Abstract

Linear and nonlinear 2-D image processing approaches are analyzed with the aim of removing the noise from data acquired by distributed optical fiber sensors based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). The impact of the filter parameters on the denoised data is analyzed, especially for the nonlinear image denoising method called non-local means (NLM). In particular, an optimization procedure to find the optimal parameters of the NLM method for BOTDA data denoising is proposed. The described optimization procedure has enabled, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimental demonstration of a conventional BOTDA scheme (i.e., with no modifications in the layout) capable of measuring along a 100-km sensing range over a 200-km fiber loop, using a spatial resolution of 2 m, a frequency sampling step of 1 MHz, and reaching a frequency uncertainty of 0.77 MHz with 2’000 averaged time-domain traces. The experimental sensing performance here achieved has been evaluated with a figure of merit (FoM) of 225’000. This is the highest FoM reached without hardware sophistication in BOTDA sensing.

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  1. T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1296–1302, 1995.
  2. M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Modeling and evaluating the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 25, pp. 31347–31366, 2013.
  3. M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Towards 1’000’000 resolved points in a distributed optical fibre sensor,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, 2014, Art. no. .
  4. J. Urricelqui, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Sources of noise in Brillouin optical time-domain analyzers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, 2015, Art. no. .
  5. M. Alem, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Analytical model and experimental verification of the critical power for modulation instability in optical fibers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, no. 23, pp. 29514–29532, 2015.
  6. L. Thévenaz, S. F. Mafang, and J. Lin, “Effect of pulse depletion in a Brillouin optical time-domain analysis system,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 14017–14035, 2013.
  7. A. Domínguez-Lópezet al., “Novel scanning method for distortion-free BOTDA measurements,” Opt. Exp., vol. 24, no. 9, pp 10188–10204, 2016.
  8. A. Motil, A. Bergman, and M. Tur, “State of the art of Brillouin fiber-optic distributed sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 78, Part A, pp. 81–103, 2016.
  9. R. Ruiz-Lombera, J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, J. Mirapeix, J. M. López-Higuera, and A. Loayssa, “Overcoming nonlocal effects and Brillouin threshold limitations in Brillouin optical time-domain sensors,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 6, 2015, Art. no. .
  10. M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. Di Pasquale, and L. Thévenaz, “Simplex-coded BOTDA fiber sensor with 1 m spatial resolution over a 50 km range,” Opt. Lett., vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 259–261, 2010.
  11. M. A. Soto, S. Le Floch, and L. Thévenaz, “Bipolar optical pulse coding for performance enhancement in BOTDA sensors,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 16390–16397, 2013.
  12. S. L. Floch, F. Sauser, M. Llera, and E. Rochat, “Novel Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer for extreme sensing range using high-power flat frequency-coded pump pulses,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2623–2627, 2015.
  13. F. Rodriguez-Barrioset al., “Distributed Brillouin fiber sensor assisted by first-order raman amplification,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 15, pp. 2162–2172, 2010.
  14. S. Martin-Lopezet al., “Brillouin optical time-domain analysis assisted by second-order raman amplification,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 18769–18778, 2010.
  15. J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, and A. Loayssa, “Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor assisted by Brillouin distributed amplification of pump pulses,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, no. 23, pp. 30448–30458, 2015.
  16. Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Extending the sensing range of Brillouin optical time-domain analysis combining frequency-division multiplexing and in-line EDFAs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1161–1167, 2012.
  17. Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Time-division multiplexing-based BOTDA over 100 km sensing length,” Opt. Lett., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 277–279, 2011.
  18. M. A. Soto, A. Lavinia Ricchiuti, L. Zhang, D. Barrera, S. Sales, and L. Thévenaz, “Time and frequency pump-probe multiplexing to enhance the signal response of Brillouin optical time-domain analyzers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 28584–28595, 2014.
  19. M. A. Sotoet al., “Extending the real remoteness of long-range Brillouin optical time-domain fiber analyzers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 152–162, 2014.
  20. X. -H. Jiaet al., “Hybrid distributed Raman amplification combining random fiber laser based 2nd-order and low-noise LD based 1st-order pumping,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 24611–24619, 2013.
  21. M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramírez, and L. Thévenaz, “Intensifying the response of distributed optical fibre sensors using 2D and 3D image restoration,” Nature Commun., vol. 7, 2016, Art. no. .
  22. M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramírez, and L. Thévenaz, “Intensifying Brillouin distributed fibre sensors using image processing,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, 2015, Art. no. .
  23. M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramírez, and L. Thévenaz, “Image and video denoising for distributed optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10323, 2017, Art. no. .
  24. M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramírez, and L. Thévenaz, “200 km fiber-loop conventional Brillouin distributed sensor with 2m spatial resolution using image denoising,” presented at the Asia Pac. Opt. Sens. Conf., Opt. Soc. Amer., Tech. Dig. 2016, Shanghai China, Paper Th3A.4.
  25. R. Szeliski, Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications. New York, NY, USA: Springer Science & Business Media, 2010.
  26. S. G. Mallat, “A theory for multiresolution signal decomposition: The wavelet representation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 674–693, 1989.
  27. A. Buades, B. Coll, and J. M. Morel, “A review of image denoising methods, with a new one,” Multiscale Model. Simul., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 490–530, 2005.
  28. V. Duval, J.-F. Aujol, and Y. Gousseau, “On the parameter choice for the non-local means,” HAL, Tech. Rep. HAL-00468856, 2010.
  29. J. Salmon, “On two parameters for denoising with non-local means,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol 17, no. 3, pp. 269–272, 2010.

2017 (1)

M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramírez, and L. Thévenaz, “Image and video denoising for distributed optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10323, 2017, Art. no. .

2016 (3)

M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramírez, and L. Thévenaz, “Intensifying the response of distributed optical fibre sensors using 2D and 3D image restoration,” Nature Commun., vol. 7, 2016, Art. no. .

A. Domínguez-Lópezet al., “Novel scanning method for distortion-free BOTDA measurements,” Opt. Exp., vol. 24, no. 9, pp 10188–10204, 2016.

A. Motil, A. Bergman, and M. Tur, “State of the art of Brillouin fiber-optic distributed sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 78, Part A, pp. 81–103, 2016.

2015 (6)

R. Ruiz-Lombera, J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, J. Mirapeix, J. M. López-Higuera, and A. Loayssa, “Overcoming nonlocal effects and Brillouin threshold limitations in Brillouin optical time-domain sensors,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 6, 2015, Art. no. .

J. Urricelqui, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Sources of noise in Brillouin optical time-domain analyzers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, 2015, Art. no. .

M. Alem, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Analytical model and experimental verification of the critical power for modulation instability in optical fibers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, no. 23, pp. 29514–29532, 2015.

S. L. Floch, F. Sauser, M. Llera, and E. Rochat, “Novel Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer for extreme sensing range using high-power flat frequency-coded pump pulses,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2623–2627, 2015.

J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, and A. Loayssa, “Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor assisted by Brillouin distributed amplification of pump pulses,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, no. 23, pp. 30448–30458, 2015.

M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramírez, and L. Thévenaz, “Intensifying Brillouin distributed fibre sensors using image processing,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, 2015, Art. no. .

2014 (3)

M. A. Soto, A. Lavinia Ricchiuti, L. Zhang, D. Barrera, S. Sales, and L. Thévenaz, “Time and frequency pump-probe multiplexing to enhance the signal response of Brillouin optical time-domain analyzers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 28584–28595, 2014.

M. A. Sotoet al., “Extending the real remoteness of long-range Brillouin optical time-domain fiber analyzers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 152–162, 2014.

M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Towards 1’000’000 resolved points in a distributed optical fibre sensor,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, 2014, Art. no. .

2013 (4)

M. A. Soto, S. Le Floch, and L. Thévenaz, “Bipolar optical pulse coding for performance enhancement in BOTDA sensors,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 16390–16397, 2013.

X. -H. Jiaet al., “Hybrid distributed Raman amplification combining random fiber laser based 2nd-order and low-noise LD based 1st-order pumping,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 24611–24619, 2013.

L. Thévenaz, S. F. Mafang, and J. Lin, “Effect of pulse depletion in a Brillouin optical time-domain analysis system,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 14017–14035, 2013.

M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Modeling and evaluating the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 25, pp. 31347–31366, 2013.

2012 (1)

Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Extending the sensing range of Brillouin optical time-domain analysis combining frequency-division multiplexing and in-line EDFAs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1161–1167, 2012.

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

F. Rodriguez-Barrioset al., “Distributed Brillouin fiber sensor assisted by first-order raman amplification,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 15, pp. 2162–2172, 2010.

S. Martin-Lopezet al., “Brillouin optical time-domain analysis assisted by second-order raman amplification,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 18769–18778, 2010.

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. Di Pasquale, and L. Thévenaz, “Simplex-coded BOTDA fiber sensor with 1 m spatial resolution over a 50 km range,” Opt. Lett., vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 259–261, 2010.

J. Salmon, “On two parameters for denoising with non-local means,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol 17, no. 3, pp. 269–272, 2010.

2005 (1)

A. Buades, B. Coll, and J. M. Morel, “A review of image denoising methods, with a new one,” Multiscale Model. Simul., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 490–530, 2005.

1995 (1)

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1296–1302, 1995.

1989 (1)

S. G. Mallat, “A theory for multiresolution signal decomposition: The wavelet representation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 674–693, 1989.

Alem, M.

M. Alem, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Analytical model and experimental verification of the critical power for modulation instability in optical fibers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, no. 23, pp. 29514–29532, 2015.

Aujol, J.-F.

V. Duval, J.-F. Aujol, and Y. Gousseau, “On the parameter choice for the non-local means,” HAL, Tech. Rep. HAL-00468856, 2010.

Bao, X.

Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Extending the sensing range of Brillouin optical time-domain analysis combining frequency-division multiplexing and in-line EDFAs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1161–1167, 2012.

Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Time-division multiplexing-based BOTDA over 100 km sensing length,” Opt. Lett., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 277–279, 2011.

Barrera, D.

M. A. Soto, A. Lavinia Ricchiuti, L. Zhang, D. Barrera, S. Sales, and L. Thévenaz, “Time and frequency pump-probe multiplexing to enhance the signal response of Brillouin optical time-domain analyzers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 28584–28595, 2014.

Bergman, A.

A. Motil, A. Bergman, and M. Tur, “State of the art of Brillouin fiber-optic distributed sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 78, Part A, pp. 81–103, 2016.

Bolognini, G.

Buades, A.

A. Buades, B. Coll, and J. M. Morel, “A review of image denoising methods, with a new one,” Multiscale Model. Simul., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 490–530, 2005.

Chen, L.

Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Extending the sensing range of Brillouin optical time-domain analysis combining frequency-division multiplexing and in-line EDFAs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1161–1167, 2012.

Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Time-division multiplexing-based BOTDA over 100 km sensing length,” Opt. Lett., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 277–279, 2011.

Coll, B.

A. Buades, B. Coll, and J. M. Morel, “A review of image denoising methods, with a new one,” Multiscale Model. Simul., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 490–530, 2005.

Di Pasquale, F.

Domínguez-López, A.

A. Domínguez-Lópezet al., “Novel scanning method for distortion-free BOTDA measurements,” Opt. Exp., vol. 24, no. 9, pp 10188–10204, 2016.

Dong, Y.

Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Extending the sensing range of Brillouin optical time-domain analysis combining frequency-division multiplexing and in-line EDFAs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1161–1167, 2012.

Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Time-division multiplexing-based BOTDA over 100 km sensing length,” Opt. Lett., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 277–279, 2011.

Duval, V.

V. Duval, J.-F. Aujol, and Y. Gousseau, “On the parameter choice for the non-local means,” HAL, Tech. Rep. HAL-00468856, 2010.

Floch, S. L.

S. L. Floch, F. Sauser, M. Llera, and E. Rochat, “Novel Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer for extreme sensing range using high-power flat frequency-coded pump pulses,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2623–2627, 2015.

Gousseau, Y.

V. Duval, J.-F. Aujol, and Y. Gousseau, “On the parameter choice for the non-local means,” HAL, Tech. Rep. HAL-00468856, 2010.

Horiguchi, T.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1296–1302, 1995.

Jia, X. -H.

X. -H. Jiaet al., “Hybrid distributed Raman amplification combining random fiber laser based 2nd-order and low-noise LD based 1st-order pumping,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 24611–24619, 2013.

Koyamada, Y.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1296–1302, 1995.

Kurashima, T.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1296–1302, 1995.

Lavinia Ricchiuti, A.

M. A. Soto, A. Lavinia Ricchiuti, L. Zhang, D. Barrera, S. Sales, and L. Thévenaz, “Time and frequency pump-probe multiplexing to enhance the signal response of Brillouin optical time-domain analyzers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 28584–28595, 2014.

Le Floch, S.

M. A. Soto, S. Le Floch, and L. Thévenaz, “Bipolar optical pulse coding for performance enhancement in BOTDA sensors,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 16390–16397, 2013.

Lin, J.

L. Thévenaz, S. F. Mafang, and J. Lin, “Effect of pulse depletion in a Brillouin optical time-domain analysis system,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 14017–14035, 2013.

Llera, M.

S. L. Floch, F. Sauser, M. Llera, and E. Rochat, “Novel Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer for extreme sensing range using high-power flat frequency-coded pump pulses,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2623–2627, 2015.

Loayssa, A.

J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, and A. Loayssa, “Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor assisted by Brillouin distributed amplification of pump pulses,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, no. 23, pp. 30448–30458, 2015.

R. Ruiz-Lombera, J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, J. Mirapeix, J. M. López-Higuera, and A. Loayssa, “Overcoming nonlocal effects and Brillouin threshold limitations in Brillouin optical time-domain sensors,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 6, 2015, Art. no. .

López-Higuera, J. M.

R. Ruiz-Lombera, J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, J. Mirapeix, J. M. López-Higuera, and A. Loayssa, “Overcoming nonlocal effects and Brillouin threshold limitations in Brillouin optical time-domain sensors,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 6, 2015, Art. no. .

Mafang, S. F.

L. Thévenaz, S. F. Mafang, and J. Lin, “Effect of pulse depletion in a Brillouin optical time-domain analysis system,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 14017–14035, 2013.

Mallat, S. G.

S. G. Mallat, “A theory for multiresolution signal decomposition: The wavelet representation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 674–693, 1989.

Martin-Lopez, S.

S. Martin-Lopezet al., “Brillouin optical time-domain analysis assisted by second-order raman amplification,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 18769–18778, 2010.

Mirapeix, J.

R. Ruiz-Lombera, J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, J. Mirapeix, J. M. López-Higuera, and A. Loayssa, “Overcoming nonlocal effects and Brillouin threshold limitations in Brillouin optical time-domain sensors,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 6, 2015, Art. no. .

Morel, J. M.

A. Buades, B. Coll, and J. M. Morel, “A review of image denoising methods, with a new one,” Multiscale Model. Simul., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 490–530, 2005.

Motil, A.

A. Motil, A. Bergman, and M. Tur, “State of the art of Brillouin fiber-optic distributed sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 78, Part A, pp. 81–103, 2016.

Ramírez, J. A.

M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramírez, and L. Thévenaz, “Image and video denoising for distributed optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10323, 2017, Art. no. .

M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramírez, and L. Thévenaz, “Intensifying the response of distributed optical fibre sensors using 2D and 3D image restoration,” Nature Commun., vol. 7, 2016, Art. no. .

M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramírez, and L. Thévenaz, “Intensifying Brillouin distributed fibre sensors using image processing,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, 2015, Art. no. .

M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramírez, and L. Thévenaz, “200 km fiber-loop conventional Brillouin distributed sensor with 2m spatial resolution using image denoising,” presented at the Asia Pac. Opt. Sens. Conf., Opt. Soc. Amer., Tech. Dig. 2016, Shanghai China, Paper Th3A.4.

Rochat, E.

S. L. Floch, F. Sauser, M. Llera, and E. Rochat, “Novel Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer for extreme sensing range using high-power flat frequency-coded pump pulses,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2623–2627, 2015.

Rodriguez-Barrios, F.

F. Rodriguez-Barrioset al., “Distributed Brillouin fiber sensor assisted by first-order raman amplification,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 15, pp. 2162–2172, 2010.

Ruiz-Lombera, R.

R. Ruiz-Lombera, J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, J. Mirapeix, J. M. López-Higuera, and A. Loayssa, “Overcoming nonlocal effects and Brillouin threshold limitations in Brillouin optical time-domain sensors,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 6, 2015, Art. no. .

Sagues, M.

R. Ruiz-Lombera, J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, J. Mirapeix, J. M. López-Higuera, and A. Loayssa, “Overcoming nonlocal effects and Brillouin threshold limitations in Brillouin optical time-domain sensors,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 6, 2015, Art. no. .

J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, and A. Loayssa, “Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor assisted by Brillouin distributed amplification of pump pulses,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, no. 23, pp. 30448–30458, 2015.

Sales, S.

M. A. Soto, A. Lavinia Ricchiuti, L. Zhang, D. Barrera, S. Sales, and L. Thévenaz, “Time and frequency pump-probe multiplexing to enhance the signal response of Brillouin optical time-domain analyzers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 28584–28595, 2014.

Salmon, J.

J. Salmon, “On two parameters for denoising with non-local means,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol 17, no. 3, pp. 269–272, 2010.

Sauser, F.

S. L. Floch, F. Sauser, M. Llera, and E. Rochat, “Novel Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer for extreme sensing range using high-power flat frequency-coded pump pulses,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2623–2627, 2015.

Shimizu, K.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1296–1302, 1995.

Soto, M. A.

M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramírez, and L. Thévenaz, “Image and video denoising for distributed optical fibre sensors,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10323, 2017, Art. no. .

M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramírez, and L. Thévenaz, “Intensifying the response of distributed optical fibre sensors using 2D and 3D image restoration,” Nature Commun., vol. 7, 2016, Art. no. .

M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramírez, and L. Thévenaz, “Intensifying Brillouin distributed fibre sensors using image processing,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, 2015, Art. no. .

J. Urricelqui, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Sources of noise in Brillouin optical time-domain analyzers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, 2015, Art. no. .

M. Alem, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Analytical model and experimental verification of the critical power for modulation instability in optical fibers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, no. 23, pp. 29514–29532, 2015.

M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Towards 1’000’000 resolved points in a distributed optical fibre sensor,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, 2014, Art. no. .

M. A. Sotoet al., “Extending the real remoteness of long-range Brillouin optical time-domain fiber analyzers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 152–162, 2014.

M. A. Soto, A. Lavinia Ricchiuti, L. Zhang, D. Barrera, S. Sales, and L. Thévenaz, “Time and frequency pump-probe multiplexing to enhance the signal response of Brillouin optical time-domain analyzers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 28584–28595, 2014.

M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Modeling and evaluating the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 25, pp. 31347–31366, 2013.

M. A. Soto, S. Le Floch, and L. Thévenaz, “Bipolar optical pulse coding for performance enhancement in BOTDA sensors,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 16390–16397, 2013.

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. Di Pasquale, and L. Thévenaz, “Simplex-coded BOTDA fiber sensor with 1 m spatial resolution over a 50 km range,” Opt. Lett., vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 259–261, 2010.

M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramírez, and L. Thévenaz, “200 km fiber-loop conventional Brillouin distributed sensor with 2m spatial resolution using image denoising,” presented at the Asia Pac. Opt. Sens. Conf., Opt. Soc. Amer., Tech. Dig. 2016, Shanghai China, Paper Th3A.4.

Szeliski, R.

R. Szeliski, Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications. New York, NY, USA: Springer Science & Business Media, 2010.

Tateda, M.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1296–1302, 1995.

Thévenaz, L.

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