Abstract

Long range phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer (φ-OTDR) sensing mainly employs distributed amplification in the sensing fiber. It requires the light to be injected into both ends of the sensing fiber, which reduces the degree of freedom in embedding the fiber into structures. To overcome this problem, the key factors that affects the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in φ-OTDR system based on matched filter is analyzed thoroughly, and a single-ended long-range φ-OTDR that does not require distributed amplification is proposed. In this system, two key techniques are adopted for SNR improvement. To boost the pulse energy and suppress the self-phase modulation, the distortion of the amplified pulse is rectified by using iterative predistortion method; to mitigate the influence of the interference fading and the stimulated Brillouin backscattering, a three-carrier pulse is employed. In combination with the non-linear frequency modulation technique which yields a 42.7 dB side lobe suppression ratio, these approaches guarantee an achievable φ-OTDR of 80 km sensing range, 2.7 m spatial resolution, 49.6 dB dynamic range in the experiment. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first time that a φ-OTDR without optical amplification in the sensing fiber is realized over such a long sensing range.

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