Abstract

This paper extends the capabilities of chirped-pulse phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry to the measurement of large dynamic strains over hundreds of meters of standard single-mode fiber. Benefitting from single-shot strain measurements, this technique has already demonstrated dynamic strains of the order of submicrostrains with a sensitivity of picostrains-per-root-Hertz. Yet, for large dynamic strains, it relies on the accumulation of incremental measurements, where each trace is cross correlated with its predecessor to determine the relative change of strain. However, practical time records of measured high slew-rate applied perturbations contain disturbing outliers. We then detail and analyze a post-processing strategy to mitigate this limitation. Through this strategy, we are able to achieve for the first time (to our knowledge) high signal-to-noise Rayleigh-backscattering-based distributed measurements of large and fast dynamic strains of a longitudinally vibrating 4 m section at the end of 210 m of a single-mode fiber: from peak to peak 150–1190 με at vibration frequency of 400 Hz and 50 Hz, respectively.

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2018 (5)

D. Zhouet al., “Single-shot BOTDA based on an optical chirp chain probe wave for distributed ultrafast measurement,” Light, Sci. Appl., vol. 7, 2018, Art. no. .

H. Zhanget al., “Recent progress in fast distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing,” Appl. Sci., vol. 8, 2018, Art. no. .

Y. Muanenda, “Recent advances in distributed acoustic sensing based on phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry,” J. Sensors, vol. 2018, 2018, Art. no. . [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3897873

M. R. Fernandez-Ruiz, J. Pastor-Graells, H. F. Martins, A. Garcia-Ruiz, S. Martin-Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Laser phase-noise cancellation in chirped-pulse distributed acoustic sensors,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 979–985, 2018.

S. Liehr, S. Münzenberger, and K. Krebber, “Wavelength-scanning coherent OTDR for dynamic high strain resolution sensing,” Opt. Express, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 10573–10588, 2018.

2017 (3)

2016 (4)

A. Motil, A. Bergman, and M. Tur, “State of the art of Brillouin fiber-optic distributed sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 78, pp. 81–103, 2016.

A. Masoudi and T. P. Newson, “Contributed review: Distributed optical fibre dynamic strain sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 87, no. 1, 2016, Art. no. .

J. Pastor-Graells, H. F. Martins, A. Garcia-Ruiz, S. Martin-Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Single-shot distributed temperature and strain tracking using direct detection phase-sensitive OTDR with chirped pulses,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 13121–13133, 2016.

D. P. Zhou, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Distributed dynamic strain measurement using optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” Appl. Opt., vol. 55, pp. 6735–6739, 2016.

2015 (4)

O. Shlomovits, T. Langer, and M. Tur, “The effect of source phase noise on stimulated Brillouin amplification,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2639–2645, 2015.

M. A. Soto, X. Lu, H. F. Martins, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed phase birefringence measurements based on polarization correlation in phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometers,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, no. 19, pp. 24923–24936, 2015.

S. T. Kreger, J. W. Klein, N. A. A. Rahim, and J. J. Bos, “Distributed Rayleigh scatter dynamic strain sensing above the scan rate with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9480, 2015. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2177578

L. Zhouet al., “Distributed strain and vibration sensing system based on phase-sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 27, no. 17, pp. 1884–1887, 2015.

2013 (1)

A. Masoudi, M. Belal, and T. P. Newson, “A distributed optical fibre dynamic strain sensor based on phase-OTDR,” Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 24, no. 8, 2013. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/24/8/085204

2011 (1)

G. Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization-maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 15, pp. 1091–1093, 2011.

2010 (1)

Y. L. Lu, T. Zhu, L. A. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensor based on coherent detection of phase-OTDR,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 22, pp. 3243–3249, 2010.

2009 (1)

Y. Koyamada, M. Imahama, K. Kubota, and K. Hogari, “Fiber-optic distributed strain and temperature sensing with very high measure and resolution over long range using coherent OTDR,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1142–1146, 2009.

2001 ()

B. A. Childerset al., “Use of 3000 Bragg grating strain sensors distributed on four 8-m optical fibers during static load tests of a composite structure,” Proc. SPIE, 2001. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.429650

2000 (1)

J. Posey, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Strain sensing based on coherent Rayleigh scattering in an optical fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1688–1689, 2000.

1998 (1)

1993 (1)

G. Jacovitti and G. Scarano, “Discrete time techniques for time delay estimation,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 525–533, 1993.

1982 (1)

J. Ianniello, “Time delay estimation via cross-correlation in the presence of large estimation errors,” IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Process., vol. ASSP-30, no. 6, pp. 998–1003, 1982.

1976 (1)

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. New York, NY, USA: Academic, 2013.

Bao, X.

Bao, X. Y.

G. Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization-maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 15, pp. 1091–1093, 2011.

Y. L. Lu, T. Zhu, L. A. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensor based on coherent detection of phase-OTDR,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 22, pp. 3243–3249, 2010.

Barnoski, M. K.

Bartelt, H.

M. Rothhardt, M. Becker, C. Chojetzki, E. Lindner, and H. Bartelt, “Fabrication and applications of Draw Tower Gratings,” in Proc. Photon. Fiber Technol., 2016, Paper BTh1B.1.

Becker, M.

M. Rothhardt, M. Becker, C. Chojetzki, E. Lindner, and H. Bartelt, “Fabrication and applications of Draw Tower Gratings,” in Proc. Photon. Fiber Technol., 2016, Paper BTh1B.1.

Belal, M.

A. Masoudi, M. Belal, and T. P. Newson, “A distributed optical fibre dynamic strain sensor based on phase-OTDR,” Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 24, no. 8, 2013. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/24/8/085204

Bergman, A.

A. Motil, A. Bergman, and M. Tur, “State of the art of Brillouin fiber-optic distributed sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 78, pp. 81–103, 2016.

Bhatta, H. D.

H. D. Bhattaet al., “Extending the measurement of true dynamic strain via chirped-pulse phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry to 100's of microstrains,” in Proc. 26th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors, 2018, Paper WF14.

Boller, C.

C. Boller and F.-K. Chang, Encyclopedia of Structural Health Monitoring. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2009.

Bos, J. J.

S. T. Kreger, J. W. Klein, N. A. A. Rahim, and J. J. Bos, “Distributed Rayleigh scatter dynamic strain sensing above the scan rate with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9480, 2015. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2177578

Cai, H.

Z. Pan, K. Liang, Q. Ye, H. Cai, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, “Phase-sensitive OTDR system based on digital coherent detection,” in Optical Sensors and Biophotonics, vol. 8311, J. Popp, D. Matthews, J. Tian, and C. Yang, Eds. Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, 2011.

Chang, F.-K.

C. Boller and F.-K. Chang, Encyclopedia of Structural Health Monitoring. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2009.

Chen, L.

D. P. Zhou, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Distributed dynamic strain measurement using optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” Appl. Opt., vol. 55, pp. 6735–6739, 2016.

G. Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization-maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 15, pp. 1091–1093, 2011.

Chen, L. A.

Y. L. Lu, T. Zhu, L. A. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensor based on coherent detection of phase-OTDR,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 22, pp. 3243–3249, 2010.

Chen, Y.

J. Xiong, Z. Wang, Y. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Li, and Y. Rao, “High performance CP-ΦOTDR utilizing the negative band,” in Proc. 26th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors, 2018, Paper FB5.

Childers, B. A.

B. A. Childerset al., “Use of 3000 Bragg grating strain sensors distributed on four 8-m optical fibers during static load tests of a composite structure,” Proc. SPIE, 2001. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.429650

Choi, K. N.

J. C. Juarez, E. W. Maier, K. N. Choi, and H. F. Taylor, “Distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor system,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 2081–2087, Jun. 2005.

Chojetzki, C.

M. Rothhardt, M. Becker, C. Chojetzki, E. Lindner, and H. Bartelt, “Fabrication and applications of Draw Tower Gratings,” in Proc. Photon. Fiber Technol., 2016, Paper BTh1B.1.

Costa, L.

L. Costa, H. F. Martins, S. Martin-Lopez, M. R. Fernández-Ruiz, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Reaching pε/√Hz sensitivity in a distributed optical fiber strain sensor,” in Proc. 26th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors, 2018, Paper TuD3.

L. Costa, H. F. Martins, S. Martin-Lopez, M. R. Fernández-Ruiz, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Fully distributed optical fiber strain sensor with ${\text{10}^{ - 12}}\,\mu \varepsilon /\sqrt {{\text{Hz}}} $ sensitivity,” J. Lightw. Technol., to be published, doi: .
[Crossref]

Costa, L. D.

L. Zhang, L. D. Costa, Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and L. Thevenaz, “Analysis and reduction of large errors in Rayleigh-based distributed sensor,” J. Lightw. Technol., to be published, doi: .
[Crossref]

Dakin, J. P.

J. P. Dakin and C. Lamb, “Distributed fibre optic sensor system,” U.S. Patent G B22 222 47A, 1990.

Fang, Z.

Z. Pan, K. Liang, Q. Ye, H. Cai, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, “Phase-sensitive OTDR system based on digital coherent detection,” in Optical Sensors and Biophotonics, vol. 8311, J. Popp, D. Matthews, J. Tian, and C. Yang, Eds. Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, 2011.

Fernandez-Ruiz, M. R.

M. R. Fernandez-Ruiz, J. Pastor-Graells, H. F. Martins, A. Garcia-Ruiz, S. Martin-Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Laser phase-noise cancellation in chirped-pulse distributed acoustic sensors,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 979–985, 2018.

Fernández-Ruiz, M. R.

L. Costa, H. F. Martins, S. Martin-Lopez, M. R. Fernández-Ruiz, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Reaching pε/√Hz sensitivity in a distributed optical fiber strain sensor,” in Proc. 26th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors, 2018, Paper TuD3.

L. Costa, H. F. Martins, S. Martin-Lopez, M. R. Fernández-Ruiz, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Fully distributed optical fiber strain sensor with ${\text{10}^{ - 12}}\,\mu \varepsilon /\sqrt {{\text{Hz}}} $ sensitivity,” J. Lightw. Technol., to be published, doi: .
[Crossref]

Froggatt, M.

Garcia-Ruiz, A.

M. R. Fernandez-Ruiz, J. Pastor-Graells, H. F. Martins, A. Garcia-Ruiz, S. Martin-Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Laser phase-noise cancellation in chirped-pulse distributed acoustic sensors,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 979–985, 2018.

J. Pastor-Graells, H. F. Martins, A. Garcia-Ruiz, S. Martin-Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Single-shot distributed temperature and strain tracking using direct detection phase-sensitive OTDR with chirped pulses,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 13121–13133, 2016.

Gonzalez-Herraez, M.

M. R. Fernandez-Ruiz, J. Pastor-Graells, H. F. Martins, A. Garcia-Ruiz, S. Martin-Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Laser phase-noise cancellation in chirped-pulse distributed acoustic sensors,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 979–985, 2018.

J. Pastor-Graells, H. F. Martins, A. Garcia-Ruiz, S. Martin-Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Single-shot distributed temperature and strain tracking using direct detection phase-sensitive OTDR with chirped pulses,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 13121–13133, 2016.

M. A. Soto, X. Lu, H. F. Martins, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed phase birefringence measurements based on polarization correlation in phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometers,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, no. 19, pp. 24923–24936, 2015.

L. Zhang, L. D. Costa, Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and L. Thevenaz, “Analysis and reduction of large errors in Rayleigh-based distributed sensor,” J. Lightw. Technol., to be published, doi: .
[Crossref]

L. Costa, H. F. Martins, S. Martin-Lopez, M. R. Fernández-Ruiz, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Fully distributed optical fiber strain sensor with ${\text{10}^{ - 12}}\,\mu \varepsilon /\sqrt {{\text{Hz}}} $ sensitivity,” J. Lightw. Technol., to be published, doi: .
[Crossref]

L. Costa, H. F. Martins, S. Martin-Lopez, M. R. Fernández-Ruiz, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Reaching pε/√Hz sensitivity in a distributed optical fiber strain sensor,” in Proc. 26th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors, 2018, Paper TuD3.

Hartog, A. H.

A. H. Hartog, An Introduction to Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2018.

A. H. Hartog, and K. Kader, “Distributed fiber optic sensor system with improved linearity,” U.S. Patent 917 014 9B2, 2012.

Hayward, J. P. W.

S. J. Russell, J. P. W. Hayward, and A. B. B. Lewis, “Method and apparatus for acoustic sensing using multiple optical pulses,” U.S. Patent G B24 427 45B, 2008.

Hogari, K.

Y. Koyamada, M. Imahama, K. Kubota, and K. Hogari, “Fiber-optic distributed strain and temperature sensing with very high measure and resolution over long range using coherent OTDR,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1142–1146, 2009.

Ianniello, J.

J. Ianniello, “Time delay estimation via cross-correlation in the presence of large estimation errors,” IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Process., vol. ASSP-30, no. 6, pp. 998–1003, 1982.

Imahama, M.

Y. Koyamada, M. Imahama, K. Kubota, and K. Hogari, “Fiber-optic distributed strain and temperature sensing with very high measure and resolution over long range using coherent OTDR,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1142–1146, 2009.

Jacovitti, G.

G. Jacovitti and G. Scarano, “Discrete time techniques for time delay estimation,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 525–533, 1993.

Jensen, S. M.

Johnson, G. A.

J. Posey, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Strain sensing based on coherent Rayleigh scattering in an optical fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1688–1689, 2000.

Juarez, J. C.

J. C. Juarez, E. W. Maier, K. N. Choi, and H. F. Taylor, “Distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor system,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 2081–2087, Jun. 2005.

Kader, K.

A. H. Hartog, and K. Kader, “Distributed fiber optic sensor system with improved linearity,” U.S. Patent 917 014 9B2, 2012.

Klein, J. W.

S. T. Kreger, J. W. Klein, N. A. A. Rahim, and J. J. Bos, “Distributed Rayleigh scatter dynamic strain sensing above the scan rate with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9480, 2015. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2177578

Koyamada, Y.

Y. Koyamada, M. Imahama, K. Kubota, and K. Hogari, “Fiber-optic distributed strain and temperature sensing with very high measure and resolution over long range using coherent OTDR,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1142–1146, 2009.

Krebber, K.

Kreger, S. T.

S. T. Kreger, J. W. Klein, N. A. A. Rahim, and J. J. Bos, “Distributed Rayleigh scatter dynamic strain sensing above the scan rate with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9480, 2015. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2177578

Krohn, D. A.

D. A. Krohn and T. W. MacDougall, Fiber Optic Sensors: Fundamentals and Applications. Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, 2015.

Kubota, K.

Y. Koyamada, M. Imahama, K. Kubota, and K. Hogari, “Fiber-optic distributed strain and temperature sensing with very high measure and resolution over long range using coherent OTDR,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1142–1146, 2009.

Lamb, C.

J. P. Dakin and C. Lamb, “Distributed fibre optic sensor system,” U.S. Patent G B22 222 47A, 1990.

Langer, T.

O. Shlomovits, T. Langer, and M. Tur, “The effect of source phase noise on stimulated Brillouin amplification,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2639–2645, 2015.

Lee, C. E.

C. E. Lee and H. F. Taylor, “Apparatus and method for fiber optic intrusion sensing,” U.S. Patent 5 194 847, 16, 1993.

Lewis, A. B. B.

S. J. Russell, J. P. W. Hayward, and A. B. B. Lewis, “Method and apparatus for acoustic sensing using multiple optical pulses,” U.S. Patent G B24 427 45B, 2008.

Li, B.

B. Li, L. Luo, Y. Yu, K. Soga, and J. Yan, “Dynamic strain measurement using small gain stimulated Brillouin scattering in STFT-BOTDR,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 2718–2724, 2017.

Li, J.

J. Xiong, Z. Wang, Y. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Li, and Y. Rao, “High performance CP-ΦOTDR utilizing the negative band,” in Proc. 26th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors, 2018, Paper FB5.

Liang, K.

Z. Pan, K. Liang, Q. Ye, H. Cai, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, “Phase-sensitive OTDR system based on digital coherent detection,” in Optical Sensors and Biophotonics, vol. 8311, J. Popp, D. Matthews, J. Tian, and C. Yang, Eds. Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, 2011.

Liehr,

Liehr, S.

Lindner, E.

M. Rothhardt, M. Becker, C. Chojetzki, E. Lindner, and H. Bartelt, “Fabrication and applications of Draw Tower Gratings,” in Proc. Photon. Fiber Technol., 2016, Paper BTh1B.1.

Lu, X.

Lu, Y. L.

Y. L. Lu, T. Zhu, L. A. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensor based on coherent detection of phase-OTDR,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 22, pp. 3243–3249, 2010.

Luo, L.

B. Li, L. Luo, Y. Yu, K. Soga, and J. Yan, “Dynamic strain measurement using small gain stimulated Brillouin scattering in STFT-BOTDR,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 2718–2724, 2017.

MacDougall, T. W.

D. A. Krohn and T. W. MacDougall, Fiber Optic Sensors: Fundamentals and Applications. Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, 2015.

Maier, E. W.

J. C. Juarez, E. W. Maier, K. N. Choi, and H. F. Taylor, “Distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor system,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 2081–2087, Jun. 2005.

Martin-Lopez, S.

M. R. Fernandez-Ruiz, J. Pastor-Graells, H. F. Martins, A. Garcia-Ruiz, S. Martin-Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Laser phase-noise cancellation in chirped-pulse distributed acoustic sensors,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 979–985, 2018.

J. Pastor-Graells, H. F. Martins, A. Garcia-Ruiz, S. Martin-Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Single-shot distributed temperature and strain tracking using direct detection phase-sensitive OTDR with chirped pulses,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 13121–13133, 2016.

L. Costa, H. F. Martins, S. Martin-Lopez, M. R. Fernández-Ruiz, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Reaching pε/√Hz sensitivity in a distributed optical fiber strain sensor,” in Proc. 26th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors, 2018, Paper TuD3.

L. Costa, H. F. Martins, S. Martin-Lopez, M. R. Fernández-Ruiz, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Fully distributed optical fiber strain sensor with ${\text{10}^{ - 12}}\,\mu \varepsilon /\sqrt {{\text{Hz}}} $ sensitivity,” J. Lightw. Technol., to be published, doi: .
[Crossref]

Martins, H. F.

M. R. Fernandez-Ruiz, J. Pastor-Graells, H. F. Martins, A. Garcia-Ruiz, S. Martin-Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Laser phase-noise cancellation in chirped-pulse distributed acoustic sensors,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 979–985, 2018.

J. Pastor-Graells, H. F. Martins, A. Garcia-Ruiz, S. Martin-Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Single-shot distributed temperature and strain tracking using direct detection phase-sensitive OTDR with chirped pulses,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 13121–13133, 2016.

M. A. Soto, X. Lu, H. F. Martins, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed phase birefringence measurements based on polarization correlation in phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometers,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, no. 19, pp. 24923–24936, 2015.

L. Costa, H. F. Martins, S. Martin-Lopez, M. R. Fernández-Ruiz, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Reaching pε/√Hz sensitivity in a distributed optical fiber strain sensor,” in Proc. 26th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors, 2018, Paper TuD3.

L. Costa, H. F. Martins, S. Martin-Lopez, M. R. Fernández-Ruiz, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Fully distributed optical fiber strain sensor with ${\text{10}^{ - 12}}\,\mu \varepsilon /\sqrt {{\text{Hz}}} $ sensitivity,” J. Lightw. Technol., to be published, doi: .
[Crossref]

Masoudi, A.

A. Masoudi and T. P. Newson, “High spatial resolution distributed optical fiber dynamic strain sensor with enhanced frequency and strain resolution,” Opt. Lett., vol. 42, pp. 290–293, 2017.

A. Masoudi and T. P. Newson, “Contributed review: Distributed optical fibre dynamic strain sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 87, no. 1, 2016, Art. no. .

A. Masoudi, M. Belal, and T. P. Newson, “A distributed optical fibre dynamic strain sensor based on phase-OTDR,” Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 24, no. 8, 2013. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/24/8/085204

Moore, J.

Motil, A.

A. Motil, A. Bergman, and M. Tur, “State of the art of Brillouin fiber-optic distributed sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 78, pp. 81–103, 2016.

Muanenda, Y.

Y. Muanenda, “Recent advances in distributed acoustic sensing based on phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry,” J. Sensors, vol. 2018, 2018, Art. no. . [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3897873

Muanenda, Y. S.

Münzenberger, S.

Newson, T. P.

A. Masoudi and T. P. Newson, “High spatial resolution distributed optical fiber dynamic strain sensor with enhanced frequency and strain resolution,” Opt. Lett., vol. 42, pp. 290–293, 2017.

A. Masoudi and T. P. Newson, “Contributed review: Distributed optical fibre dynamic strain sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 87, no. 1, 2016, Art. no. .

A. Masoudi, M. Belal, and T. P. Newson, “A distributed optical fibre dynamic strain sensor based on phase-OTDR,” Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 24, no. 8, 2013. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/24/8/085204

Oppenhein, A.

A. Oppenhein and R. Shafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, 2014.

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, K. Liang, Q. Ye, H. Cai, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, “Phase-sensitive OTDR system based on digital coherent detection,” in Optical Sensors and Biophotonics, vol. 8311, J. Popp, D. Matthews, J. Tian, and C. Yang, Eds. Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, 2011.

Pastor-Graells, J.

M. R. Fernandez-Ruiz, J. Pastor-Graells, H. F. Martins, A. Garcia-Ruiz, S. Martin-Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Laser phase-noise cancellation in chirped-pulse distributed acoustic sensors,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 979–985, 2018.

J. Pastor-Graells, H. F. Martins, A. Garcia-Ruiz, S. Martin-Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Single-shot distributed temperature and strain tracking using direct detection phase-sensitive OTDR with chirped pulses,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 13121–13133, 2016.

Posey, J.

J. Posey, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Strain sensing based on coherent Rayleigh scattering in an optical fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1688–1689, 2000.

Qin, G. Z.

G. Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization-maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 15, pp. 1091–1093, 2011.

Qu, R.

Z. Pan, K. Liang, Q. Ye, H. Cai, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, “Phase-sensitive OTDR system based on digital coherent detection,” in Optical Sensors and Biophotonics, vol. 8311, J. Popp, D. Matthews, J. Tian, and C. Yang, Eds. Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, 2011.

Rahim, N. A. A.

S. T. Kreger, J. W. Klein, N. A. A. Rahim, and J. J. Bos, “Distributed Rayleigh scatter dynamic strain sensing above the scan rate with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9480, 2015. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2177578

Rao, Y.

J. Xiong, Z. Wang, Y. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Li, and Y. Rao, “High performance CP-ΦOTDR utilizing the negative band,” in Proc. 26th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors, 2018, Paper FB5.

Rothhardt, M.

M. Rothhardt, M. Becker, C. Chojetzki, E. Lindner, and H. Bartelt, “Fabrication and applications of Draw Tower Gratings,” in Proc. Photon. Fiber Technol., 2016, Paper BTh1B.1.

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S. J. Russell, J. P. W. Hayward, and A. B. B. Lewis, “Method and apparatus for acoustic sensing using multiple optical pulses,” U.S. Patent G B24 427 45B, 2008.

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G. Jacovitti and G. Scarano, “Discrete time techniques for time delay estimation,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 525–533, 1993.

Shafer, R.

A. Oppenhein and R. Shafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, 2014.

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O. Shlomovits, T. Langer, and M. Tur, “The effect of source phase noise on stimulated Brillouin amplification,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2639–2645, 2015.

Soga, K.

B. Li, L. Luo, Y. Yu, K. Soga, and J. Yan, “Dynamic strain measurement using small gain stimulated Brillouin scattering in STFT-BOTDR,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 2718–2724, 2017.

Soto, M. A.

M. A. Soto, X. Lu, H. F. Martins, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed phase birefringence measurements based on polarization correlation in phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometers,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, no. 19, pp. 24923–24936, 2015.

L. Zhang, L. D. Costa, Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and L. Thevenaz, “Analysis and reduction of large errors in Rayleigh-based distributed sensor,” J. Lightw. Technol., to be published, doi: .
[Crossref]

Taylor, H. F.

C. E. Lee and H. F. Taylor, “Apparatus and method for fiber optic intrusion sensing,” U.S. Patent 5 194 847, 16, 1993.

J. C. Juarez, E. W. Maier, K. N. Choi, and H. F. Taylor, “Distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor system,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 2081–2087, Jun. 2005.

Thevenaz, L.

L. Zhang, L. D. Costa, Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and L. Thevenaz, “Analysis and reduction of large errors in Rayleigh-based distributed sensor,” J. Lightw. Technol., to be published, doi: .
[Crossref]

Thévenaz, L.

Tur, M.

A. Motil, A. Bergman, and M. Tur, “State of the art of Brillouin fiber-optic distributed sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 78, pp. 81–103, 2016.

O. Shlomovits, T. Langer, and M. Tur, “The effect of source phase noise on stimulated Brillouin amplification,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2639–2645, 2015.

Vohra, S. T.

J. Posey, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Strain sensing based on coherent Rayleigh scattering in an optical fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1688–1689, 2000.

Wang, Z.

J. Xiong, Z. Wang, Y. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Li, and Y. Rao, “High performance CP-ΦOTDR utilizing the negative band,” in Proc. 26th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors, 2018, Paper FB5.

Wu, Y.

J. Xiong, Z. Wang, Y. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Li, and Y. Rao, “High performance CP-ΦOTDR utilizing the negative band,” in Proc. 26th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors, 2018, Paper FB5.

Xiong, J.

J. Xiong, Z. Wang, Y. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Li, and Y. Rao, “High performance CP-ΦOTDR utilizing the negative band,” in Proc. 26th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors, 2018, Paper FB5.

Yan, J.

B. Li, L. Luo, Y. Yu, K. Soga, and J. Yan, “Dynamic strain measurement using small gain stimulated Brillouin scattering in STFT-BOTDR,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 2718–2724, 2017.

Yang, Z.

L. Zhang, L. D. Costa, Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and L. Thevenaz, “Analysis and reduction of large errors in Rayleigh-based distributed sensor,” J. Lightw. Technol., to be published, doi: .
[Crossref]

Ye, Q.

Z. Pan, K. Liang, Q. Ye, H. Cai, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, “Phase-sensitive OTDR system based on digital coherent detection,” in Optical Sensors and Biophotonics, vol. 8311, J. Popp, D. Matthews, J. Tian, and C. Yang, Eds. Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, 2011.

Yu, Y.

B. Li, L. Luo, Y. Yu, K. Soga, and J. Yan, “Dynamic strain measurement using small gain stimulated Brillouin scattering in STFT-BOTDR,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 2718–2724, 2017.

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H. Zhanget al., “Recent progress in fast distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing,” Appl. Sci., vol. 8, 2018, Art. no. .

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L. Zhang, L. D. Costa, Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and L. Thevenaz, “Analysis and reduction of large errors in Rayleigh-based distributed sensor,” J. Lightw. Technol., to be published, doi: .
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D. Zhouet al., “Single-shot BOTDA based on an optical chirp chain probe wave for distributed ultrafast measurement,” Light, Sci. Appl., vol. 7, 2018, Art. no. .

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G. Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization-maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 15, pp. 1091–1093, 2011.

Y. L. Lu, T. Zhu, L. A. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensor based on coherent detection of phase-OTDR,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 22, pp. 3243–3249, 2010.

Appl. Opt. (3)

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H. Zhanget al., “Recent progress in fast distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing,” Appl. Sci., vol. 8, 2018, Art. no. .

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J. Posey, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Strain sensing based on coherent Rayleigh scattering in an optical fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1688–1689, 2000.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

L. Zhouet al., “Distributed strain and vibration sensing system based on phase-sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 27, no. 17, pp. 1884–1887, 2015.

G. Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization-maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 15, pp. 1091–1093, 2011.

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

B. Li, L. Luo, Y. Yu, K. Soga, and J. Yan, “Dynamic strain measurement using small gain stimulated Brillouin scattering in STFT-BOTDR,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 2718–2724, 2017.

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L. Zhang, L. D. Costa, Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and L. Thevenaz, “Analysis and reduction of large errors in Rayleigh-based distributed sensor,” J. Lightw. Technol., to be published, doi: .
[Crossref]

O. Shlomovits, T. Langer, and M. Tur, “The effect of source phase noise on stimulated Brillouin amplification,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2639–2645, 2015.

Y. L. Lu, T. Zhu, L. A. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensor based on coherent detection of phase-OTDR,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 22, pp. 3243–3249, 2010.

M. R. Fernandez-Ruiz, J. Pastor-Graells, H. F. Martins, A. Garcia-Ruiz, S. Martin-Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Laser phase-noise cancellation in chirped-pulse distributed acoustic sensors,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 979–985, 2018.

L. Costa, H. F. Martins, S. Martin-Lopez, M. R. Fernández-Ruiz, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Fully distributed optical fiber strain sensor with ${\text{10}^{ - 12}}\,\mu \varepsilon /\sqrt {{\text{Hz}}} $ sensitivity,” J. Lightw. Technol., to be published, doi: .
[Crossref]

Y. Koyamada, M. Imahama, K. Kubota, and K. Hogari, “Fiber-optic distributed strain and temperature sensing with very high measure and resolution over long range using coherent OTDR,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1142–1146, 2009.

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Y. Muanenda, “Recent advances in distributed acoustic sensing based on phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry,” J. Sensors, vol. 2018, 2018, Art. no. . [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3897873

Light, Sci. Appl. (1)

D. Zhouet al., “Single-shot BOTDA based on an optical chirp chain probe wave for distributed ultrafast measurement,” Light, Sci. Appl., vol. 7, 2018, Art. no. .

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A. Masoudi, M. Belal, and T. P. Newson, “A distributed optical fibre dynamic strain sensor based on phase-OTDR,” Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 24, no. 8, 2013. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/24/8/085204

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A. Motil, A. Bergman, and M. Tur, “State of the art of Brillouin fiber-optic distributed sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 78, pp. 81–103, 2016.

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A. Masoudi and T. P. Newson, “Contributed review: Distributed optical fibre dynamic strain sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 87, no. 1, 2016, Art. no. .

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L. Costa, H. F. Martins, S. Martin-Lopez, M. R. Fernández-Ruiz, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Reaching pε/√Hz sensitivity in a distributed optical fiber strain sensor,” in Proc. 26th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors, 2018, Paper TuD3.

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Z. Pan, K. Liang, Q. Ye, H. Cai, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, “Phase-sensitive OTDR system based on digital coherent detection,” in Optical Sensors and Biophotonics, vol. 8311, J. Popp, D. Matthews, J. Tian, and C. Yang, Eds. Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, 2011.

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D. A. Krohn and T. W. MacDougall, Fiber Optic Sensors: Fundamentals and Applications. Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE, 2015.

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M. Rothhardt, M. Becker, C. Chojetzki, E. Lindner, and H. Bartelt, “Fabrication and applications of Draw Tower Gratings,” in Proc. Photon. Fiber Technol., 2016, Paper BTh1B.1.

C. E. Lee and H. F. Taylor, “Apparatus and method for fiber optic intrusion sensing,” U.S. Patent 5 194 847, 16, 1993.

J. C. Juarez, E. W. Maier, K. N. Choi, and H. F. Taylor, “Distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor system,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 2081–2087, Jun. 2005.

A. Oppenhein and R. Shafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, 2014.

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