Abstract

We experimentally investigate the polarization dependence of the optical properties of single-mode polymer optical waveguides. We compare two types of waveguides composed of the same polymer materials: step-index square-core waveguides fabricated using the direct curing method and graded-index (GI) circular-core waveguides fabricated using the Mosquito method. We demonstrate that the GI circular-core single-mode waveguides exhibit remarkably small dependence of optical loss on the polarization angle, which is less than 0.1 dB polarization dependent loss (PDL) at both 1310 and 1550 nm wavelengths. This steady polarization property is attributed to the material stress free to the composing polymers during the fabrication process of the Mosquito method and to parabolic GI profile formed in symmetric circular core.

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  1. C. Xie, “Datacenter optical interconnects: Requirements and challenges,” in Proc. IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf., 2017, pp. 37–38.
  2. T. Barwicz and Y. Taira, “Low-cost interfacing of fibers to nanophotonic waveguides: Design for fabrication and assembly tolerances,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 6, no. 4, 2014, Art. no. .
  3. Y. H. Min, M. H. Lee, and J. Y. Do, “Polarization dependent loss in polymeric rib channel waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1483–1485, 2000.
  4. J. M. Lee, S. Park, M. H. Lee, J. T. Ahn, J. J. Ju, and K. H. Kim, “Simple method to adjust polarization dependence in polymeric arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 927–929, 2003.
  5. S. Y. Cheng, K. S. Chiang, and H. P. Chan, “Polarization dependence in polymer waveguide directional couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1465–1467, 2005.
  6. M. F. Hossain, H. P. Chan, M. A. Uddin, and R. K. Y. Li, “Efficient design of polarization independent polymer optical waveguide devices,” in Proc. 14th OptoElectron. Commun. Conf., 2009, paper WA5.
  7. K. Soma and T. Ishigure, “Fabrication of a graded-index circular-core polymer parallel optical waveguide using a microdispenser for a high-density optical printed circuit board,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron, vol. 19, no. 2, 2013, Art. no. .
  8. K. Yasuhara, F. Yu, and T. Ishigure, “Circular core single-mode polymer optical waveguide fabricated using the Mosquito method with low loss at 13130/1550 nm,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 8524–8533, 2017.
  9. H. Matsui, S. Yakabe, and T. Ishigure, “Applicability of the Mosquito method to fabricate fan-in/out device for single-mode multicore fiber,” in Proc. IEEE CPMT Symp. Jpn., 2019, pp. 63–66.
  10. Y. Morimoto, M. Hikita, H. Matsui, Y. Fujihara, and T. Ishigure, “Low-loss single-mode polymer optical waveguides: Comparison between direct-curing and the Mosquito method,” Proc. IEEE CPMT Symp. Jpn., 2018, pp. 145–146.
  11. Y. Morimoto, H. Matsui, M. Hikita, and T. Ishigure, “Polarization dependence analysis of polymer optical waveguides,” Proc. IEEE CPMT Symp. Jpn., 2019, pp. 183–186.

2017 (1)

2014 (1)

T. Barwicz and Y. Taira, “Low-cost interfacing of fibers to nanophotonic waveguides: Design for fabrication and assembly tolerances,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 6, no. 4, 2014, Art. no. .

2013 (1)

K. Soma and T. Ishigure, “Fabrication of a graded-index circular-core polymer parallel optical waveguide using a microdispenser for a high-density optical printed circuit board,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron, vol. 19, no. 2, 2013, Art. no. .

2005 (1)

S. Y. Cheng, K. S. Chiang, and H. P. Chan, “Polarization dependence in polymer waveguide directional couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1465–1467, 2005.

2003 (1)

J. M. Lee, S. Park, M. H. Lee, J. T. Ahn, J. J. Ju, and K. H. Kim, “Simple method to adjust polarization dependence in polymeric arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 927–929, 2003.

2000 (1)

Y. H. Min, M. H. Lee, and J. Y. Do, “Polarization dependent loss in polymeric rib channel waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1483–1485, 2000.

Ahn, J. T.

J. M. Lee, S. Park, M. H. Lee, J. T. Ahn, J. J. Ju, and K. H. Kim, “Simple method to adjust polarization dependence in polymeric arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 927–929, 2003.

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz and Y. Taira, “Low-cost interfacing of fibers to nanophotonic waveguides: Design for fabrication and assembly tolerances,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 6, no. 4, 2014, Art. no. .

Chan, H. P.

S. Y. Cheng, K. S. Chiang, and H. P. Chan, “Polarization dependence in polymer waveguide directional couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1465–1467, 2005.

M. F. Hossain, H. P. Chan, M. A. Uddin, and R. K. Y. Li, “Efficient design of polarization independent polymer optical waveguide devices,” in Proc. 14th OptoElectron. Commun. Conf., 2009, paper WA5.

Cheng, S. Y.

S. Y. Cheng, K. S. Chiang, and H. P. Chan, “Polarization dependence in polymer waveguide directional couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1465–1467, 2005.

Chiang, K. S.

S. Y. Cheng, K. S. Chiang, and H. P. Chan, “Polarization dependence in polymer waveguide directional couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1465–1467, 2005.

Do, J. Y.

Y. H. Min, M. H. Lee, and J. Y. Do, “Polarization dependent loss in polymeric rib channel waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1483–1485, 2000.

Fujihara, Y.

Y. Morimoto, M. Hikita, H. Matsui, Y. Fujihara, and T. Ishigure, “Low-loss single-mode polymer optical waveguides: Comparison between direct-curing and the Mosquito method,” Proc. IEEE CPMT Symp. Jpn., 2018, pp. 145–146.

Hikita, M.

Y. Morimoto, M. Hikita, H. Matsui, Y. Fujihara, and T. Ishigure, “Low-loss single-mode polymer optical waveguides: Comparison between direct-curing and the Mosquito method,” Proc. IEEE CPMT Symp. Jpn., 2018, pp. 145–146.

Y. Morimoto, H. Matsui, M. Hikita, and T. Ishigure, “Polarization dependence analysis of polymer optical waveguides,” Proc. IEEE CPMT Symp. Jpn., 2019, pp. 183–186.

Hossain, M. F.

M. F. Hossain, H. P. Chan, M. A. Uddin, and R. K. Y. Li, “Efficient design of polarization independent polymer optical waveguide devices,” in Proc. 14th OptoElectron. Commun. Conf., 2009, paper WA5.

Ishigure, T.

K. Yasuhara, F. Yu, and T. Ishigure, “Circular core single-mode polymer optical waveguide fabricated using the Mosquito method with low loss at 13130/1550 nm,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 8524–8533, 2017.

K. Soma and T. Ishigure, “Fabrication of a graded-index circular-core polymer parallel optical waveguide using a microdispenser for a high-density optical printed circuit board,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron, vol. 19, no. 2, 2013, Art. no. .

H. Matsui, S. Yakabe, and T. Ishigure, “Applicability of the Mosquito method to fabricate fan-in/out device for single-mode multicore fiber,” in Proc. IEEE CPMT Symp. Jpn., 2019, pp. 63–66.

Y. Morimoto, H. Matsui, M. Hikita, and T. Ishigure, “Polarization dependence analysis of polymer optical waveguides,” Proc. IEEE CPMT Symp. Jpn., 2019, pp. 183–186.

Y. Morimoto, M. Hikita, H. Matsui, Y. Fujihara, and T. Ishigure, “Low-loss single-mode polymer optical waveguides: Comparison between direct-curing and the Mosquito method,” Proc. IEEE CPMT Symp. Jpn., 2018, pp. 145–146.

Ju, J. J.

J. M. Lee, S. Park, M. H. Lee, J. T. Ahn, J. J. Ju, and K. H. Kim, “Simple method to adjust polarization dependence in polymeric arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 927–929, 2003.

Kim, K. H.

J. M. Lee, S. Park, M. H. Lee, J. T. Ahn, J. J. Ju, and K. H. Kim, “Simple method to adjust polarization dependence in polymeric arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 927–929, 2003.

Lee, J. M.

J. M. Lee, S. Park, M. H. Lee, J. T. Ahn, J. J. Ju, and K. H. Kim, “Simple method to adjust polarization dependence in polymeric arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 927–929, 2003.

Lee, M. H.

J. M. Lee, S. Park, M. H. Lee, J. T. Ahn, J. J. Ju, and K. H. Kim, “Simple method to adjust polarization dependence in polymeric arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 927–929, 2003.

Y. H. Min, M. H. Lee, and J. Y. Do, “Polarization dependent loss in polymeric rib channel waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1483–1485, 2000.

Li, R. K. Y.

M. F. Hossain, H. P. Chan, M. A. Uddin, and R. K. Y. Li, “Efficient design of polarization independent polymer optical waveguide devices,” in Proc. 14th OptoElectron. Commun. Conf., 2009, paper WA5.

Matsui, H.

H. Matsui, S. Yakabe, and T. Ishigure, “Applicability of the Mosquito method to fabricate fan-in/out device for single-mode multicore fiber,” in Proc. IEEE CPMT Symp. Jpn., 2019, pp. 63–66.

Y. Morimoto, M. Hikita, H. Matsui, Y. Fujihara, and T. Ishigure, “Low-loss single-mode polymer optical waveguides: Comparison between direct-curing and the Mosquito method,” Proc. IEEE CPMT Symp. Jpn., 2018, pp. 145–146.

Y. Morimoto, H. Matsui, M. Hikita, and T. Ishigure, “Polarization dependence analysis of polymer optical waveguides,” Proc. IEEE CPMT Symp. Jpn., 2019, pp. 183–186.

Min, Y. H.

Y. H. Min, M. H. Lee, and J. Y. Do, “Polarization dependent loss in polymeric rib channel waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1483–1485, 2000.

Morimoto, Y.

Y. Morimoto, H. Matsui, M. Hikita, and T. Ishigure, “Polarization dependence analysis of polymer optical waveguides,” Proc. IEEE CPMT Symp. Jpn., 2019, pp. 183–186.

Y. Morimoto, M. Hikita, H. Matsui, Y. Fujihara, and T. Ishigure, “Low-loss single-mode polymer optical waveguides: Comparison between direct-curing and the Mosquito method,” Proc. IEEE CPMT Symp. Jpn., 2018, pp. 145–146.

Park, S.

J. M. Lee, S. Park, M. H. Lee, J. T. Ahn, J. J. Ju, and K. H. Kim, “Simple method to adjust polarization dependence in polymeric arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 927–929, 2003.

Soma, K.

K. Soma and T. Ishigure, “Fabrication of a graded-index circular-core polymer parallel optical waveguide using a microdispenser for a high-density optical printed circuit board,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron, vol. 19, no. 2, 2013, Art. no. .

Taira, Y.

T. Barwicz and Y. Taira, “Low-cost interfacing of fibers to nanophotonic waveguides: Design for fabrication and assembly tolerances,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 6, no. 4, 2014, Art. no. .

Uddin, M. A.

M. F. Hossain, H. P. Chan, M. A. Uddin, and R. K. Y. Li, “Efficient design of polarization independent polymer optical waveguide devices,” in Proc. 14th OptoElectron. Commun. Conf., 2009, paper WA5.

Xie, C.

C. Xie, “Datacenter optical interconnects: Requirements and challenges,” in Proc. IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf., 2017, pp. 37–38.

Yakabe, S.

H. Matsui, S. Yakabe, and T. Ishigure, “Applicability of the Mosquito method to fabricate fan-in/out device for single-mode multicore fiber,” in Proc. IEEE CPMT Symp. Jpn., 2019, pp. 63–66.

Yasuhara, K.

Yu, F.

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

T. Barwicz and Y. Taira, “Low-cost interfacing of fibers to nanophotonic waveguides: Design for fabrication and assembly tolerances,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 6, no. 4, 2014, Art. no. .

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Y. H. Min, M. H. Lee, and J. Y. Do, “Polarization dependent loss in polymeric rib channel waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1483–1485, 2000.

J. M. Lee, S. Park, M. H. Lee, J. T. Ahn, J. J. Ju, and K. H. Kim, “Simple method to adjust polarization dependence in polymeric arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 927–929, 2003.

S. Y. Cheng, K. S. Chiang, and H. P. Chan, “Polarization dependence in polymer waveguide directional couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1465–1467, 2005.

J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron (1)

K. Soma and T. Ishigure, “Fabrication of a graded-index circular-core polymer parallel optical waveguide using a microdispenser for a high-density optical printed circuit board,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron, vol. 19, no. 2, 2013, Art. no. .

Opt. Express (1)

Other (5)

H. Matsui, S. Yakabe, and T. Ishigure, “Applicability of the Mosquito method to fabricate fan-in/out device for single-mode multicore fiber,” in Proc. IEEE CPMT Symp. Jpn., 2019, pp. 63–66.

Y. Morimoto, M. Hikita, H. Matsui, Y. Fujihara, and T. Ishigure, “Low-loss single-mode polymer optical waveguides: Comparison between direct-curing and the Mosquito method,” Proc. IEEE CPMT Symp. Jpn., 2018, pp. 145–146.

Y. Morimoto, H. Matsui, M. Hikita, and T. Ishigure, “Polarization dependence analysis of polymer optical waveguides,” Proc. IEEE CPMT Symp. Jpn., 2019, pp. 183–186.

M. F. Hossain, H. P. Chan, M. A. Uddin, and R. K. Y. Li, “Efficient design of polarization independent polymer optical waveguide devices,” in Proc. 14th OptoElectron. Commun. Conf., 2009, paper WA5.

C. Xie, “Datacenter optical interconnects: Requirements and challenges,” in Proc. IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf., 2017, pp. 37–38.

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