Abstract

We report theoretical and experimental results on a wavelength converter based on intermodal phase matching in a graded index three-mode elliptical-core fiber. Here, two copolarized pump waves propagate in one spatial mode, whereas a signal and the corresponding generated idler propagate in another mode. We demonstrate that the idler power is independent of the signal polarization in both a 1 km and a 50 m long fiber. We attribute this polarization insensitivity to the fast random birefringence of the fiber under investigation in combination with the copolarized pump configuration.

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  1. R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, and A. Ashkin, “Phase-matched three-wave mixing in silica fiber optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 308–310, 1974. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1655195
  2. S. Radicet al., “Continuous-wave parametric gain synthesis using nondegenerate pump four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1406–1408, 2002.
  3. D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nature Photon., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 354–362, 2013, review. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2013.94
  4. R. J. Essiambreet al., “Experimental investigation of inter-modal four-wave mixing in few-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 539–542, 2013.
  5. S. M. M. Friiset al., “Inter-modal four-wave mixing study in a two-mode fiber,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 26, pp. 30 338–30 349, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-24-26-30338
  6. F. Parmigianiet al., “C- to l- band wavelength conversion enabled by parametric processes in a few mode fiber,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf, Opt. Soc. Amer., 2017, p. Th1F.4. [Online]. Available: http://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2017-Th1F.4
  7. P. H. M. Guasoni, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Novel fiber design for wideband conversion and amplification in multimode fibers,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Comm., 2017, Paper P1.SC1.12.
  8. M. Guasoni, F. Parmigiani, P. Horak, J. Fatome, and D. J. Richardson, “Intermodal four-wave-mixing and parametric amplification in km-long multi-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 5296–5305, Dec. 2017.
  9. M. Guasoni, “Generalized modulational instability in multimode fibers: Wideband multimode parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 92, 2015, Art no. . [Online]. Available: https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevA.92.033849
  10. S. Mumtaz, R.-J. Essiambre, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear propagation in multimode and multicore fibers: Generalization of the manakov equations,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 398–406, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://jlt.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-31-3-398
  11. J. Nuño, M. Gilles, M. Guasoni, B. Kibler, C. Finot, and J. Fatome, “40 GHz pulse source based on cross-phase modulation-induced focusing in normally dispersive optical fibers,” Opt. Lett., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1110–1113, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-41-6-1110
  12. F. Poletti and P. Horak, “Description of ultrashort pulse propagation in multimode optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1645–1654, 2008. [Online]. Available: http://josab.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-25-10-1645
  13. C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 538–547, 2002.
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  15. F. Parmigiani, Y. Jung, L. Grner-Nielsen, T. Geisler, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Elliptical core few mode fibers for multiple-input multiple output-free space division multiplexing transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 1764–1767, 2017.
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  17. M. Esmaeelpouret al., “Power fluctuations of intermodal four-wave mixing in few-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2429–2435, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://jlt.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-35-12-2429

2017 (3)

M. Guasoni, F. Parmigiani, P. Horak, J. Fatome, and D. J. Richardson, “Intermodal four-wave-mixing and parametric amplification in km-long multi-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 5296–5305, Dec. 2017.

F. Parmigiani, Y. Jung, L. Grner-Nielsen, T. Geisler, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Elliptical core few mode fibers for multiple-input multiple output-free space division multiplexing transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 1764–1767, 2017.

M. Esmaeelpouret al., “Power fluctuations of intermodal four-wave mixing in few-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2429–2435, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://jlt.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-35-12-2429

2016 (2)

S. M. M. Friiset al., “Inter-modal four-wave mixing study in a two-mode fiber,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 26, pp. 30 338–30 349, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-24-26-30338

J. Nuño, M. Gilles, M. Guasoni, B. Kibler, C. Finot, and J. Fatome, “40 GHz pulse source based on cross-phase modulation-induced focusing in normally dispersive optical fibers,” Opt. Lett., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1110–1113, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-41-6-1110

2015 (1)

M. Guasoni, “Generalized modulational instability in multimode fibers: Wideband multimode parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 92, 2015, Art no. . [Online]. Available: https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevA.92.033849

2013 (3)

S. Mumtaz, R.-J. Essiambre, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear propagation in multimode and multicore fibers: Generalization of the manakov equations,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 398–406, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://jlt.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-31-3-398

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nature Photon., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 354–362, 2013, review. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2013.94

R. J. Essiambreet al., “Experimental investigation of inter-modal four-wave mixing in few-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 539–542, 2013.

2008 (1)

F. Poletti and P. Horak, “Description of ultrashort pulse propagation in multimode optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1645–1654, 2008. [Online]. Available: http://josab.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-25-10-1645

2005 (2)

2002 (2)

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 538–547, 2002.

S. Radicet al., “Continuous-wave parametric gain synthesis using nondegenerate pump four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1406–1408, 2002.

1974 (1)

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, and A. Ashkin, “Phase-matched three-wave mixing in silica fiber optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 308–310, 1974. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1655195

Agrawal, G. P.

S. Mumtaz, R.-J. Essiambre, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear propagation in multimode and multicore fibers: Generalization of the manakov equations,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 398–406, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://jlt.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-31-3-398

Ashkin, A.

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, and A. Ashkin, “Phase-matched three-wave mixing in silica fiber optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 308–310, 1974. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1655195

Bjorkholm, J. E.

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, and A. Ashkin, “Phase-matched three-wave mixing in silica fiber optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 308–310, 1974. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1655195

Chiang, K. S.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 538–547, 2002.

Esmaeelpour, M.

M. Esmaeelpouret al., “Power fluctuations of intermodal four-wave mixing in few-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2429–2435, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://jlt.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-35-12-2429

Essiambre, R. J.

R. J. Essiambreet al., “Experimental investigation of inter-modal four-wave mixing in few-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 539–542, 2013.

Essiambre, R.-J.

S. Mumtaz, R.-J. Essiambre, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear propagation in multimode and multicore fibers: Generalization of the manakov equations,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 398–406, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://jlt.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-31-3-398

Fatome, J.

M. Guasoni, F. Parmigiani, P. Horak, J. Fatome, and D. J. Richardson, “Intermodal four-wave-mixing and parametric amplification in km-long multi-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 5296–5305, Dec. 2017.

J. Nuño, M. Gilles, M. Guasoni, B. Kibler, C. Finot, and J. Fatome, “40 GHz pulse source based on cross-phase modulation-induced focusing in normally dispersive optical fibers,” Opt. Lett., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1110–1113, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-41-6-1110

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nature Photon., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 354–362, 2013, review. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2013.94

Finot, C.

Friis, S. M. M.

S. M. M. Friiset al., “Inter-modal four-wave mixing study in a two-mode fiber,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 26, pp. 30 338–30 349, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-24-26-30338

Geisler, T.

F. Parmigiani, Y. Jung, L. Grner-Nielsen, T. Geisler, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Elliptical core few mode fibers for multiple-input multiple output-free space division multiplexing transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 1764–1767, 2017.

Gilles, M.

Grner-Nielsen, L.

F. Parmigiani, Y. Jung, L. Grner-Nielsen, T. Geisler, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Elliptical core few mode fibers for multiple-input multiple output-free space division multiplexing transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 1764–1767, 2017.

Guasoni, M.

M. Guasoni, F. Parmigiani, P. Horak, J. Fatome, and D. J. Richardson, “Intermodal four-wave-mixing and parametric amplification in km-long multi-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 5296–5305, Dec. 2017.

J. Nuño, M. Gilles, M. Guasoni, B. Kibler, C. Finot, and J. Fatome, “40 GHz pulse source based on cross-phase modulation-induced focusing in normally dispersive optical fibers,” Opt. Lett., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1110–1113, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-41-6-1110

M. Guasoni, “Generalized modulational instability in multimode fibers: Wideband multimode parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 92, 2015, Art no. . [Online]. Available: https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevA.92.033849

Guasoni, P. H. M.

P. H. M. Guasoni, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Novel fiber design for wideband conversion and amplification in multimode fibers,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Comm., 2017, Paper P1.SC1.12.

Horak, P.

M. Guasoni, F. Parmigiani, P. Horak, J. Fatome, and D. J. Richardson, “Intermodal four-wave-mixing and parametric amplification in km-long multi-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 5296–5305, Dec. 2017.

F. Poletti and P. Horak, “Description of ultrashort pulse propagation in multimode optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1645–1654, 2008. [Online]. Available: http://josab.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-25-10-1645

Jung, Y.

F. Parmigiani, Y. Jung, L. Grner-Nielsen, T. Geisler, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Elliptical core few mode fibers for multiple-input multiple output-free space division multiplexing transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 1764–1767, 2017.

Kibler, B.

Lee, J. H.

Lu, C.

McKinstrie, C. J.

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 538–547, 2002.

Mumtaz, S.

S. Mumtaz, R.-J. Essiambre, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear propagation in multimode and multicore fibers: Generalization of the manakov equations,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 398–406, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://jlt.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-31-3-398

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nature Photon., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 354–362, 2013, review. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2013.94

Nuño, J.

Parmigiani, F.

F. Parmigiani, Y. Jung, L. Grner-Nielsen, T. Geisler, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Elliptical core few mode fibers for multiple-input multiple output-free space division multiplexing transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 1764–1767, 2017.

M. Guasoni, F. Parmigiani, P. Horak, J. Fatome, and D. J. Richardson, “Intermodal four-wave-mixing and parametric amplification in km-long multi-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 5296–5305, Dec. 2017.

P. H. M. Guasoni, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Novel fiber design for wideband conversion and amplification in multimode fibers,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Comm., 2017, Paper P1.SC1.12.

F. Parmigianiet al., “C- to l- band wavelength conversion enabled by parametric processes in a few mode fiber,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf, Opt. Soc. Amer., 2017, p. Th1F.4. [Online]. Available: http://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2017-Th1F.4

Petropoulos, P.

F. Parmigiani, Y. Jung, L. Grner-Nielsen, T. Geisler, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Elliptical core few mode fibers for multiple-input multiple output-free space division multiplexing transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 1764–1767, 2017.

Poletti, F.

F. Poletti and P. Horak, “Description of ultrashort pulse propagation in multimode optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1645–1654, 2008. [Online]. Available: http://josab.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-25-10-1645

Radic, S.

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 538–547, 2002.

S. Radicet al., “Continuous-wave parametric gain synthesis using nondegenerate pump four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1406–1408, 2002.

Richardson, D. J.

M. Guasoni, F. Parmigiani, P. Horak, J. Fatome, and D. J. Richardson, “Intermodal four-wave-mixing and parametric amplification in km-long multi-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 5296–5305, Dec. 2017.

F. Parmigiani, Y. Jung, L. Grner-Nielsen, T. Geisler, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Elliptical core few mode fibers for multiple-input multiple output-free space division multiplexing transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 1764–1767, 2017.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nature Photon., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 354–362, 2013, review. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2013.94

P. H. M. Guasoni, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Novel fiber design for wideband conversion and amplification in multimode fibers,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Comm., 2017, Paper P1.SC1.12.

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, and A. Ashkin, “Phase-matched three-wave mixing in silica fiber optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 308–310, 1974. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1655195

Su, L.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, and A. Ashkin, “Phase-matched three-wave mixing in silica fiber optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 308–310, 1974. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1655195

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 538–547, 2002.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

F. Parmigiani, Y. Jung, L. Grner-Nielsen, T. Geisler, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Elliptical core few mode fibers for multiple-input multiple output-free space division multiplexing transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 1764–1767, 2017.

S. Radicet al., “Continuous-wave parametric gain synthesis using nondegenerate pump four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1406–1408, 2002.

R. J. Essiambreet al., “Experimental investigation of inter-modal four-wave mixing in few-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 539–542, 2013.

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

M. Guasoni, F. Parmigiani, P. Horak, J. Fatome, and D. J. Richardson, “Intermodal four-wave-mixing and parametric amplification in km-long multi-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 5296–5305, Dec. 2017.

M. Esmaeelpouret al., “Power fluctuations of intermodal four-wave mixing in few-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2429–2435, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://jlt.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-35-12-2429

S. Mumtaz, R.-J. Essiambre, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear propagation in multimode and multicore fibers: Generalization of the manakov equations,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 398–406, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://jlt.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-31-3-398

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

F. Poletti and P. Horak, “Description of ultrashort pulse propagation in multimode optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1645–1654, 2008. [Online]. Available: http://josab.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-25-10-1645

Nature Photon. (1)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nature Photon., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 354–362, 2013, review. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2013.94

Opt. Express (1)

S. M. M. Friiset al., “Inter-modal four-wave mixing study in a two-mode fiber,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 26, pp. 30 338–30 349, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-24-26-30338

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Guasoni, “Generalized modulational instability in multimode fibers: Wideband multimode parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 92, 2015, Art no. . [Online]. Available: https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevA.92.033849

Other (2)

F. Parmigianiet al., “C- to l- band wavelength conversion enabled by parametric processes in a few mode fiber,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf, Opt. Soc. Amer., 2017, p. Th1F.4. [Online]. Available: http://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2017-Th1F.4

P. H. M. Guasoni, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Novel fiber design for wideband conversion and amplification in multimode fibers,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Comm., 2017, Paper P1.SC1.12.

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