulator,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 97–102, , 2018.

C. Haffner, “Low-loss plasmon-assisted electro-optic modulator,” Nature, vol. 556, no. 7702, pp. 483–486, 2018.

C. Wang, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature, vol. 562, no. 7725, pp. 101–104, 2018.

S. Wolf, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off keying,” Sci. Rep., vol. 8, no. 1, 2018, Art. no. .

C. Minkenberg, “Reimagining datacenter topologies with integrated silicon photonics,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 10, no. 7, pp. B126–B139, 2018.

2017 (6)

P. J. Winzer and D. T. Neilson, “From scaling disparities to integrated parallelism: A decathlon for a decade,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1099–1115, 2017.

S. Kanazawa, “214-Gb/s 4-PAM operation of flip-chip interconnection EADFB laser module,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 418–422, 2017.

D. A. B. Miller, “Attojoule optoelectronics for low-energy information processing and communications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 346–396, 2017.

H. Mardoyan, “84-, 100-, and 107-GBd PAM-4 intensity-modulation direct-detection transceiver for datacenter interconnects,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1253–1259, 2017.

C. Haffner, “Harnessing nonlinearities near material absorption resonances for reducing losses in plasmonic modulators,” Opt. Mater. Express, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 2168–2181, 2017.

W. Heni, “Silicon-Organic and Plasmonic-Organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photon., vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 1576–1590, 2017.

2016 (3)

W. Heni, “108 Gbit/s plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator with 70-GHz electrical bandwidth,” (in English), J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 393–400, 2016.

L. Carroll, “Photonic packaging: transforming silicon photonic integrated circuits into photonic devices,” Appl. Sci., vol. 6, no. 12, 2016, pp. 1–21.

C. Haffner, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators—Scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 104, no. 12, pp. 2362–2379, 2016.

2015 (1)

W. Heni, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt Express, vol. 23, no. 23, pp. 29746–29757, , 2015.

2014 (2)

L. M. Zhang and F. R. Kschischang, “Staircase codes with 6% to 33% overhead,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1999–2002, , 2014.

A. Melikyan, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” (in English), Nature Photon., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 229–233, 2014.

2012 (1)

Ayata, M.

M. Ayata, “All-plasmonic IQ modulator with a 36 μm fiber-to-fiber pitch,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1492–1497, 2019.

Baeuerle, B.

B. Baeuerle, “120 GBd plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator with a novel differential electrode design operated at a peak-to-peak drive voltage of 178 mV,” Opt. Express, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 16823–16832, 2019.

B. Baeuerle, “Reduced equalization needs of 100 GHz bandwidth plasmonic modulators,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 2050–2057, 2019.

Baeyens, Y.

A. Melikyan, N. Kaneda, K. Kim, Y. Baeyens, and P. Dong, “100 GBaud QAM signaling with silicon photonic electro-absorption modulators,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC), Dublin, Ireland, 2019.

Burla, M.

M. Burla, “500 GHz plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling sub-THz microwave photonics,” APL Photon., vol. 4, no. 5, 2019, Art no. .

Carroll, L.

L. Carroll, “Photonic packaging: transforming silicon photonic integrated circuits into photonic devices,” Appl. Sci., vol. 6, no. 12, 2016, pp. 1–21.

Chandrasekhar, S.

X. Chen, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Cho, and P. Winzer, “Single-wavelength and single-photodiode entropy-loaded 554-Gb/s transmission over 22-km SMF,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, pp. 1–3.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Cho, and P. Winzer, “Single-wavelength and single-photodiode entropy-loaded 554-Gb/s transmission over 22-km SMF,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, pp. 1–3.

X. Chen, “218-Gb/s single-wavelength, single-polarization, single-photodiode transmission over 125-km of standard singlemode fiber using Kramers-Kronig detection,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., 2017, pp. 1–3.

Cheng, X.

S. Yokoyama, G.-W. Lu, X. Cheng, F. Qiu, and A. M. Spring, “110 Gbit/s On-Off keying transmitter based on a single-drive polymer modulator,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, pp. 1–3.

Cho, J.

X. Chen, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Cho, and P. Winzer, “Single-wavelength and single-photodiode entropy-loaded 554-Gb/s transmission over 22-km SMF,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, pp. 1–3.

Dong, P.

A. Melikyan, N. Kaneda, K. Kim, Y. Baeyens, and P. Dong, “100 GBaud QAM signaling with silicon photonic electro-absorption modulators,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC), Dublin, Ireland, 2019.

Driscoll, J.

J. Sun, R. Kumar, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, H. Jayatilleka, and H. Rong, “A 128 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring modulator with integrated thermo-optic resonance tuning,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 110–115, 2019.

Estaran, J. M.

J. M. Estaran, “140/180/204-Gbaud OOK transceiver for inter- and intra-data center connectivity,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 178–187, 2019.

Haffner, C.

C. Haffner, “Low-loss plasmon-assisted electro-optic modulator,” Nature, vol. 556, no. 7702, pp. 483–486, 2018.

C. Haffner, “Harnessing nonlinearities near material absorption resonances for reducing losses in plasmonic modulators,” Opt. Mater. Express, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 2168–2181, 2017.

C. Haffner, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators—Scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 104, no. 12, pp. 2362–2379, 2016.

Heni, W.

W. Heni, “Plasmonic IQ modulators with attojoule per bit electrical energy consumption,” Nature Commun., vol. 10, no. 1, 2019, Art. no. .

W. Heni, “Silicon-Organic and Plasmonic-Organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photon., vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 1576–1590, 2017.

W. Heni, “108 Gbit/s plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator with 70-GHz electrical bandwidth,” (in English), J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 393–400, 2016.

W. Heni, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt Express, vol. 23, no. 23, pp. 29746–29757, , 2015.

Jacques, M.

M. Jacques, “200 Gbit/s net rate transmission over 2 km with a silicon photonics segmented MZM,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC), Dublin, Ireland, 2019.

Jayatilleka, H.

J. Sun, R. Kumar, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, H. Jayatilleka, and H. Rong, “A 128 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring modulator with integrated thermo-optic resonance tuning,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 110–115, 2019.

Johnson, C.

R. Urata, H. Liu, L. Verslegers, and C. Johnson, “Silicon photon. technologies: Gaps analysis for datacenter interconnects,” in Silicon Photonics III, Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2016, pp. 473–488.

Kanazawa, S.

S. Kanazawa, “214-Gb/s 4-PAM operation of flip-chip interconnection EADFB laser module,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 418–422, 2017.

Kaneda, N.

A. Melikyan, N. Kaneda, K. Kim, Y. Baeyens, and P. Dong, “100 GBaud QAM signaling with silicon photonic electro-absorption modulators,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC), Dublin, Ireland, 2019.

Katopodis, V.

Kim, K.

A. Melikyan, N. Kaneda, K. Kim, Y. Baeyens, and P. Dong, “100 GBaud QAM signaling with silicon photonic electro-absorption modulators,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC), Dublin, Ireland, 2019.

Koch, U.

U. Koch, “Ultra-compact terabit plasmonic modulator array,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1484–1491, 2019.

Konczykowska, A.

A. Konczykowska, “212-Gbit/s 2:1 multiplexing selector realised in InP DHBT,” Electron. Lett., vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 242–244, 2019.

Kschischang, F. R.

L. M. Zhang and F. R. Kschischang, “Staircase codes with 6% to 33% overhead,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1999–2002, , 2014.

Kumar, R.

J. Sun, R. Kumar, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, H. Jayatilleka, and H. Rong, “A 128 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring modulator with integrated thermo-optic resonance tuning,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 110–115, 2019.

Lange, S.

S. Lange, “100 GBd intensity modulation and direct detection with an InP-based monolithic DFB laser Mach–Zehnder modulator,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 97–102, , 2018.

Le, S. T.

S. T. Le, “8 × 256 Gbps virtual-carrier assisted WDM direct-detection transmission over a single span of 200 km,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017, pp. 1–3.

Liu, H.

R. Urata, H. Liu, L. Verslegers, and C. Johnson, “Silicon photon. technologies: Gaps analysis for datacenter interconnects,” in Silicon Photonics III, Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2016, pp. 473–488.

Lu, G.-W.

S. Yokoyama, G.-W. Lu, X. Cheng, F. Qiu, and A. M. Spring, “110 Gbit/s On-Off keying transmitter based on a single-drive polymer modulator,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, pp. 1–3.

Mardoyan, H.

H. Mardoyan, “84-, 100-, and 107-GBd PAM-4 intensity-modulation direct-detection transceiver for datacenter interconnects,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1253–1259, 2017.

H. Mardoyan, “222-GBaud On-Off keying transmitter using ultra-high-speed 2:1 selector and plasmonic modulator on silicon photonics,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC), Dublin, Ireland, 2019.

Melikyan, A.

A. Melikyan, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” (in English), Nature Photon., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 229–233, 2014.

A. Melikyan, N. Kaneda, K. Kim, Y. Baeyens, and P. Dong, “100 GBaud QAM signaling with silicon photonic electro-absorption modulators,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC), Dublin, Ireland, 2019.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Attojoule optoelectronics for low-energy information processing and communications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 346–396, 2017.

Minkenberg, C.

Neilson, D. T.

P. J. Winzer and D. T. Neilson, “From scaling disparities to integrated parallelism: A decathlon for a decade,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1099–1115, 2017.

Nodjiadjim, V.

V. Nodjiadjim, “0.7- um InP DHBT technology with 400-GHz f_t and f_MAX and 4.5-V BVCE0 for high speed and high frequency integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Electron. Devices Soc., vol. 7, pp. 748–752, 2019.

Qiu, F.

S. Yokoyama, G.-W. Lu, X. Cheng, F. Qiu, and A. M. Spring, “110 Gbit/s On-Off keying transmitter based on a single-drive polymer modulator,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, pp. 1–3.

Robinson, B. H.

B. H. Robinson, “Optimization of plasmonic-organic hybrid electro-optics,” (in English), J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 36, no. 21, pp. 5036–5047, 2018.

Rong, H.

J. Sun, R. Kumar, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, H. Jayatilleka, and H. Rong, “A 128 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring modulator with integrated thermo-optic resonance tuning,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 110–115, 2019.

Sakib, M.

J. Sun, R. Kumar, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, H. Jayatilleka, and H. Rong, “A 128 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring modulator with integrated thermo-optic resonance tuning,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 110–115, 2019.

Spring, A. M.

S. Yokoyama, G.-W. Lu, X. Cheng, F. Qiu, and A. M. Spring, “110 Gbit/s On-Off keying transmitter based on a single-drive polymer modulator,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, pp. 1–3.

Sun, J.

J. Sun, R. Kumar, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, H. Jayatilleka, and H. Rong, “A 128 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring modulator with integrated thermo-optic resonance tuning,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 110–115, 2019.

Ummethala, S.

S. Ummethala, “THz-to-optical conversion in wireless communications using an ultra-broadband plasmonic modulator,” Nature Photon., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 519–524, 2019.

Urata, R.

R. Urata, H. Liu, L. Verslegers, and C. Johnson, “Silicon photon. technologies: Gaps analysis for datacenter interconnects,” in Silicon Photonics III, Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2016, pp. 473–488.

Verbist, J.

J. Verbist, “Real-Time 100 Gb/s NRZ and EDB transmission with a GeSi electro-absorption modulator for short-reach optical interconnects EAM,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 90–96, 2018.

Verslegers, L.

R. Urata, H. Liu, L. Verslegers, and C. Johnson, “Silicon photon. technologies: Gaps analysis for datacenter interconnects,” in Silicon Photonics III, Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2016, pp. 473–488.

Wang, C.

C. Wang, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature, vol. 562, no. 7725, pp. 101–104, 2018.

Winzer, P.

X. Chen, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Cho, and P. Winzer, “Single-wavelength and single-photodiode entropy-loaded 554-Gb/s transmission over 22-km SMF,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Diego, CA, USA, 2019, pp. 1–3.

Winzer, P. J.

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S. Zhalehpour, “All-silicon IQ modulator for 100 GBaud 32QAM transmissions,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Postdeadline Papers, San Diego, CA, USA: Optical Society of America, 2019, pp. 1–3.

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