Abstract

A Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) method based on a closed-loop control system is proposed to track fast variations of the Brillouin frequency shift along the sensing fiber. While the method eliminates the gain spectral scanning, the exact distributed Brillouin frequency profile is retrieved directly from the output of a closed-loop controller with no need of postprocessing. Moreover, as the operating frequency is being continuously updated to follow the Brillouin frequency change, an unlimited temperature or strain measurement range can be achieved. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results validate that the closed-loop-controlled BOTDA acts as a low-pass filter that considerably rejects the noise from photodetector, with an efficiency that fundamentally outperforms basic averaging. By optimizing the closed-loop parameters, the measurement time is reduced from a few minutes to a couple of seconds compared with standard BOTDA, i.e., two orders of magnitude improvement in terms of measurement speed, while keeping the same accuracy and measurement conditions. If the sampling time interval that is limited by our instrument can be further reduced, the method offers the potentiality of km-range sensing with sub-second measurement time, with an unmatched favorable tradeoff between measurand accuracy and closed-loop delay.

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  1. T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1296–1302, 1995.
  2. A. Motil, A. Bergman, and M. Tur, “State of the art of Brillouin fiber-optic distributed sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 78, pp. 81–103, 2016.
  3. M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Modeling and evaluating the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Express, vol. 21, no. 25, pp. 31347–31366, 2013.
  4. Y. Peled, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Fast Brillouin optical time domain analysis for dynamic sensing,” Opt. Express, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 8584–8591, 2012.
  5. Y. Donget al., “High-spatial-resolution fast BOTDA for dynamic strain measurement based on differential double-pulse and second-order sideband of modulation,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 5, no. 3, 2013, Paper no. .
  6. A. Voskoboinik, O. F. Yilmaz, A. W. Willner, and M. Tur, “Sweep-free distributed Brillouin time-domain analyzer (SF-BOTDA),” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B842–B847, 2011.
  7. J. Fang, P. Xu, Y. Dong, and W. Shieh, “Single-shot distributed Brillouin optical time domain analyzer,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 13, pp. 15188–15198, 2017.
  8. C. Zhaoet al., “BOTDA using channel estimation with direct-detection optical OFDM technique,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 12698–12709, 2017.
  9. R. Bernini, A. Minardo, and L. Zeni, “Dynamic strain measurement in optical fibers by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Lett., vol. 34, no. 17, pp. 2613–2615, 2009.
  10. Y. Peled, A. Motil, L. Yaron, and M. Tur, “Slope-assisted fast distributed sensing in optical fibers with arbitrary Brillouin profile,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 19845–19854, 2011.
  11. A. Motil, O. Danon, Y. Peled, and M. Tur, “Pump-power-independent double slope-assisted distributed and fast Brillouin fiber-optic sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 797–800, 2014.
  12. J. Urricelqui, A. Zornoza, M. Sagues, and A. Loayssa, “Dynamic BOTDA measurements based on Brillouin phase-shift and RF demodulation,” Opt. Express, vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 26942–26949, 2012.
  13. D. Baet al., “Distributed measurement of dynamic strain based on multi-slope assisted fast BOTDA,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 9781–9793, 2016.
  14. D. Zhouet al., “Slope-assisted BOTDA based on vector SBS and frequency-agile technique for wide-strain-range dynamic measurements,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 1889–1902, 2017.
  15. G. Yang, X. Fan, and Z. He, “Strain dynamic range enlargement of slope-assisted BOTDA by using Brillouin phase-gain ratio,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 20, pp. 4451–4458, 2017.
  16. M. Alem, M. A. Soto, M. Tur, and L. Thévenaz, “Analytical expression and experimental validation of the Brillouin gain spectral broadening at any sensing spatial resolution,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10323, 2017, Paper no. .

2017 (5)

J. Fang, P. Xu, Y. Dong, and W. Shieh, “Single-shot distributed Brillouin optical time domain analyzer,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 13, pp. 15188–15198, 2017.

C. Zhaoet al., “BOTDA using channel estimation with direct-detection optical OFDM technique,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 12698–12709, 2017.

D. Zhouet al., “Slope-assisted BOTDA based on vector SBS and frequency-agile technique for wide-strain-range dynamic measurements,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 1889–1902, 2017.

G. Yang, X. Fan, and Z. He, “Strain dynamic range enlargement of slope-assisted BOTDA by using Brillouin phase-gain ratio,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 20, pp. 4451–4458, 2017.

M. Alem, M. A. Soto, M. Tur, and L. Thévenaz, “Analytical expression and experimental validation of the Brillouin gain spectral broadening at any sensing spatial resolution,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10323, 2017, Paper no. .

2016 (2)

D. Baet al., “Distributed measurement of dynamic strain based on multi-slope assisted fast BOTDA,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 9781–9793, 2016.

A. Motil, A. Bergman, and M. Tur, “State of the art of Brillouin fiber-optic distributed sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 78, pp. 81–103, 2016.

2014 (1)

A. Motil, O. Danon, Y. Peled, and M. Tur, “Pump-power-independent double slope-assisted distributed and fast Brillouin fiber-optic sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 797–800, 2014.

2013 (2)

M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Modeling and evaluating the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Express, vol. 21, no. 25, pp. 31347–31366, 2013.

Y. Donget al., “High-spatial-resolution fast BOTDA for dynamic strain measurement based on differential double-pulse and second-order sideband of modulation,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 5, no. 3, 2013, Paper no. .

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

2009 (1)

1995 (1)

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1296–1302, 1995.

Alem, M.

M. Alem, M. A. Soto, M. Tur, and L. Thévenaz, “Analytical expression and experimental validation of the Brillouin gain spectral broadening at any sensing spatial resolution,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10323, 2017, Paper no. .

Ba, D.

Bergman, A.

A. Motil, A. Bergman, and M. Tur, “State of the art of Brillouin fiber-optic distributed sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 78, pp. 81–103, 2016.

Bernini, R.

Danon, O.

A. Motil, O. Danon, Y. Peled, and M. Tur, “Pump-power-independent double slope-assisted distributed and fast Brillouin fiber-optic sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 797–800, 2014.

Dong, Y.

J. Fang, P. Xu, Y. Dong, and W. Shieh, “Single-shot distributed Brillouin optical time domain analyzer,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 13, pp. 15188–15198, 2017.

Y. Donget al., “High-spatial-resolution fast BOTDA for dynamic strain measurement based on differential double-pulse and second-order sideband of modulation,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 5, no. 3, 2013, Paper no. .

Fan, X.

G. Yang, X. Fan, and Z. He, “Strain dynamic range enlargement of slope-assisted BOTDA by using Brillouin phase-gain ratio,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 20, pp. 4451–4458, 2017.

Fang, J.

He, Z.

G. Yang, X. Fan, and Z. He, “Strain dynamic range enlargement of slope-assisted BOTDA by using Brillouin phase-gain ratio,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 20, pp. 4451–4458, 2017.

Horiguchi, T.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1296–1302, 1995.

Koyamada, Y.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1296–1302, 1995.

Kurashima, T.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1296–1302, 1995.

Loayssa, A.

Minardo, A.

Motil, A.

A. Motil, A. Bergman, and M. Tur, “State of the art of Brillouin fiber-optic distributed sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 78, pp. 81–103, 2016.

A. Motil, O. Danon, Y. Peled, and M. Tur, “Pump-power-independent double slope-assisted distributed and fast Brillouin fiber-optic sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 797–800, 2014.

Y. Peled, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Fast Brillouin optical time domain analysis for dynamic sensing,” Opt. Express, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 8584–8591, 2012.

Y. Peled, A. Motil, L. Yaron, and M. Tur, “Slope-assisted fast distributed sensing in optical fibers with arbitrary Brillouin profile,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 19845–19854, 2011.

Peled, Y.

Sagues, M.

Shieh, W.

Shimizu, K.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1296–1302, 1995.

Soto, M. A.

M. Alem, M. A. Soto, M. Tur, and L. Thévenaz, “Analytical expression and experimental validation of the Brillouin gain spectral broadening at any sensing spatial resolution,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10323, 2017, Paper no. .

M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Modeling and evaluating the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Express, vol. 21, no. 25, pp. 31347–31366, 2013.

Tateda, M.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1296–1302, 1995.

Thévenaz, L.

M. Alem, M. A. Soto, M. Tur, and L. Thévenaz, “Analytical expression and experimental validation of the Brillouin gain spectral broadening at any sensing spatial resolution,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10323, 2017, Paper no. .

M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Modeling and evaluating the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Express, vol. 21, no. 25, pp. 31347–31366, 2013.

Tur, M.

M. Alem, M. A. Soto, M. Tur, and L. Thévenaz, “Analytical expression and experimental validation of the Brillouin gain spectral broadening at any sensing spatial resolution,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10323, 2017, Paper no. .

A. Motil, A. Bergman, and M. Tur, “State of the art of Brillouin fiber-optic distributed sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 78, pp. 81–103, 2016.

A. Motil, O. Danon, Y. Peled, and M. Tur, “Pump-power-independent double slope-assisted distributed and fast Brillouin fiber-optic sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 797–800, 2014.

Y. Peled, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Fast Brillouin optical time domain analysis for dynamic sensing,” Opt. Express, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 8584–8591, 2012.

Y. Peled, A. Motil, L. Yaron, and M. Tur, “Slope-assisted fast distributed sensing in optical fibers with arbitrary Brillouin profile,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 19845–19854, 2011.

A. Voskoboinik, O. F. Yilmaz, A. W. Willner, and M. Tur, “Sweep-free distributed Brillouin time-domain analyzer (SF-BOTDA),” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B842–B847, 2011.

Urricelqui, J.

Voskoboinik, A.

Willner, A. W.

Xu, P.

Yang, G.

G. Yang, X. Fan, and Z. He, “Strain dynamic range enlargement of slope-assisted BOTDA by using Brillouin phase-gain ratio,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 20, pp. 4451–4458, 2017.

Yaron, L.

Yilmaz, O. F.

Zeni, L.

Zhao, C.

Zhou, D.

Zornoza, A.

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

Y. Donget al., “High-spatial-resolution fast BOTDA for dynamic strain measurement based on differential double-pulse and second-order sideband of modulation,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 5, no. 3, 2013, Paper no. .

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Motil, O. Danon, Y. Peled, and M. Tur, “Pump-power-independent double slope-assisted distributed and fast Brillouin fiber-optic sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 797–800, 2014.

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

G. Yang, X. Fan, and Z. He, “Strain dynamic range enlargement of slope-assisted BOTDA by using Brillouin phase-gain ratio,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 20, pp. 4451–4458, 2017.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1296–1302, 1995.

Opt. Express (9)

M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Modeling and evaluating the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Express, vol. 21, no. 25, pp. 31347–31366, 2013.

Y. Peled, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Fast Brillouin optical time domain analysis for dynamic sensing,” Opt. Express, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 8584–8591, 2012.

A. Voskoboinik, O. F. Yilmaz, A. W. Willner, and M. Tur, “Sweep-free distributed Brillouin time-domain analyzer (SF-BOTDA),” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B842–B847, 2011.

J. Fang, P. Xu, Y. Dong, and W. Shieh, “Single-shot distributed Brillouin optical time domain analyzer,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 13, pp. 15188–15198, 2017.

C. Zhaoet al., “BOTDA using channel estimation with direct-detection optical OFDM technique,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 12698–12709, 2017.

Y. Peled, A. Motil, L. Yaron, and M. Tur, “Slope-assisted fast distributed sensing in optical fibers with arbitrary Brillouin profile,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 19845–19854, 2011.

J. Urricelqui, A. Zornoza, M. Sagues, and A. Loayssa, “Dynamic BOTDA measurements based on Brillouin phase-shift and RF demodulation,” Opt. Express, vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 26942–26949, 2012.

D. Baet al., “Distributed measurement of dynamic strain based on multi-slope assisted fast BOTDA,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 9781–9793, 2016.

D. Zhouet al., “Slope-assisted BOTDA based on vector SBS and frequency-agile technique for wide-strain-range dynamic measurements,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 1889–1902, 2017.

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

A. Motil, A. Bergman, and M. Tur, “State of the art of Brillouin fiber-optic distributed sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 78, pp. 81–103, 2016.

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Alem, M. A. Soto, M. Tur, and L. Thévenaz, “Analytical expression and experimental validation of the Brillouin gain spectral broadening at any sensing spatial resolution,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10323, 2017, Paper no. .

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