Abstract

Here, we experimentally demonstrate an Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Mach—Zehnder interferometer heterogeneously integrated in silicon photonics. The phase shifter section is realized in a novel lateral MOS configuration, which, due to favorable electrostatic overlap, leads to efficient modulation (VπL = 63 V.μm). This is achieved by (i) selecting a strong index changing material (ITO) and (ii) improving the field-overlap as verified by the electrostatic field lines. Furthermore, we show that this platform serves as a building block in an end-fire silicon photonics optical phased array (OPA) with a half-wavelength pitch within the waveguides with anticipated performance, including narrow main beam lobe (<3°) and >10 dB suppression of the side lobes, while electrostatically steering the emission profile up to ±80°, and if further engineered, can lead not only towards nanosecond-fast beam steering capabilities in LiDAR systems but also in holographic display, free-space optical communications, and optical switches.

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