Abstract

Electrically parallel and optically uncoupled triple and septuple oxide confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays emitting at about 980 nm where each VCSEL has an oxide aperture diameter (ϕ) of ∼7.5 μm transmit data at 40 Gbps at room temperature (RT) in a back-to-back test configuration using standard two-level non-return-to-zero pulse amplitude modulation at bias current densities (J) of 17.4 and 10.3 kA/cm2, respectively. Reference single VCSELs processed with the VCSEL arrays on the same wafer pieces with ϕ ∼7.5, 13.5, and 19.5 μm transmit data at up to 45, 40, and 35 Gbps at RT at J of 20.4, 13.3, and 10.7 kA/cm2, respectively, where the latter two single VCSELs have total emitting areas nearly equal to the total additive emitting areas of the triple and septuple VCSEL arrays, respectively. The RT optical output power at J ∼10 and 15 kA/cm2 is 11.4 and 17.2 mW for the triple arrays and 31.1 and 45.9 mW for the septuple arrays, respectively. By increasing the number of emitters in an array for a fixed ϕ per VCSEL from 3 to 7 we increase the total optical output power and simultaneously we decrease the J required for error free digital data transmission at 40 Gbps.

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  1. N. Haghighi, P. Moser, and J. A. Lott, “Power, bandwidth, and efficiency of single VCSELs and small VCSEL arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 495–502, 2019.
  2. B. M. Hawkins, R. A. Hawthorne, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, and J. R. Biard, “Reliability of various size oxide aperture VCSELs,” in Proc. IEEE 52nd Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, May 2002, pp. 540–550.
  3. L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 1995, pp. 185–213.
  4. M. J. Miah, A. Al-Samaneh, A. Kern, D. Wahl, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, “Fabrication and characterization of low-threshold polarization-stable VCSELs for Cs-based miniaturized atomic clocks,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 19, no. 4, 2013, Art no. 1701410.
  5. P. Moser, Energy-Efficient VCSELs for Optical Interconnects. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2016.
  6. E. P. Haglund, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, E. P. Haglund, and A. Larsson, “Impact of damping on high-speed large signal VCSEL dynamics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 795–801, 2015.
  7. P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, H. Sunnerud, and A Larsson, “Large aperture 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 25 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett., vol. 44, no. 15, pp. 907–908, 2008.

2019 (1)

N. Haghighi, P. Moser, and J. A. Lott, “Power, bandwidth, and efficiency of single VCSELs and small VCSEL arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 495–502, 2019.

2015 (1)

E. P. Haglund, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, E. P. Haglund, and A. Larsson, “Impact of damping on high-speed large signal VCSEL dynamics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 795–801, 2015.

2013 (1)

M. J. Miah, A. Al-Samaneh, A. Kern, D. Wahl, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, “Fabrication and characterization of low-threshold polarization-stable VCSELs for Cs-based miniaturized atomic clocks,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 19, no. 4, 2013, Art no. 1701410.

2008 (1)

P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, H. Sunnerud, and A Larsson, “Large aperture 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 25 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett., vol. 44, no. 15, pp. 907–908, 2008.

Al-Samaneh, A.

M. J. Miah, A. Al-Samaneh, A. Kern, D. Wahl, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, “Fabrication and characterization of low-threshold polarization-stable VCSELs for Cs-based miniaturized atomic clocks,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 19, no. 4, 2013, Art no. 1701410.

Biard, J. R.

B. M. Hawkins, R. A. Hawthorne, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, and J. R. Biard, “Reliability of various size oxide aperture VCSELs,” in Proc. IEEE 52nd Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, May 2002, pp. 540–550.

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 1995, pp. 185–213.

Corzine, S. W.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 1995, pp. 185–213.

Debernardi, P.

M. J. Miah, A. Al-Samaneh, A. Kern, D. Wahl, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, “Fabrication and characterization of low-threshold polarization-stable VCSELs for Cs-based miniaturized atomic clocks,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 19, no. 4, 2013, Art no. 1701410.

Guenter, J. K.

B. M. Hawkins, R. A. Hawthorne, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, and J. R. Biard, “Reliability of various size oxide aperture VCSELs,” in Proc. IEEE 52nd Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, May 2002, pp. 540–550.

Gustavsson, J. S.

E. P. Haglund, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, E. P. Haglund, and A. Larsson, “Impact of damping on high-speed large signal VCSEL dynamics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 795–801, 2015.

P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, H. Sunnerud, and A Larsson, “Large aperture 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 25 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett., vol. 44, no. 15, pp. 907–908, 2008.

Haghighi, N.

N. Haghighi, P. Moser, and J. A. Lott, “Power, bandwidth, and efficiency of single VCSELs and small VCSEL arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 495–502, 2019.

Haglund, Å.

P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, H. Sunnerud, and A Larsson, “Large aperture 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 25 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett., vol. 44, no. 15, pp. 907–908, 2008.

Haglund, E. P.

E. P. Haglund, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, E. P. Haglund, and A. Larsson, “Impact of damping on high-speed large signal VCSEL dynamics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 795–801, 2015.

E. P. Haglund, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, E. P. Haglund, and A. Larsson, “Impact of damping on high-speed large signal VCSEL dynamics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 795–801, 2015.

Hawkins, B. M.

B. M. Hawkins, R. A. Hawthorne, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, and J. R. Biard, “Reliability of various size oxide aperture VCSELs,” in Proc. IEEE 52nd Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, May 2002, pp. 540–550.

Hawthorne, R. A.

B. M. Hawkins, R. A. Hawthorne, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, and J. R. Biard, “Reliability of various size oxide aperture VCSELs,” in Proc. IEEE 52nd Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, May 2002, pp. 540–550.

Kern, A.

M. J. Miah, A. Al-Samaneh, A. Kern, D. Wahl, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, “Fabrication and characterization of low-threshold polarization-stable VCSELs for Cs-based miniaturized atomic clocks,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 19, no. 4, 2013, Art no. 1701410.

Larsson, A

P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, H. Sunnerud, and A Larsson, “Large aperture 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 25 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett., vol. 44, no. 15, pp. 907–908, 2008.

Larsson, A.

E. P. Haglund, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, E. P. Haglund, and A. Larsson, “Impact of damping on high-speed large signal VCSEL dynamics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 795–801, 2015.

Lott, J. A.

N. Haghighi, P. Moser, and J. A. Lott, “Power, bandwidth, and efficiency of single VCSELs and small VCSEL arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 495–502, 2019.

Miah, M. J.

M. J. Miah, A. Al-Samaneh, A. Kern, D. Wahl, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, “Fabrication and characterization of low-threshold polarization-stable VCSELs for Cs-based miniaturized atomic clocks,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 19, no. 4, 2013, Art no. 1701410.

Michalzik, R.

M. J. Miah, A. Al-Samaneh, A. Kern, D. Wahl, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, “Fabrication and characterization of low-threshold polarization-stable VCSELs for Cs-based miniaturized atomic clocks,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 19, no. 4, 2013, Art no. 1701410.

Moser, P.

N. Haghighi, P. Moser, and J. A. Lott, “Power, bandwidth, and efficiency of single VCSELs and small VCSEL arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 495–502, 2019.

P. Moser, Energy-Efficient VCSELs for Optical Interconnects. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2016.

Sunnerud, H.

P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, H. Sunnerud, and A Larsson, “Large aperture 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 25 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett., vol. 44, no. 15, pp. 907–908, 2008.

Tatum, J. A.

B. M. Hawkins, R. A. Hawthorne, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, and J. R. Biard, “Reliability of various size oxide aperture VCSELs,” in Proc. IEEE 52nd Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, May 2002, pp. 540–550.

Wahl, D.

M. J. Miah, A. Al-Samaneh, A. Kern, D. Wahl, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, “Fabrication and characterization of low-threshold polarization-stable VCSELs for Cs-based miniaturized atomic clocks,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 19, no. 4, 2013, Art no. 1701410.

Westbergh, P.

E. P. Haglund, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, E. P. Haglund, and A. Larsson, “Impact of damping on high-speed large signal VCSEL dynamics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 795–801, 2015.

P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, H. Sunnerud, and A Larsson, “Large aperture 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 25 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett., vol. 44, no. 15, pp. 907–908, 2008.

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, H. Sunnerud, and A Larsson, “Large aperture 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 25 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett., vol. 44, no. 15, pp. 907–908, 2008.

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

N. Haghighi, P. Moser, and J. A. Lott, “Power, bandwidth, and efficiency of single VCSELs and small VCSEL arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 495–502, 2019.

M. J. Miah, A. Al-Samaneh, A. Kern, D. Wahl, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, “Fabrication and characterization of low-threshold polarization-stable VCSELs for Cs-based miniaturized atomic clocks,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 19, no. 4, 2013, Art no. 1701410.

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

E. P. Haglund, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, E. P. Haglund, and A. Larsson, “Impact of damping on high-speed large signal VCSEL dynamics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 795–801, 2015.

Other (3)

P. Moser, Energy-Efficient VCSELs for Optical Interconnects. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2016.

B. M. Hawkins, R. A. Hawthorne, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, and J. R. Biard, “Reliability of various size oxide aperture VCSELs,” in Proc. IEEE 52nd Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, May 2002, pp. 540–550.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 1995, pp. 185–213.

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